NUCLEAR POWER PLANT IN INDIA

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NUCLEAR POWER PLANT IN INDIA:

NUCLEAR POWER PLANT IN INDIA

NUCLEAR FISSION :

NUCLEAR FISSION When a neutron strikes an atom of uranium, the uranium splits into two lighter atoms and releases heat simultaneously . Fission of heavy elements can release large amounts of energy both as electromagnetic radiation and as kinetic energy of the fragments (photon). U235 + n → fission + 2 or 3 n + 200MeV The most common fissile nuclear fuels are uranium-235 ( 235 U) and plutonium-239 ( 239 Pu).

NUCLEAR CHAIN REACTIONS :

NUCLEAR CHAIN REACTIONS This nucleus in turn produces neutrons, and the process repeats. Nuclear chain reactions are series of nuclear fissions, each initiated by a neutron produced in a preceding fission. Chain reactions can be addressed into two categories: first, controlled (like a nuclear power plant) and uncontrolled (an atomic bomb).

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1. The Nuclear Power Corporation of India Limited ( NPCIL ) is a government-owned corporation of India based in Mumbai. NPCIL was created in September 1987. Nuclear Power and electricity generation and distribution. 2 . The Bharatiya Nabhikiya Vidyut Nigam Limited ( BHAVINI ) is a  government-owned corporation of India based in chennai . Bhavini was established on 2004. Nuclear Power and electricity generation and distribution Nuclear Power Corporation of India There are two nuclear corporation in india .

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There are total 15 reactors in operation with a capacity of 2993MWe & 8 in construction with a capacity of 3578MWe. Reactors Reactor type 1.Boiling Water Reactor (BWR) 2.Pressurised Heavy Water Reactor 'CANDU' (PHWR) 3.Pressurised Water Reactor (PWR) 4.Prototype Fast Breeder Reactor (PFBR) 5.European Power Reactor (EPR) 6.Gas-cooled Reactor (AGR & Magnox ) 7.Light Water Graphite Reactor (RBMK & EGP) 8.Fast Neutron Reactor (FBR)

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First Nuclear Power Plant in India Tarapur Atomic Power Station (T.AP.S.) was the first nuclear power plant in India. Tarapur Atomic Power Station is located in Tarapur , Maharashtra (India) . The construction of the plant was startedin 1962 and the plant went operational in 1969.With a total capacity of 1400 MW, Tarapur is the largest nuclear power station in India The facility is operated by the Nuclear Power Corporation of India Limited (NPCIL).

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The 320 MW Tarapur nuclear power station housed two 160 MW boiling water reactors (BWRs), the first in Asia. The Tarapur Plant was originally constructed by the American companies Bechtel and GE, under a 1963 123 Agreement between India, the United States.

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Power station Operator State Type Units Total capacity (MW) Kaiga NPCIL Karnataka PHWR 220 x 3 660 Kakrapar NPCIL Gujarat PHWR 220 x 2 440 Kalpakkam NPCIL Tamil Nadu PHWR 220 x 2 440 Narora NPCIL Uttar Pradesh PHWR 220 x 2 440 Rawatbhata NPCIL Rajasthan PHWR 100 x 1 200 x 1 220 x 3 960 Tarapur NPCIL Maharashtra BWR ( PHWR 160 x 2 540 x 2 1400 Total 4340 Power plants in India

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Nuclear Plants in India (2010) Narora , UP - 440 MW Rawatbhata , Raj - 1180 MW Kakrapar , Gujarat - 440 MW Tarapur , Mah - 1,400 MW Kaiga , Karnataka - 660 MW Kalpakkam , TN - 440 MW

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Power station Operator State Type Units Total capacity (MW) Kudankulam NPCIL Tamil Nadu VVER-1000 1000 x 2 2000 Kaiga NPCIL Karnataka PHWR 220 x 1 220 Kalpakkam NPCIL Tamil Nadu PFBR 500 x 1 500 Total 2720 Some of the nuclear power plant projects which are under construction can be listed below :-

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Power station Operator State Type Units Total capacity (MW) Rawatbhata NPCIL Rajasthan PHWR 640 x 2 1280 Kakrapar NPCIL Gujarat PHWR 640 x 2 1280 Jaitapur NPCIL Maharashtra EPR 1600 x 4 6400 Kudankulam NPCIL Tamil Nadu VVER 1200 x 2 2400 Kaiga NPCIL Karnataka PWR 1000 x 1, 1500 x 1 2500 Total 20600 Some of the nuclear power projects which are planned up for the future are as follows:-

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Existing Plants Proposed Plants Impact of Nuclear Accidents in India

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As of 2010, India has 20 nuclear power plants in operation generating 4,560 MW. India ranks in nuclear power generation-: India has sixth ranked in the world in production of nuclear power. Rank of sixth-: Our target is to reach 20,000 MW by 2020 in the medium term and 63,000 MW by 2032 in the long term, with 700 MW from pressurised heavy water reactors and 1,000 MW from light water reactors 1.  US 2. France 3. Japan 4. Russia 5. Korea 6.India

MAKING INDIA A NUCLEAR POWER:

MAKING INDIA A NUCLEAR POWER India 1948:- It was pt. Jawaharlal Nehru initiated India’s Nuclear energy program. India 1967:- It was Indira Gandhi initiated India’s Nuclear weapons program.

INDIA AFTER 2000:

INDIA AFTER 2000 India 2005:- It was Dr. Manmohan Singh signed 123 agreement. India 2009:- Manmohan Singh is again interested to increase India’s civilian Nuclear energy. India has signed “Civil Nuclear Trade Agreement”. The 123 Agreement signed between the United States of America and the Republic of India is known as the U.S.-India Civil Nuclear Agreement or Indo-US nuclear deal .

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Kudankulam Nuclear Power Plant is a nuclear power station situated in Kudankulam in the Tirunelveli district of the southern Indian state of Tamil Nadu. This is a joint Russia-India project. It's investment cost to India was estimated to be US$ 3 billion (Rs.13,615 Crores ) in a 2001 agreement. The controversial Kudankulam Unit I of the atomic power reactor in Tamil Nadu will become operational by next month, Prime Minister Manmohan Singh has said in BRICS summit to Vladimir Putin Kudankulam nuclear power plant

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Of the 2,000 MW electricity to be generated by the two units, Tamil Nadu has been allocated 925 MW, Kerala (266 MW), Karnataka (442 MW) and Pondicherry (67 MW).

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Jaitapur nuclear power plant The government is planning to build the world’s largest nuclear power plant in Jaitapur , on the west coast of India, in Maharashtra. On 6 December 2010 agreement was signed by French president Nicolas Sarkozy and Indian prime minister Manmohan Singh. The agreement is about $9.3 billion. This is a general framework agreement along with agreement on 'Protection of Confidentiality of Technical Data and Information Relating to Nuclear Power Corporation in the Peaceful Uses of Nuclear Energy' was also signed.

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It is proposed to construct 6 European Pressurized Reactors designed and developed by Areva of France, each of 1650 megawatts, thus totalling 9900 megawatts. These are the third generation pressurised water reactors (PWR). This type of reactor is not currently operational anywhere in the world. Debate on nuclear power project at Jaitapur is ongoing on various levels. People have raised their voice against NPP. Even though The Government of Maharashtra state completed land acquisition in January 2010, only 33 out of the 2,335 villagers have accepted compensation cheques as of November 2010.

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On 29 December 2009, 12 January 2010, and 22 January 2010, when the government authorities visited Madban for distribution of cheques people refuse to take the cheques.72 people were arrested on 22 January 2010 when people protested against the compulsory land acquisition. On 18 April 2011, one man was shot and killed by police and eight were injured after protests turned violent.

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Advantages of Nuclear Energy

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Advantages of Nuclear Energy 1 ) Lower Greenhouse Gas Emissions: The biggest advantage of this energy is that there is no release of greenhouse gases (carbon dioxide, methane, ozone, chlorofluorocarbon) during nuclear reaction. The greenhouse gases are a major threat in the current scenario, as they cause global warming and climate change. As there is no emission of these gases during nuclear reaction, there is very little effect on the environment. 2) Cheap Electricity : The cost of uranium which is used as a fuel in generating electricity is quite low.  To put it into perspective, about 28gm of Uranium releases as much amount of energy as is generated by 100 metric tonnes of coal.

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3. Reliable : Unlike traditional sources of energy like solar and wind which require sun or wind to produce electricity, nuclear energy can be produced from nuclear power plants even in the cases of rough weather conditions. They can produce power 24/7 and need to be shut down for maintenance purposes only. 4. Nuclear reactions release a million times more energy, as compared to hydro or wind energy. Hence, a large amount of electricity can be generated. Presently, 12-18% of the world's electricity is generated through nuclear energy. 5. High amount of energy can be generated from a single nuclear power plant. Also, nuclear fuel is inexpensive and easier to transport.

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Disadvantages of Nuclear Energy

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Disadvantages of Nuclear Energy 1.High risks: It is technically impossible to build a plant with 100% security. 2.Radioactive Waste : Nuclear waste from nuclear power plant creates thermal(heat) pollution which may damage the environment.  The waste produced remains 'active' over many year and effect to human beings and environment. (APPORX 10,000 YEARS) 3. National Risk: Nuclear energy has given us the power to produce more weapons. We have to become more careful and responsible while using nuclear energy to avoid any sort of major accidents. They are hot targets for militants and terrorist organizations.

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4. High Cost: Another practical disadvantage of using nuclear energy is that it needs a lot of investment to set up a nuclear power station. It is not always possible by the developing countries to afford such a costly source of alternative energy. Nuclear power plants normally take 5-10 years to construct as there are several legal formalities to be completed and mostly it is opposed by the people who live nearby. 5.Major Impact on Human Life : We all remember the disaster caused during the Second World War after the nuclear bombs were dropped over Hiroshima and Nagasaki. Even after five decades of the incident, children are born with defects. This is primarily because of the nuclear effect.

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My views Indian government should not focus on nuclear energy, govt. must focus on wind energy and solar energy Kudankulam nuclear power plan is good step for solving water dispute between karnataka and tamil nadu , but govt. should establishes like this plant solar or wind based. First govt. asks to nearer people where govt. want to establish NPP if people want then establish. Govt. must look history and then establish. Uranium is not too much in the earth and after 50-60 years it will be difficult to search uranium so we will Have to close NPP.

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Govt. also establishes one or two power plant in the West part of india . (Based on wind or solar). In INDIA there are many villages in which there is no electricity or villages gets less electricity but INDIA has 20 NPP. (APPROX 80,000 VILLAGES)

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