The POSTOPERATIVE Care : The POSTOPERATIVE Care Presented by – neeraj chaudhary Slide 2: Level of postoperative care a patient
requires is determined by
degree of underlying illness
Duration and complexity of anesthesia
Risk of postoperative complications
Patients must be carefully evaluated to
determine which level of postoperative
care is most appropriate POST OPERATIVE CARE UNIT : POST OPERATIVE CARE UNIT Slide 4: Recovery from anesthesia can range from completely uncomplicated to life-threatening.
Must be managed by skilled medical and nursing personnel.
Anesthesiologist plays a key role in optimizing safe recovery from anesthesia. History of the PACU : History of the PACU Methods of anesthesia have been available for more than 160 years, the PACU has only been common for the past 50 years.
1920’s and 30’s: several PACU’s opened in the US and abroad.
It was not until after WW II that the number of PACU’s increased significantly. This was do to the shortage of nurses in the US.
In 1947 a study was released which showed that over an 11 year period, nearly half of the deaths that occurred during the first 24 hours after surgery were preventable.
1949: having a PACU was considered a standard of care. PACU Location : PACU Location Should be located close to the operating suite.
Immediate access to x-ray, blood bank, blood gas and clinical labs.
Should have 1.5 PACU beds per operating room used.
An open ward is optimal for patient observation, with at least one isolation room.
Central nursing station.
Piped in oxygen, air, and vacuum for suction.
Requires good ventilation, because the exposure to waste anesthetic gases may be hazardous. National Institute of Occupational Safety (NIOSH) has established recommended exposure limits of 25 ppm for nitrous and 2 ppm for volatile anesthetics. PACU Equipment : PACU Equipment Automated BP, pulse ox, ECG, and intravenous supports should be located at each bed.
Area for charting, bed-side supply storage, suction, and oxygen flow meter at each bed-side.
Capability for arterial and CVP monitoring.
Supply of immediately available emergency equipment. Crash cart. Defibrillator. PACU Staffing : PACU Staffing One nurse to one patient for the first 15 minutes of recovery.
Then one nurse for every two patients.
The anesthesiologist responsible for the surgical anesthetic remains responsible for managing the patient in the PACU. Admission Report : Admission Report Preoperative history
Type of anesthesia
Assessment and report of current status
Post-operative instructions Discharge From the PACU : Discharge From the PACU Aldrete Score:
Simple sum of numerical values assigned to activity, respiration, circulation, consciousness, and oxygen saturation.
A score of 9 out of 10 shows readiness for discharge.
Postanesthesia Discharge Scoring System:
Modification of the Aldrete score which also includes an assessment of pain, N/V, and surgical bleeding, in addition to vital signs and activity.
Also, a score of 9 or 10 shows readiness for discharge. Aldrete Score : Aldrete Score Postanesthesia Discharge Scoring System : Postanesthesia Discharge Scoring System PACU Standards : PACU Standards 1. All patients who have received general anesthesia, regional anesthesia, or monitored anesthesia care should receive postanesthesia management.
2. The patient should be transported to the PACU by a member of the anesthesia care team that is knowledgeable about the patient’s condition.
3. Upon arrival in the PACU, the patient should be re-evaluated and a verbal report should be provided to the nurse.
4. The patient shall be evaluated continually in the PACU.
5. A physician is responsible for discharge of the patient. Bibliography : Bibliography Miller: Miller’s Anesthesia, 7th ed.
Barash: Clinical Anesthesia, 6th ed.
Morgan: Clinical Anesthesiology, 4th ed.