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Any chemical, biological, or physical change in water quality that has a harmful effect on living organisms or makes water unsuitable for desired usage.What are the sources of water pollution?: What are the sources of water pollution? Point Sources Can be traced back to one particular origin Industrial Plants (Power, Chemical, Waste Treatment) Drain pipes, Sewer Lines, Underground Mines Nonpoint Sources Tend to be widespread with many regions contributing to the water pollution. Agricultural Runoff Stormwater Runoff (Roads and Parking Lots) Point Source of Polluted Water: Point Source of Polluted WaterNonpoint Sources: Nonpoint Sources Buffer Zones Near StreamsPollution of Lakes: Pollution of Lakes Eutrophication Fig. 22-7 p. 499Eutrophication of Lakes: Eutrophication of Lakes Eutrophication : nutrient enrichment of lakes mostly from runoff of plant nutrients (nitrates and phosphates) During hot dry weather can lead to algae blooms Decrease of photosynthesis Dying algae then drops DO levels Fish kills, bad odorEutrophication in Lakes: Eutrophication in Lakes Solutions: Advanced sewage treatment (N, P) Household detergents Soil conservation Remove excess weed build up Pump in oxygen or freshwaterPowerPoint Presentation: Good 8–9 Water Quality DO (ppm) at 20°C Slightly polluted 6.7–8 Moderately polluted 4.5–6.7 Heavily polluted 4–4.5 Gravely polluted Below 4Solutions: Preventing and Reducing Surface Water Pollution: Solutions: Preventing and Reducing Surface Water Pollution Nonpoint Sources Point Sources Reduce runoff Buffer zone vegetation Reduce soil erosion Clean Water Act Water Quality Act Only apply pesticides and fertilizers as neededDichloro Diphenyl Trichloroethane: Dichloro Diphenyl Trichloroethane Very hydrophobic molecule which acts by interfering with ion transport systems in neuronal cell membrane Inhibits neurotransmission → kills animals at certain dose DDT (introduced in 1950s) is not species specific in its effects DDT and related insecticides, endrin , dieldrin and aldrin are called ORGANOCHLORINE PESTICIDES DDT revolutionised farming practices DDT was developed by Swiss entomologist – Paul MÜller Nobel Prize in 1948! Banned in the mid-1960s in most developed countriesMercury poisoning (minamata bay-1960): Mercury poisoning ( minamata bay-1960) PolyChlorinated Biphenyl & PBBPowerPoint Presentation: Biomagnifications of PCBs in an aquatic food chain from the Great Lakes.PowerPoint Presentation: Category Example Sources Causes health problems Infectious agents Bacteria, virus, worms Human, animal waste Organic chemicals Pesticide, plastic, detergents, oils Industrial household farm use Inorganic chemicals Acids, caustic salts, metals Industrial effluent, household cleaners, runoff Cause ecosystem disruption Sediments Soil, silt Land erosion Plant nutrients NO3,PO4,NH4 Agriculture fertilizers, sewage, sludge Oxygen demanding wastes Animal human faeces, plant residues Sewage, agriculture runoff, paper mill industrial waste Thermal Heat Power plant, cooling waterWater pollution control measures: Water pollution control measures Pollution prevention approaches -Cleaner technologies “diverse range of products, services, and processes that harness renewable materials and energy sources, dramatically reduce the use of natural resources, and cut or eliminate emissions and wastes” Good housekeeping-Water conservation Oil grease traps Reuse/recover materials (Cr recovery, sewage irrigation) Natural fertilizers Less pesticide(IPM)Water pollution control: Water pollution control Treat wastewater –physical ,chemical, biological treatments Pollution control legislation Pakistan environmental quality act(1997) National environmental quality standards(NEQS) Pollution charges Enhance public awarenessCleaner technologies in tanning industry: Cleaner technologies in tanning industry Hide chilling to avoid salt in the effluent . Hair recovery processes to reduce BOD/COD of the effluent Enzyme-assisted unhairing to reduce sulphide CO 2 deliming to reduce ammonia in the effluent Better uptake/exhaustion of chrome or chrome recovery/recycling to reduce chrome in the effluent Alternative mineral tanning agents to avoid chrome in the effluent or solid wastesWater quality: Water quality Quality :degree of excellence,a measure of fitness of use Drinking water quality: degree of cleanliness and wholesomeness of water Physical Chemical bacteriologicalWhat is water pollution?: What is water pollution? WHO: 3.4 million premature deaths each year from waterborne diseases 1.9 million from diarrhea You do not have the permission to view this presentation. In order to view it, please contact the author of the presentation.