Slide 1: In the name of Allah, the most beneficent and merciful Classroom Management Dr. Nawab Ali KhanProfessor, Department of CommerceAligarh Muslim University, Aligarh(INDIA)Telephone: +91-571-3261457/2721457 Cell: 09897001457/09358066667Fax: +91-571-2700831E-mail: email@example.com : Classroom Management Dr. Nawab Ali KhanProfessor, Department of CommerceAligarh Muslim University, Aligarh(INDIA)Telephone: +91-571-3261457/2721457 Cell: 09897001457/09358066667Fax: +91-571-2700831E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org Classroom Survival Classroom Management : Classroom Management Some times it feels like we are herding cats. What is Classroom Management? : What is Classroom Management? It’s effective discipline
It’s being prepared for class
It’s motivating your students
It’s providing a safe, comfortable learning environment
It’s building your students’ self esteem
It’s being creative and imaginative in daily lessons
And . . . . . . It’s different for EVERYONE!! : . . . It’s different for EVERYONE!! WHY?
Not all management strategies are effective for every teacher
Try different strategies to see if they work for you Why is Classroom Management Important? : Why is Classroom Management Important? Satisfaction and enjoyment in teaching are dependent upon leading students to cooperate
Classroom management issues are of highest concern for beginning teachers Principles for successful classroom management : Principles for successful classroom management Deal with disruptive behaviors but also manage to minimize off-task, non-disruptive behaviors
Teach students to manage their own behavior
Students learn to be on-task and engaged in the learning activities you have planned for them
It is more natural to be off-task than on Techniques for Better Classroom Control : Techniques for Better Classroom Control Focus attention on entire class
Don’t talk over student chatter
Silence can be effective
Use softer voice so students really have to listen to what you’re saying
Direct your instruction so that students know what is going to happen Techniques for Better Classroom Control : Techniques for Better Classroom Control Monitor groups of students to check progress
Move around the room so students have to pay attention more readily
Give students non-verbal cues
Engage in low profile intervention of disruptions
Make sure classroom is comfortable and safe Techniques for Better Classroom Control : Techniques for Better Classroom Control Over plan your lessons to ensure you fill the period with learning activities
Come to class prepared
Show confidence in your teaching
Learn student names as quickly as possible Transition vs. Allocated Time : Transition vs. Allocated Time Allocated time: the time periods you intend for your students to be engaged in learning activities
Transition time: time periods that exist between times allocated for learning activities
Getting students assembled and attentive
Assigning reading and directing to begin
Getting students’ attention away from reading and preparing for class discussion Transition vs. Allocated Time : Transition vs. Allocated Time The Goal:
Increase the variety of learning activities but decrease transition time.
Student engagement and on-task behaviors are dependent on how smoothly and efficiently teachers move from one learning activity to another Withitness : Withitness Withitness refers to a teacher’s awareness of what is going on in the classroom A teacher has “withitness” if: : A teacher has “withitness” if: When discipline problems occur, the teacher consistently takes action to suppress the misbehavior of exactly those students who instigated the problem
When two discipline problems arise concurrently, the teacher deals with the most serious first
The teacher decisively handles instances of off-task behavior before the behaviors either get out of hand or are modeled by others Withitness (continued) : Withitness (continued) When handling misbehavior – make sure all students learn what is unacceptable about that behavior
Getting angry or stressed does not reduce future misbehavior
Deal with misbehavior without disrupting the learning activity Jones’ study of off-task behaviors : Jones’ study of off-task behaviors 99% of off-task behaviors take one of several forms
Talking out of turn
Moving about without permission
Antisocial, dangerous behaviors make up a fraction of the time students spend off-task Proximity and Body Language : Proximity and Body Language Eye contact, facial expressions, gestures, physical proximity to students, and the way you carry yourself will communicate that you are in calm control of the class and mean to be taken seriously.
Be free to roam
back to class Cooperation through communication : Cooperation through communication Verbalize descriptions of behaviors and never value judgments about individuals
Verbalize feelings but remain in control
DO NOT USE SARCASM
Do not place labels (good or bad)
Do not get students hooked on praise
Praise the work and behavior – not the students themselves
Speak only to people when they are ready to listen Classroom Rules For Conduct : Classroom Rules For Conduct Formalized statements that provide students with general guidelines for the types of behaviors that are required and the types that are prohibited
A few rules are easier to remember than many rules
Each rule in a small set of rules is more important than each rule in a large set of rules Necessary classroom rules of conduct : Necessary classroom rules of conduct Maximizes on-task behaviors and minimize off-task (esp. disruptive) behaviors
Secures the safety and comfort of the learning environment
Prevents the activities of the class from disturbing other classes
Maintains acceptable standards of decorum among students, College/university personnel, and visitors to the College/university campus Establishing a “Businesslike” Atmosphere : Establishing a “Businesslike” Atmosphere . . . Or, “Don’t Smile until Christmas” A Businesslike Atmosphere : A Businesslike Atmosphere Take advantage of the first days of class
Establish an environment in which achieving specified learning goals takes priority over other concerns
It is much easier to establish this environment from the beginning rather than later 5 steps : 5 steps Take advantage of the new college year or term to set the stage for cooperation
Be particularly prepared and organized
Minimize transition time
Utilize a communication style that establishing non-threatening, comfortable environment
Clearly establish expectations for conduct Beginning a new year : Beginning a new year Take advantage of initial uncertainty
Ride your “fences”
PLAN for a favorable beginning
Use learning activities with easy-to-follow, uncomplicated directions
Use a disclosure statement Disclosure Statement : Disclosure Statement Used to clearly communicate expectations to students and parents
Refer back to the guidelines throughout the term
Not a legally binding document Components of Disclosure Statement : Components of Disclosure Statement Basic Course Outline
Include procedures for making up missed work, extra credit, homework expected, etc.
Attendance Policies (should be consistent with college/university policy)
Other class rules, policies, procedures
Safety considerations as necessary
Accommodation for disabilities statement
Signature of student and parent/guardian Room/lab arrangement : Room/lab arrangement Make sure all students can see and hear clearly (and you can see them clearly)
Arrangement is determined by learning activity (lecture, class discussion, small group work, etc.)
Allow room and easy access for proximity control
Think through class procedures and learning activities and arrange the room in the best possible way Dealing with misbehavior : Dealing with misbehavior Students misbehave for several reasons: : Students misbehave for several reasons: They are bored.
They don’t know the purpose of your presentation.
They don’t understand how the information that you are delivering applies to them.
Instruction is uninteresting
The pace of the instruction is incorrect (too fast, or too slow).
Not enough interaction between and among peers. "Listen" To The Students’ Misbehavior. : "Listen" To The Students’ Misbehavior. Student misbehavior isn't just an annoying disruption --- it's a secret message the student is (unwittingly) trying to convey to you. Classroom Management Principles : Make a good first impression.
Come in with enthusiasm and show you are excited to be there. Classroom Management Principles Classroom Management Principles : Classroom Management Principles Minimize the power differential in everyday communication.
Sitting behind a desk or standing behind a podium can send the message that you want to create some distance between yourself and the students.
Get down to their level when working with them. Classroom Management Principles : Classroom Management Principles Know the power of proximity
You can accomplish more through your body language than through your voice.
Put your body next to problems.
Put your body in-between students who are disruptive.
Know how to work one-on-one with students while not turning your back on the rest of the class. Functions of Behavior : Functions of Behavior Every behavior has a function
Four primary reasons for disruptive behavior in the classroom
Want to be left alone (i.e., disinterest or feelings of inadequacy) Functions of Behavior : Functions of Behavior Many misbehaviors exhibited by students are responses to a behavior exhibited by the teacher
Do not tolerate undesirable behaviors no matter what the excuse
Understanding why a person exhibits a behavior is no reason to tolerate it
Understanding the function of a behavior will help in knowing how to deal with that behavior Dealing with off-task behaviors : Dealing with off-task behaviors Remain focused and calm; organize thoughts
Either respond decisively or ignore it all together
Distinguish between off-task behaviors and off-task behavior patterns
Control the time and place for dealing with off-task behavior
Provide students with dignified ways to terminate off-task behaviors Dealing with off-task behaviors : Dealing with off-task behaviors Avoid playing detective
Utilize alternative lesson plans
Utilize the help of colleagues
Utilize the help of guardians
DO NOT USE CORPORAL PUNISHMENT
A form of contrived punishment in which physical pain or discomfort is intentionally inflicted upon an individual for the purpose of trying to get that individual to be sorry he or she displayed a particular behavior Modifying off-task behavior patterns : Modifying off-task behavior patterns Use the principle of “Extinction”
Whenever the positive rein forcers for a person’s voluntary behavior pattern are removed or cease to exist, the person will begin to discontinue that behavior
Specify the exact behavior pattern to extinguish
Identify positive reinforcers for the behavior
Plan to eliminate positive reinforcement
Establish a realistic time schedule
Implement the plan
Evaluate the effectiveness by observing behavior Modifying off-task behavior patterns : Modifying off-task behavior patterns Use the principle of “Shaping”
Reinforce behaviors that are similar to the behavior to be learned
Subsequent actions that are more like the behavior to be learned than previous actions are reinforced
Subsequent actions that are less like the behavior to be learned than previous actions are not positively reinforced Attention Seeking Behavior : Attention Seeking Behavior Attention-seeking students prefer being punished, admonished, or criticized to being ignored
Give attention to this student when he or she is on-task and cooperating
“Catch them being good!” – and let them know you caught them Power Seeking Behavior : Power Seeking Behavior Power-seeking students attempt to provoke teachers into a struggle of wills
In most cases, the teacher should direct attention to other members of the class Behavior: Rambling -- wandering around and off the subject. Using far-fetched examples or analogies. : Behavior: Rambling -- wandering around and off the subject. Using far-fetched examples or analogies. POSSIBLE RESPONSES:
Refocus attention by restating relevant point.
Direct questions to group that is back on the subject
Ask how topic relates to current topic being discussed.
Use visual aids, begin to write on board, turn on overhead projector.
Say: "Would you summarize your main point please?" or "Are you asking...?" Behavior: Shyness or Silence -- lack of participation : Behavior: Shyness or Silence -- lack of participation POSSIBLE RESPONSES:
Change teaching strategies from group discussion to individual written exercises or a videotape
Give strong positive reinforcement for any contribution.
Involve by directly asking him/her a question.
Make eye contact.
Appoint to be small group leader. Behavior: Talkativeness -- knowing everything, manipulation, chronic whining. : Behavior: Talkativeness -- knowing everything, manipulation, chronic whining. POSSIBLE RESPONSES:
Acknowledge comments made.
Give limited time to express viewpoint or feelings, and then move on.
Make eye contact with another participant and move toward that person.
Give the person individual attention during breaks.
Say: "That's an interesting point. Now let's see what other other people think." Behavior: Sharpshooting -- trying to shoot you down or trip you up. : Behavior: Sharpshooting -- trying to shoot you down or trip you up. POSSIBLE RESPONSES:
Admit that you do not know the answer and redirect the question the group or the individual who asked it.
Acknowledge that this is a joint learning experience.
Ignore the behavior. Behavior: Heckling/Arguing -- disagreeing with everything you say; making personal attacks. : Behavior: Heckling/Arguing -- disagreeing with everything you say; making personal attacks. POSSIBLE RESPONSES:
Redirect question to group or supportive individuals.
Recognize participant's feelings and move one.
Acknowledge positive points.
Say: "I appreciate your comments, but I'd like to hear from others," or "It looks like we disagree." Behavior: Grandstanding -- getting caught up in one's own agenda or thoughts to the detriment of other learners. : Behavior: Grandstanding -- getting caught up in one's own agenda or thoughts to the detriment of other learners. POSSIBLE RESPONSES:
Say: "You are entitled to your opinion, belief or feelings, but now it's time we moved on to the next subject," or
"Can you restate that as a question?" or
"We'd like to hear more about that if there is time after the presentation." Behavior: Overt Hostility/Resistance -- angry, belligerent, combative behavior. : Behavior: Overt Hostility/Resistance -- angry, belligerent, combative behavior. POSSIBLE RESPONSES:
Hostility can be a mask for fear. Reframe hostility as fear to depersonalize it.
Respond to fear, not hostility.
Remain calm and polite. Keep your temper in check.
Don't disagree, but build on or around what has been said.
Move closer to the hostile person, maintain eye contact.
Always allow him or her a way to gracefully retreat from the confrontation. Behavior: Overt Hostility/Resistance -- angry, belligerent, combative behavior (continued) : Behavior: Overt Hostility/Resistance -- angry, belligerent, combative behavior (continued) POSSIBLE RESPONSES:
Say: "You seem really angry. Does anyone else feel this way?" Solicit peer pressure.
Do not accept the premise or underlying assumption, if it is false or prejudicial, e.g., "If by "queer" you mean homosexual..."
Allow individual to solve the problem being addressed. He or she may not be able to offer solutions and will sometimes undermine his or her own position.
Talk to him or her privately during a break.
As a last resort, privately ask the individual to leave class for the good of the group. Behavior: Griping -- maybe legitimate complaining. : Behavior: Griping -- maybe legitimate complaining. POSSIBLE RESPONSES:
Point out that we can't change policy here.
Validate his/her point.
Indicate you'll discuss the problem with the participant privately.
Indicate time pressure. Behavior: Side Conversations -- may be related to subject or personal. Distracts group members and you. : Behavior: Side Conversations -- may be related to subject or personal. Distracts group members and you. POSSIBLE RESPONSES:
Don't embarrass talkers.
Ask their opinion on topic being discussed.
Ask talkers if they would like to share their ideas.
Casually move toward those talking.
Make eye contact with them.
Standing near the talkers, ask a near-by participant a question so that the new discussion is near the talkers.
As a last resort, stop and wait. College/University Policies : College/University Policies How to stay out of trouble Be familiar with College/university policies from the start! : Be familiar with College/university policies from the start! Policies relating directly to students:
Telephone use (College/university phones, cell, pagers)
Student Dress and Grooming Policies
Safe College/university Policies
Weapons, fighting, intimidation, verbal abuse, etc.
Alcohol, Tobacco, and Drug Policies
Sexual Harassment Policy Policies you’ll need to be aware of as a teacher : Policies you’ll need to be aware of as a teacher Internet/Email use policies
Family Educational Rights and Privacy Act (FERPA) Policies
Policies regarding the reporting of abuse, neglect, suicide threats, etc.
Fire, earthquake, bomb threat, intruder, etc.
Field Trip policies
Accident reporting procedures
Reporting academic progress
Requests for, planning, etc.
Use of videos, movies, and instructional materials If you advise a student group : If you advise a student group Be familiar with:
Activity absence policies
Student organization finance policies Traits of a “Good” Teacher : Traits of a “Good” Teacher Slide 57: “ALWAYS err in favor of the student. Be a little understanding: Even if 50 students have told you the same story, give the 51st student the same wide-eyed look you gave the first. Be a little forgetful: When a student asks you the same question you just heard 30 seconds ago, forget you already answered it.” Slide 58: “It is necessary to invest in student interests as they relate not only to the classroom, but also to their dreams and future endeavors. You must practice not only to learn the names of your students, but also to inquire about what motivates them.” Slide 59: “The challenge is not for you to pontificate; the challenge should be for your students to interrogate. You must encourage your students to ask you more questions in class than you ask them.” Be Unsatisfied : Be Unsatisfied As a teacher you must . . .
Be a good learner
Be a life-long learner
Life-long learners produce Life-long Learners
The best teacher is always a student.
Be unsatisfied with what you know . . . Always desire to learn more! Have High Expectations : Have High Expectations Encourage exploration
Encourage safe “risk-taking” and accept errors
High standards are not impossible standards . . . They simply challenge students.
Always expect their best! Create Independence : Create Independence Encourage children to ask questions
Direct children in the direction where they can seek out answers to their questions
Encourage them to explore
Provide an environment where they can be independent Humor : Humor Be entertaining
Do not be afraid to laugh with your students Knowledgeable : Knowledgeable It is so important to be knowledgeable on the topic being discussed
This also includes being certain of using correct spelling and grammar.
It is also imperative to be knowledgeable of your students! Insightful : Insightful Pay attention!
Watch for changes or deficiencies in development
Watch for changes in behavior and/or emotion
To meet the children’s needs, we must be alert and insightful Flexible : Flexible Take advantage of teachable moments.
Take advantage of children’s interests
Adapt and meet the needs of your students. Be Diverse : Be Diverse Learn new methods and techniques
This world is constantly changing, we have to be ready
Our students interests are constantly developing . . . We need to be aware of that diversity.
The world we live in is diverse. Unaccepting : Unaccepting Even though it has a negative connotation to it. . . We as teachers must be unaccepting of . . .
Intolerance Unconforming : Unconforming Be creative
Try new things
Just because other teachers are doing it one way . . . That doesn’t mean that method will work for you, or your students! Communicator : Communicator It is imperative to communicate with others . . .
Other staff (your peers)
A child’s parent is their #1 teacher . . . You, as a teacher, must partner with parents to create a positive educational experience. Teachers are good at . . . : Teachers are good at . . . Explaining things, and are comfortable in doing so.
Keeping their cool
Have common sense
Listening Slide 72: “The mediocre teacher tells. The good teacher explains. The superior teacher demonstrates. The great teacher inspires.” Slide 73: “Believing in what you teach and teaching what you believe creates a powerful role model for our students.”