Techniques of Classroom Management

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By: abdulsattar482 (35 month(s) ago)

It's very fruitful PPt for ESL instructors.

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Slide 1: 

In the name of Allah, the most beneficent and merciful

Classroom Management Dr. Nawab Ali KhanProfessor, Department of CommerceAligarh Muslim University, Aligarh(INDIA)Telephone: +91-571-3261457/2721457 Cell: 09897001457/09358066667Fax: +91-571-2700831E-mail: nawabalikhan@indiatimes.com : 

Classroom Management Dr. Nawab Ali KhanProfessor, Department of CommerceAligarh Muslim University, Aligarh(INDIA)Telephone: +91-571-3261457/2721457 Cell: 09897001457/09358066667Fax: +91-571-2700831E-mail: nawabalikhan@indiatimes.com Classroom Survival

Classroom Management : 

Classroom Management Some times it feels like we are herding cats.

What is Classroom Management? : 

What is Classroom Management? It’s effective discipline It’s being prepared for class It’s motivating your students It’s providing a safe, comfortable learning environment It’s building your students’ self esteem It’s being creative and imaginative in daily lessons And . . .

. . . It’s different for EVERYONE!! : 

. . . It’s different for EVERYONE!! WHY? Teaching Styles Personality/Attitudes Student population Not all management strategies are effective for every teacher Try different strategies to see if they work for you

Why is Classroom Management Important? : 

Why is Classroom Management Important? Satisfaction and enjoyment in teaching are dependent upon leading students to cooperate Classroom management issues are of highest concern for beginning teachers

Principles for successful classroom management : 

Principles for successful classroom management Deal with disruptive behaviors but also manage to minimize off-task, non-disruptive behaviors Teach students to manage their own behavior Students learn to be on-task and engaged in the learning activities you have planned for them It is more natural to be off-task than on

Techniques for Better Classroom Control : 

Techniques for Better Classroom Control Focus attention on entire class Don’t talk over student chatter Silence can be effective Use softer voice so students really have to listen to what you’re saying Direct your instruction so that students know what is going to happen

Techniques for Better Classroom Control : 

Techniques for Better Classroom Control Monitor groups of students to check progress Move around the room so students have to pay attention more readily Give students non-verbal cues Engage in low profile intervention of disruptions Make sure classroom is comfortable and safe

Techniques for Better Classroom Control : 

Techniques for Better Classroom Control Over plan your lessons to ensure you fill the period with learning activities Come to class prepared Show confidence in your teaching Learn student names as quickly as possible

Transition vs. Allocated Time : 

Transition vs. Allocated Time Allocated time: the time periods you intend for your students to be engaged in learning activities Transition time: time periods that exist between times allocated for learning activities Examples Getting students assembled and attentive Assigning reading and directing to begin Getting students’ attention away from reading and preparing for class discussion

Transition vs. Allocated Time : 

Transition vs. Allocated Time The Goal: Increase the variety of learning activities but decrease transition time. Student engagement and on-task behaviors are dependent on how smoothly and efficiently teachers move from one learning activity to another

Withitness : 

Withitness Withitness refers to a teacher’s awareness of what is going on in the classroom

A teacher has “withitness” if: : 

A teacher has “withitness” if: When discipline problems occur, the teacher consistently takes action to suppress the misbehavior of exactly those students who instigated the problem When two discipline problems arise concurrently, the teacher deals with the most serious first The teacher decisively handles instances of off-task behavior before the behaviors either get out of hand or are modeled by others

Withitness (continued) : 

Withitness (continued) When handling misbehavior – make sure all students learn what is unacceptable about that behavior Getting angry or stressed does not reduce future misbehavior Deal with misbehavior without disrupting the learning activity

Jones’ study of off-task behaviors : 

Jones’ study of off-task behaviors 99% of off-task behaviors take one of several forms Talking out of turn Clowning Daydreaming Moving about without permission Antisocial, dangerous behaviors make up a fraction of the time students spend off-task

Proximity and Body Language : 

Proximity and Body Language Eye contact, facial expressions, gestures, physical proximity to students, and the way you carry yourself will communicate that you are in calm control of the class and mean to be taken seriously. Be free to roam Avoid turning back to class

Cooperation through communication : 

Cooperation through communication Verbalize descriptions of behaviors and never value judgments about individuals Verbalize feelings but remain in control DO NOT USE SARCASM Do not place labels (good or bad) Do not get students hooked on praise Praise the work and behavior – not the students themselves Speak only to people when they are ready to listen

Classroom Rules For Conduct : 

Classroom Rules For Conduct Formalized statements that provide students with general guidelines for the types of behaviors that are required and the types that are prohibited A few rules are easier to remember than many rules Each rule in a small set of rules is more important than each rule in a large set of rules

Necessary classroom rules of conduct : 

Necessary classroom rules of conduct Maximizes on-task behaviors and minimize off-task (esp. disruptive) behaviors Secures the safety and comfort of the learning environment Prevents the activities of the class from disturbing other classes Maintains acceptable standards of decorum among students, College/university personnel, and visitors to the College/university campus

Establishing a “Businesslike” Atmosphere : 

Establishing a “Businesslike” Atmosphere . . . Or, “Don’t Smile until Christmas”

A Businesslike Atmosphere : 

A Businesslike Atmosphere Take advantage of the first days of class Establish an environment in which achieving specified learning goals takes priority over other concerns It is much easier to establish this environment from the beginning rather than later

5 steps : 

5 steps Take advantage of the new college year or term to set the stage for cooperation Be particularly prepared and organized Minimize transition time Utilize a communication style that establishing non-threatening, comfortable environment Clearly establish expectations for conduct

Beginning a new year : 

Beginning a new year Take advantage of initial uncertainty Ride your “fences” PLAN for a favorable beginning Classroom/lab organization Ongoing routines Use learning activities with easy-to-follow, uncomplicated directions Use a disclosure statement

Disclosure Statement : 

Disclosure Statement Used to clearly communicate expectations to students and parents Refer back to the guidelines throughout the term Not a legally binding document

Components of Disclosure Statement : 

Components of Disclosure Statement Basic Course Outline Grading Procedures Include procedures for making up missed work, extra credit, homework expected, etc. Attendance Policies (should be consistent with college/university policy) Other class rules, policies, procedures Safety considerations as necessary Accommodation for disabilities statement Signature of student and parent/guardian

Room/lab arrangement : 

Room/lab arrangement Make sure all students can see and hear clearly (and you can see them clearly) Arrangement is determined by learning activity (lecture, class discussion, small group work, etc.) Allow room and easy access for proximity control Think through class procedures and learning activities and arrange the room in the best possible way

Dealing with misbehavior : 

Dealing with misbehavior

Students misbehave for several reasons: : 

Students misbehave for several reasons: They are bored. They don’t know the purpose of your presentation. They don’t understand how the information that you are delivering applies to them. Instruction is uninteresting The pace of the instruction is incorrect (too fast, or too slow). Not enough interaction between and among peers.

"Listen" To The Students’ Misbehavior. : 

"Listen" To The Students’ Misbehavior. Student misbehavior isn't just an annoying disruption --- it's a secret message the student is (unwittingly) trying to convey to you.

Classroom Management Principles : 

Make a good first impression. Come in with enthusiasm and show you are excited to be there. Classroom Management Principles

Classroom Management Principles : 

Classroom Management Principles Minimize the power differential in everyday communication. Sitting behind a desk or standing behind a podium can send the message that you want to create some distance between yourself and the students. Get down to their level when working with them.

Classroom Management Principles : 

Classroom Management Principles Know the power of proximity You can accomplish more through your body language than through your voice. Put your body next to problems. Put your body in-between students who are disruptive. Know how to work one-on-one with students while not turning your back on the rest of the class.

Functions of Behavior : 

Functions of Behavior Every behavior has a function Four primary reasons for disruptive behavior in the classroom Power Revenge Attention Want to be left alone (i.e., disinterest or feelings of inadequacy)

Functions of Behavior : 

Functions of Behavior Many misbehaviors exhibited by students are responses to a behavior exhibited by the teacher Do not tolerate undesirable behaviors no matter what the excuse Understanding why a person exhibits a behavior is no reason to tolerate it Understanding the function of a behavior will help in knowing how to deal with that behavior

Dealing with off-task behaviors : 

Dealing with off-task behaviors Remain focused and calm; organize thoughts Either respond decisively or ignore it all together Distinguish between off-task behaviors and off-task behavior patterns Control the time and place for dealing with off-task behavior Provide students with dignified ways to terminate off-task behaviors

Dealing with off-task behaviors : 

Dealing with off-task behaviors Avoid playing detective Utilize alternative lesson plans Utilize the help of colleagues Utilize the help of guardians DO NOT USE CORPORAL PUNISHMENT A form of contrived punishment in which physical pain or discomfort is intentionally inflicted upon an individual for the purpose of trying to get that individual to be sorry he or she displayed a particular behavior

Modifying off-task behavior patterns : 

Modifying off-task behavior patterns Use the principle of “Extinction” Whenever the positive rein forcers for a person’s voluntary behavior pattern are removed or cease to exist, the person will begin to discontinue that behavior Specify the exact behavior pattern to extinguish Identify positive reinforcers for the behavior Plan to eliminate positive reinforcement Establish a realistic time schedule Implement the plan Evaluate the effectiveness by observing behavior

Modifying off-task behavior patterns : 

Modifying off-task behavior patterns Use the principle of “Shaping” Reinforce behaviors that are similar to the behavior to be learned Subsequent actions that are more like the behavior to be learned than previous actions are reinforced Subsequent actions that are less like the behavior to be learned than previous actions are not positively reinforced

Attention Seeking Behavior : 

Attention Seeking Behavior Attention-seeking students prefer being punished, admonished, or criticized to being ignored Give attention to this student when he or she is on-task and cooperating “Catch them being good!” – and let them know you caught them

Power Seeking Behavior : 

Power Seeking Behavior Power-seeking students attempt to provoke teachers into a struggle of wills In most cases, the teacher should direct attention to other members of the class

Behavior: Rambling -- wandering around and off the subject. Using far-fetched examples or analogies. : 

Behavior: Rambling -- wandering around and off the subject. Using far-fetched examples or analogies. POSSIBLE RESPONSES: Refocus attention by restating relevant point. Direct questions to group that is back on the subject Ask how topic relates to current topic being discussed. Use visual aids, begin to write on board, turn on overhead projector. Say: "Would you summarize your main point please?" or "Are you asking...?"

Behavior: Shyness or Silence -- lack of participation : 

Behavior: Shyness or Silence -- lack of participation POSSIBLE RESPONSES: Change teaching strategies from group discussion to individual written exercises or a videotape Give strong positive reinforcement for any contribution. Involve by directly asking him/her a question. Make eye contact. Appoint to be small group leader.

Behavior: Talkativeness -- knowing everything, manipulation, chronic whining. : 

Behavior: Talkativeness -- knowing everything, manipulation, chronic whining. POSSIBLE RESPONSES: Acknowledge comments made. Give limited time to express viewpoint or feelings, and then move on. Make eye contact with another participant and move toward that person. Give the person individual attention during breaks. Say: "That's an interesting point. Now let's see what other other people think."

Behavior: Sharpshooting -- trying to shoot you down or trip you up. : 

Behavior: Sharpshooting -- trying to shoot you down or trip you up. POSSIBLE RESPONSES: Admit that you do not know the answer and redirect the question the group or the individual who asked it. Acknowledge that this is a joint learning experience. Ignore the behavior.

Behavior: Heckling/Arguing -- disagreeing with everything you say; making personal attacks. : 

Behavior: Heckling/Arguing -- disagreeing with everything you say; making personal attacks. POSSIBLE RESPONSES: Redirect question to group or supportive individuals. Recognize participant's feelings and move one. Acknowledge positive points. Say: "I appreciate your comments, but I'd like to hear from others," or "It looks like we disagree."

Behavior: Grandstanding -- getting caught up in one's own agenda or thoughts to the detriment of other learners. : 

Behavior: Grandstanding -- getting caught up in one's own agenda or thoughts to the detriment of other learners. POSSIBLE RESPONSES: Say: "You are entitled to your opinion, belief or feelings, but now it's time we moved on to the next subject," or "Can you restate that as a question?" or "We'd like to hear more about that if there is time after the presentation."

Behavior: Overt Hostility/Resistance -- angry, belligerent, combative behavior. : 

Behavior: Overt Hostility/Resistance -- angry, belligerent, combative behavior. POSSIBLE RESPONSES: Hostility can be a mask for fear. Reframe hostility as fear to depersonalize it. Respond to fear, not hostility. Remain calm and polite. Keep your temper in check. Don't disagree, but build on or around what has been said. Move closer to the hostile person, maintain eye contact. Always allow him or her a way to gracefully retreat from the confrontation.

Behavior: Overt Hostility/Resistance -- angry, belligerent, combative behavior (continued) : 

Behavior: Overt Hostility/Resistance -- angry, belligerent, combative behavior (continued) POSSIBLE RESPONSES: Say: "You seem really angry. Does anyone else feel this way?" Solicit peer pressure. Do not accept the premise or underlying assumption, if it is false or prejudicial, e.g., "If by "queer" you mean homosexual..." Allow individual to solve the problem being addressed. He or she may not be able to offer solutions and will sometimes undermine his or her own position. Ignore behavior. Talk to him or her privately during a break. As a last resort, privately ask the individual to leave class for the good of the group.

Behavior: Griping -- maybe legitimate complaining. : 

Behavior: Griping -- maybe legitimate complaining. POSSIBLE RESPONSES: Point out that we can't change policy here. Validate his/her point. Indicate you'll discuss the problem with the participant privately. Indicate time pressure.

Behavior: Side Conversations -- may be related to subject or personal. Distracts group members and you. : 

Behavior: Side Conversations -- may be related to subject or personal. Distracts group members and you. POSSIBLE RESPONSES: Don't embarrass talkers. Ask their opinion on topic being discussed. Ask talkers if they would like to share their ideas. Casually move toward those talking. Make eye contact with them. Standing near the talkers, ask a near-by participant a question so that the new discussion is near the talkers. As a last resort, stop and wait.

College/University Policies : 

College/University Policies How to stay out of trouble

Be familiar with College/university policies from the start! : 

Be familiar with College/university policies from the start! Policies relating directly to students: Attendance/Tardy Policy Academic/Grading Policies Telephone use (College/university phones, cell, pagers) Student Dress and Grooming Policies Safe College/university Policies Weapons, fighting, intimidation, verbal abuse, etc. Alcohol, Tobacco, and Drug Policies Sexual Harassment Policy

Policies you’ll need to be aware of as a teacher : 

Policies you’ll need to be aware of as a teacher Internet/Email use policies Family Educational Rights and Privacy Act (FERPA) Policies Policies regarding the reporting of abuse, neglect, suicide threats, etc. Emergency procedures Fire, earthquake, bomb threat, intruder, etc. Field Trip policies Accident reporting procedures Reporting academic progress Purchasing guidelines Substitute teachers Requests for, planning, etc. Use of videos, movies, and instructional materials

If you advise a student group : 

If you advise a student group Be familiar with: Travel policies Fundraising policies Activity absence policies Student organization finance policies

Traits of a “Good” Teacher : 

Traits of a “Good” Teacher

Slide 57: 

“ALWAYS err in favor of the student. Be a little understanding:  Even if 50 students have told you the same story, give the 51st student the same wide-eyed look you gave the first. Be a little forgetful:  When a student asks you the same question you just heard 30 seconds ago, forget you already answered it.”

Slide 58: 

“It is necessary to invest in student interests as they relate not only to the classroom, but also to their dreams and future endeavors. You must practice not only to learn the names of your students, but also to inquire about what motivates them.”

Slide 59: 

“The challenge is not for you to pontificate; the challenge should be for your students to interrogate. You must encourage your students to ask you more questions in class than you ask them.”

Be Unsatisfied : 

Be Unsatisfied As a teacher you must . . . Be a good learner Be a life-long learner Life-long learners produce Life-long Learners The best teacher is always a student. Be unsatisfied with what you know . . . Always desire to learn more!

Have High Expectations : 

Have High Expectations Encourage exploration Encourage safe “risk-taking” and accept errors High standards are not impossible standards . . . They simply challenge students. Always expect their best!

Create Independence : 

Create Independence Encourage children to ask questions Direct children in the direction where they can seek out answers to their questions Encourage them to explore Provide an environment where they can be independent

Humor : 

Humor Be entertaining Bring joy Do not be afraid to laugh with your students

Knowledgeable : 

Knowledgeable It is so important to be knowledgeable on the topic being discussed This also includes being certain of using correct spelling and grammar. It is also imperative to be knowledgeable of your students!

Insightful : 

Insightful Pay attention! Watch for changes or deficiencies in development Watch for changes in behavior and/or emotion To meet the children’s needs, we must be alert and insightful

Flexible : 

Flexible Take advantage of teachable moments. Take advantage of children’s interests Adapt and meet the needs of your students.

Be Diverse : 

Be Diverse Learn new methods and techniques This world is constantly changing, we have to be ready Our students interests are constantly developing . . . We need to be aware of that diversity. The world we live in is diverse.

Unaccepting : 

Unaccepting Even though it has a negative connotation to it. . . We as teachers must be unaccepting of . . . Unacceptable behaviors Apathy Intolerance

Unconforming : 

Unconforming Be creative Try new things Just because other teachers are doing it one way . . . That doesn’t mean that method will work for you, or your students!

Communicator : 

Communicator It is imperative to communicate with others . . . Other staff (your peers) Parents Children A child’s parent is their #1 teacher . . . You, as a teacher, must partner with parents to create a positive educational experience.

Teachers are good at . . . : 

Teachers are good at . . . Explaining things, and are comfortable in doing so. Keeping their cool Love children Have common sense Have self-confidence Are prepared Listening

Slide 72: 

“The mediocre teacher tells. The good teacher explains. The superior teacher demonstrates. The great teacher inspires.”

Slide 73: 

“Believing in what you teach and teaching what you believe creates a powerful role model for our students.”

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