Slide 1: “APPAREL MANUFACTURING TECHNOLOGY” Introduction to Contents: Contents The Apparel Industry-An Introduction Classification of Knitted & Woven Fabrics Pattern Making & Grading Cutting: Lay Planning, Spreading, Marking Sewing: ( Methods & Equipments) Pressing: (Methods & Equipments) Apparel Production, Engineering Apparel Standards, Specification & Quality Control Best Management Practices Slide 3: Outerwear, innerwear, headwear. The Apparel Industry- An Introduction Sewing apparel products has always been and remains a labor-intensive activity while textile production has been a capital-intensive industry Apparel manufacturing depends much less on capital investment and more on the skill of the individual workers in the sequence of operations required in apparel production. APPAREL Classification: APPAREL INDUSTRY KNITTED & WOVEN Slide 4: APPAREL INDUSTRY APPAREL INDUSTRY: APPAREL INDUSTRY Rich natural resources The 4 th largest cotton producer Textile sector accounts for nearly 60% of total exports from Pakistan, 46% of total manufacturing produce and 38% employment of the total manufacturing labor force. It ranks 2nd in export of yarn and 3rd in export of cloth. World Clothing sector constitute almost 70% of the total world Textile trade. PAKISTAN has a meager share of 1.2% in the global apparel market and does not have even a single International Brand. PAKISTAN WHY SO ?????? APPAREL INDUSTRY-PAKISTAN: APPAREL INDUSTRY-PAKISTAN Because, Apparel manufacturing depends much less on capital investment and more on the skill of the individuals APPAREL INDUSTRY-PAKISTAN: APPAREL INDUSTRY-PAKISTAN TOTAL NUMBER OF Garment UNITS Large 600 Small 4500 TOTAL CAPACITY 685 Million PCs . Account for 20 % of the Total Exports Major Markets : EU & USA GLOBAL APPAREL SUPPLY CHAIN- A TYPICAL EXAMPLE: GLOBAL APPAREL SUPPLY CHAIN- A TYPICAL EXAMPLE OPERATION FLOW IN A GARMENT FACTORY: OPERATION FLOW IN A GARMENT FACTORY OPERATION FLOW IN A GARMENT FACTORY: OPERATION FLOW IN A GARMENT FACTORY DESIGN Design in the clothing industry means determining the shape and the cutting pattern of a garment. First a concept drawing is produced and b) Then it is actually constructed on a dummy. OPERATION FLOW IN A GARMENT FACTORY: OPERATION FLOW IN A GARMENT FACTORY PATTERN MAKING A pattern is a diagrammatic representations of the way a garment part is constructed. This forms the working plan for its manufacture. The pattern is geared towards a specific cutting system ; the objective is to develop a template for the cutting room to use . OPERATION FLOW IN A GARMENT FACTORY: OPERATION FLOW IN A GARMENT FACTORY PATTERN GRADING Grading means the stepwise increase or decrease of a Master Pattern piece to create larger or smaller sizes. The starting point can be the smallest size or the middle size. Grading refers to size increment of a design but not its general shape and appearance. OPERATION FLOW IN A GARMENT FACTORY: OPERATION FLOW IN A GARMENT FACTORY LAY PLANNING The cutting templates representing all of the individual components of a garment have to be laid out together in such a way that they fit within the confines of the fabric width as closely and efficiently as possible , in order to minimize waste. OPERATION FLOW IN A GARMENT FACTORY: SPREADING The fabric is spread out on the laying-up table according to a predetermined plan , as single ply or multi-ply ready for cutting. OPERATION FLOW IN A GARMENT FACTORY OPERATION FLOW IN A GARMENT FACTORY: OPERATION FLOW IN A GARMENT FACTORY CUTTING Cutting means to cut out the garment pieces from lays of fabric with the help of cutting templates ( markers) . Generally the marker is applied ( drawn, stuck, clipped , pinned) to the top ply of the lay . OPERATION FLOW IN A GARMENT FACTORY: OPERATION FLOW IN A GARMENT FACTORY SEWING The purpose of sewing is to assemble different parts (panels from cutting department ) into garment . This is achieved in one of the following ways: Full piece system Bundle system Unit production system . OPERATION FLOW IN A GARMENT FACTORY: OPERATION FLOW IN A GARMENT FACTORY CROPPING Cropping is done to cut protruding threads from the garment in order to give it a clean look. Cropping can be done through: Manual cropping ( using clippers ) Auto trimming machines . OPERATION FLOW IN A GARMENT FACTORY: OPERATION FLOW IN A GARMENT FACTORY PRESSING Pressing implies shaping a textile material. It makes a large contribution to the finished appearance of garments and thus attractiveness at the point of sale Pressing Operations: Under pressing Moulding Top Pressing OPERATION FLOW IN A GARMENT FACTORY: OPERATION FLOW IN A GARMENT FACTORY QUALITY ASSURANCE Quality assurance has to be integrate into every activity , from design to delivery. It spans all department and has to be driven by top management to ensure that the necessary resources are made available 3 Stages of Quality Assurance : Quality in Product Development Quality in Procurement Quality in Manufacturing Classification of Knitted & Woven Fabrics: Classification of Knitted & Woven Fabrics KNITTING Interlooping of single set of yarns either horizontal or vertical Non stable and more open structure More stretchable due to open structure Good crease recovery Due to structure and elastic behavior more comfortable to wear WEAVING Interlacing of two set of yarns Stable and close structure Stretching of fabric is solely dependant on the elasticity of yarn less crease recovery compared to knit fabric Classification of Knitted & Woven Fabrics: Classification of Knitted & Woven Fabrics Knitting contd.. Air trapped in loops insulates the human body Yarn used for knitting is softer than weaving yarn. International Standard for Knitting A3+B3+C2+D1+E+G=0 I1+I2+H2=0 H1+F=70% Cleared Classification of Knitted & Woven Fabrics: Classification of Knitted & Woven Fabrics STITCH Consists of knitted loop and yarn loop Head, Feet and Legs of Stitch Binding Points For a stitch, depending on the position of the legs at the binding points, a technical back and a technical front side is defined. If the feet of the stitches lie above the binding points, and accordingly the legs below, then this is the technical back of the stitch, BASIC KNITTED STRUCTURES BASIC KNITTED STRUCTURES: BASIC KNITTED STRUCTURES If on the other hand, the bottom half-arcs are below and the legs above, then this is the technical front of the stitch. This is called the face stitch or plain stitch, A knitted fabric is technically upright when its courses run horizontally and its Wales run vertically with the heads of the knitted loops oriented towards the top and the first course at the bottom of the fabric. TYPES OF KNITTED STRUCTURES (I) : TYPES OF KNITTED STRUCTURES (I) Depending on the geometrical arrangement of the face and reverse stitches in a knitted fabric, i.e. heads, legs and feet of stitches, the following four basic knitted structures are defined: · P lain knitted fabrics; · R ib knitted fabrics; · Purl (links-links) knitted fabrics; · Interlock knitted fabrics. Slide 25: Plain Knitted Fabrics If a weft or warp knitted fabric has one side consisting only of face stitches, and the opposite side consisting of back stitches, then it is defined as a plain knitted fabric. TYPES OF KNITTED STRUCTURES (II) TYPES OF KNITTED STRUCTURES (III): TYPES OF KNITTED STRUCTURES (III) It is also very frequently referred to as a single jersey fabric Plain knitted fabrics are produced by using one set of needles. They roll from their technical back towards the technical front at the top and lower edges. They also roll from their technical front towards the technical back at their selvedges. The structure is extensible in both lateral and longitudinal directions, but the lateral extension is twice that of the longitudinal extension. TYPES OF KNITTED STRUCTURES (IV): TYPES OF KNITTED STRUCTURES (IV) Rib knitted fabrics If on both sides of a relaxed weft or warp knitted fabric only face stitches, i.e. the legs, are visible, then it is referred to as a rib knitted fabric This is achieved by knitting with two needle systems which are placed opposite to each other. These fabrics are also known as double jersey or double face fabrics . TYPES OF KNITTED STRUCTURES (V): TYPES OF KNITTED STRUCTURES (V) When the fabric is stretched widthwise, both sides of the fabric show alternately face and reverse stitches in each course. These fabrics do not curl at their edges. The simplest rib structure is 1 x 1 rib. The longitudinal extensibility of the rib structure equals that of a plain knitted structure This gives rib structures better elastic properties widthwise than other basic knitted structures TYPES OF KNITTED STRUCTURES (VI): TYPES OF KNITTED STRUCTURES (VI) Purl knitted fabrics If on the both sides of a relaxed weft knitted fabric only reverse stitches are visible, then this is defined as a purl knitted fabric Purl fabrics are produced by meshing the stitches in neighboring courses in opposite directions by using special latch needles with two needle hooks. When the fabric is stretched lengthwise, then the face stitches are visible and once it is released, it relaxes to hide the face stitches between the courses. TYPES OF KNITTED STRUCTURES (VII): TYPES OF KNITTED STRUCTURES (VII) The structure has a large longitudinal extensibility which is largely elastic and shrinks more in the direction of Wales TYPES OF KNITTED STRUCTURES (VIII): TYPES OF KNITTED STRUCTURES (VIII) Interlock knitted fabrics These could be considered as a combination of two rib knitted structures. The reverse stitches of one rib knitted structure is covered by the face stitches of the second rib knitted structure. On both sides of the fabric, therefore, only face stitches are visible, and it is difficult to detect the reverse stitches even when the fabric is stretched widthwise. TYPES OF KNITTED STRUCTURES (IX): TYPES OF KNITTED STRUCTURES (IX) The interlock fabrics show very poor elastic properties in both directions. OTHER KNITTED STRUCTURES (I): OTHER KNITTED STRUCTURES (I) Tuck loops This is a loop that is integrated into a knitted structure without actually connecting it with the stitch immediately below it A tuck loop is characterized with an upper binding unit and with a missing lower binding unit, , i.e. it is bound only at the head. Its legs are, therefore, not restricted at their feet by the head of a stitch so that the legs can open out towards the two neighboring Wales. OTHER KNITTED STRUCTURES (II): OTHER KNITTED STRUCTURES (II) Tuck loops reduce fabric length and longitudinal elasticity The fabric width and lateral elasticity are increased. Tuck loops are employed in weft and warp knitting for patterning and/or to influence its elastic behavior and to vary the area density and the size of the fabric. In warp knitting, the equivalent of the tuck loop is the fall-plate or Henkel lap. OTHER KNITTED STRUCTURES (III): OTHER KNITTED STRUCTURES (III) Generally, the tuck loop in warp knitted fabrics has the appearance of diagonally running yarns in which the loops hang in the feet of the stitches. OTHER KNITTED STRUCTURES (IV): OTHER KNITTED STRUCTURES (IV) Floats A float is a piece of yarn limited by stitches which, in weft knitting, floats over Wales. A float is generated when a stitch is missed out of a knitted structure, and does not pass through the stitch below nor connect with the subsequent stitch. The extensibility of the fabric is reduced. Floats are created during jacquard knitting. OTHER KNITTED STRUCTURES (V): OTHER KNITTED STRUCTURES (V) Selvedge stitches The selvedge of a weft knitted fabric is made by selvedge stitches. In these the yarn coming out of the last stitch of a course goes back through the same stitch and proceeds to the next course.