applicationsof rfid over plc for smartgrid


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Applications of RFID Over Power Line for Smart Grid.:

Applications of RFID Over Power Line for Smart Grid.

Introduction : :

Introduction : Power line communication (PLC) is a communication technology proposed as an integration service system on electric power networks for the transmission of information (voice, images, and data). This technology does not involve any installation costs or any special maintenance, because the existing cables of the power line are used. The operating rules of PLC systems can be summarized as follows: a high frequency signal is injected into a power line with a coupling device. Current electricity grid Turns into Smart grid

Why plc ?:

Why plc ? 60%+ homes have Internet access 10% broadband Inaccessible and costly PLC = No new wires: Emerging Technology Use of Power grid for communication Extensive infrastructure "Every" building

What is RFID ?:

What is RFID ? RFID (Radio Frequency IDentification) or contactless IC card technology is widely used throughout the world. With its high-security system, it is used in a wide variety of ways such as cashless payments [1], ticketing systems for public transportation [2], and residential door keys. Today, whether at train stations or in convenience stores, we can see people enjoying the ease of making payments simply by holding an IC card over a reader/writer. RFID over Power Line is the applied technology of conventional RFID, NFC (Near Field Communication), or contactless IC card. It is also Power Line Communication transferring high frequency signals of RFID over power line to detect appliances which are connected to the electrical grid and to pick up their encrypted data as shown in Figure .

Architecture of RFID over power line ::

Architecture of RFID over power line : RFID over Power Line system consists of at least one Smart Strip with reader/writer and one or more appliances with ID data in their IC chips. A. Smart Strip : A diagram of our prototype of Smart Strip is shown in Figure. The reader/writer module (UF-S956S (WS)) is adopted in it. Specifications of the reader/writer are shown in Table . The antenna is removed, and RF output/input port is connected to the power line via coupling circuit. Smart Strip contains a power meter, relay, and a communications unit. Smart Strip makes a real-time measurement of power consumption and records the data with ID information of the connected apparatus. As the result, even if the connection status of apparatus changes, Smart Strip recognizes it automatically, and can acquire the data about which device consumed how much power, when, and where for each connected apparatus .

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B. Integration of RFID chips in appliances : RFID inside appliances contains two parts: one is an integrated circuit (IC) for storing and processing information, modulating and demodulating radio-frequency (RF) signals; the other is a coupling circuit to receive and transfer RF signals over power line and avoid IC damage from high voltages. The coupling circuits for Smart Strip and appliances are shown in Figure 4. They consist of a primary resonance circuit, a secondary resonance circuit, and a band-pass filter. Each resonance circuit is designed to meet the following resonance condition (1) and (2). The resonance frequency is 13.56MHz. is the inductance of the first coil, and is the inductance of the second coil of the coupled inductors. The capacitance can be omitted when RFID tag chip or contactless IC card chip includes it. In order to avoid the IC from being damaged by low frequency / high voltage power supplies, the band-pass filter is needed, and it is designed to meet (3).

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FeliCa Lite (RC-S965) IC chip is used in the prototype as RFID tag chip. The RC-S965 supports Type 3 tag operation, as defined by the NFC Forum [7]. Specifications of RC-S965 are shown in Table II. FeliCa IC chip can handle the data called SE (Secure Element) which is the core information of mobile payments. The data includes a credit card number, history of the electricity usage (and payment), the appliance’s (or personal) identification ID, coupons, and the rewarded card information, in other words, all the data of consumers. Using an embedded SE in the appliances increase customer privacy, at the same time providing the necessary level of accessibility for installation and technical services.

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C. Operation : Smart Strip turns off the relay, does not output power and sends polling signal in the power line in standby state. Once the plug of the appliance is inserted into the outlet, Smart Strip identifies it, turns on the relay inside, and begins to measure the power consumption. Smart Energy Gateway collects the data from Smart Strip and shows current and historical energy consumption on GUI display. When the appliance is taken away from Smart Strip, i.e. when the reader/writer cannot recognize the ID data anymore, Smart Strip turns off the relay and stops the power measurement. The services using the consumer’s data stored on SE can be realized as follows. It can provide secure and convenient pre- payment of electricity and other utilities. It is possible that some memory space for SE is leased to other suppliers such as credit card companies, electric companies, and electric appliance retail stores. In such case, the appliance makers will receive the rent. Various added services built on SE may generate substantial profits. Analysis of the usage history and cooperation with the life log may bring meaningful information for advertisers and retail stores, and increase their sales. Establishing revenue sharing from these types of schemes will be a new business model.

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D. Structural advantages for wider adoption : • Low cost and short development time are needed to build RFID over Power Line system in order to use the existing RFID IC chips, reader/writer, and authentication/payment network. RFID systems have already been widely adopted. ICs have become small and low cost enough to be installed into any electrical device. The RFID over Power Line System can be used with previous infrastructures such as the FeliCa Ports and software development products. •Any effect on other wireless systems is limited because the RFID over Power Line system only uses a single carrier of 13.56MHz. In addition, appliances are passive devices just like contactless IC cards, therefore, they do not emit microwave signal on their own. •No preset is needed for installation, i.e. “Plug and Play” is accomplished.


APPLICATIONS OF RFID OVER POWER LINE : A. Security gate of Smart Grid : The electrical outlets with the security gate only allow membership appliances to use the electricity. If RFID over Power Line technology is adopted in the outlet for EV (Electric Vehicle) charging, the outlet authenticates the car via charging cable, and then the internal relay turns on and starts charging the battery of the pre-registered EV. If the car is not authenticated, the relay remains being off, and the EV cannot charge its battery. Car theft is a major problem in many countries. RFID over Power Line system is also useful for vehicle registration and law enforcement. ID information read through the charging cable can help detect and retrieve stolen cars.

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B. Automatic output power control of electrical outlet : Appliances or EV can hold specification information about their power supply (frequency, voltage, availability for fast charge system, and so on) in their IC chips. At first, Smart Strip turns off an internal relay and does not output electricity. When appliances are connected to Smart Strip, it consults their specification by RFID over Power Line technology. According to the information, Smart Strips automatically arranges the output power by voltage and frequency transformer, then turns on the internal switch and begins to supply the power. Through the charging cable, the history of the EV battery charging can be written in the IC embedded in the EV. When the charging cable is connected to the charging stand, it reads the records and estimates the current state of the battery, and then controls the output power from the charger to be able to charge under optimal conditions.

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C. Payment and ticketing for EV : IC chip in an EV holds e-money. When the car is parked at the parking lot, the only one thing the owner of the car should do is to connect a cable to the charging stand and charge the battery. A measurement of the parking time begins when the connection is detected; the electric bill and parking fee are paid through a charging cable from e-money automatically depending on the amount of the electricity consumed and parking time. At a membership charging stand, only the EV which has e-ticket in their IC chip can use the electricity. The e-ticket is distributed in offices, hospitals, and stores for their parking lot.

PowerPoint Presentation:

Concepts of RFID over Power Line technology have been introduced, which opens up new possibilities for Smart Grid featuring small cost and short development time. Examples of applications of RFID over Power Line technology; security gate of Smart Grid; automatic output power control of electrical outlet; payment and ticketing for EV, have been shown and discussed. Finally, test measurement data has been introduced from the regulatory point of view of RFID and PLC in Japan. The difference between “conventional RFID” and “RFID over Power Line” consists of the way to transfer the RF signal. Conventional RFID sends data wirelessly by means of an antenna, whereas RFID over Power Line transfers data via power line without an antenna. Both of them can use the same IC, reader/writer module, an identification/payment network. By using existing RFID technology on power line, easily installable and highly reliable communications are realized in Smart Grid.The system will enable secure bi-directional communications between appliances and consumers, as well as between appliances and utilities. Cost-effective RFID over Power Line solutions tailored specifically for electricity market needs can also be implemented enabling secure pre-payment via power line for personal energy management.

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