Factors affecting acclimatization and establishment of tissue cultured

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WELCOME:

WELCOME

TOPIC: Factors affecting acclimatization and establishment of tissue cultured plant in soil :

TOPIC : Factors affecting acclimatization and establishment of tissue cultured plant in soil SUBMITTED TO… Dr. Navdeep singh jamwal Submitted by… Ganesh Roll.no. =071 course = B.Sc agri.(crop production) Paper code = AU.PBG.477 Title = plant tissue culture

Acclimatization:

Acclimatization Acclimatization  is the process in which an individual adjusts to a change in environment  (temperature, humidity, photoperiod , pH) allowing it to maintain performance across a range of environmental conditions. Acclimatization occurs in a short period of time (hours to weeks), and within the organism's lifetime (compared to  adaptation, which is a development that takes place over many generations).

Methodes.:

Methodes . 1.Bio chemical. 2.morphological To maintain performance across a range of environmental conditions, there are several strategies organisms use to acclimate. In response to changes in temperature, organisms can change the biochemistry of cell membrane making them more fluid in cold temperatures and less fluid in warm temperatures by increasing the number of membrane proteins. Organisms are able to change several characteristics relating to their morphology in order to maintain performance in novel environments. Examples may include changing of skin color or pattern to allow for efficient thermoregulation or a change in body size of offspring as a result of low food levels in the ecosystem.

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A substantial number of micro propagated plants do not survive transfer from in vitro conditions to greenhouse or field environment. The greenhouse and field have substantially lower relative humidity, higher light level and septic environment that are stressful to micro propagated plants compared to in vitro conditions.

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The benefit of any micro propagation system can, however, only be fully realized by the successful transfer of plantlets from tissue-culture vessels to the ambient conditions found ex vitro. Most species grown in vitro require an acclimatization process in order to ensure that sufficient number of plants survive and grow vigorously when transferred to soil.

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Acclimatization of micropropagated plants to the soil has not fully been studied. Transplantation stage continues to be a major bottleneck in the micropropagation of many plants. Plantlets grown in vitro have been continuously exposed to a unique microenvironment that has been selected to provide minimal stress and optimum conditions for plant multiplication. Plantlets developed within the culture under low level of light, aseptic conditions, on a medium containing sample sugar and nutrients to allow for growth and in high level of humidity. Culture-induced phenotype that cannot survive the environmental conditions when directly placed in a greenhouse or field. Physiological and anatomical characteristics of micropropagated plantlets necessitate that they should be gradually acclimatized to the environment of the greenhouse or field.

Importance Sugar in medium :

Importance Sugar in medium Sucrose may also influence secondary metabolism in cell and organ culture. Increasing the concentration of sugar in the medium might maximize the nutrient function of persistent leaves To some extent, this strategy has been discounted as apt to heighten evapotranspiration losses in transplants . Sucrose concentration of 40 g/l prior to transferring shown to maximize the dry weight of established plantlets. Rooting is an energy-consuming process and hence level of carbon source is desired. The difference in their specific requirement for media might be due to genotypic effect. Root initiation in apple was decreased proportionately with decreasing sucrose level and shoots without sucrose did not survive after transferring to greenhouse George and Sherrington had drawn the conclusion that for optimal growth and multiplication, 2–4% sucrose was found to be optimum

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Simultaneous rooting and acclimatization…. Many commercial laboratories do not root micro cutting in vitro , because it is labour-intensive and expensive. The process of rooting in vitro has been estimated to account for approximately 35 to 75% of the total cost of micro propagation.

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