INTEGRATED FARMING SYSTEMS

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1 Integrated farming systems What is it? Farming system approach envisages the integration of agroforestry, horticulture, dairy, sheep and goat rearing, fishery, poultry, pigeon, biogas, mushroom, sericulture and by-product utilization of crops with the main goal of increasing the income and standard of living of small and marginal farmers. Integrated systems are about bringing crops and livestock into an interactive relationship with the expectation that together, as opposed to alone, they will generate positive effects on outcomes of interest, such as profitability overall productivity, and conservation of non-renewable resources. It is, however, much more than this. The “system” includes the environment, soil characteristics, landscape positions, genetics, and ecology of plant and animals. It involves management practices, goals and lifestyles of humans, social constraints, economic opportunities, marketing strategies and externalities including energy supplies and costs and impacts of farm policies. Systems also reflect natural resources available and the impact on their use, wildlife issues, target and non-target plant and animal species, micro-organisms, and indeed all of the definable and indefinable factors that ultimately interact to result in an outcome that is never constant. [Source : Allen et al., 2007]

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2 Why Integrated Farming Systems? Aims Increased productivity Profitability Sustainability Balanced food Clean environment Recycling of resources Income round the year Adoption of new technology Solving energy crises Fuel and fodder crises Avoiding deforestation Increased employment generation Input-output efficiency Enhanced opportunity for agriculture oriented industries and standard of living of the farmers [Source : Gill, 2008]

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3 Objectives of integrated farming systems To identify existing farming systems in specific area and assess their relative viability; To formulate farming system models involving main and allied enter­prises for different farming situations; To ensure optional utilization and conservation of available resources and effective recycling of farm residues within system; To maintain sustainable production system without damaging resources base environment and To raise overall profitability of farm household by complementing main allied enterprises with each other. Contd……

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4 Analysis of existing farming systems in terms of resource use efficiency, production and productivity, income, employment and sustainability across different agro-climatic zones. Evaluation and identification of farming system through participatory approach that ensures threshold level of income for the livelihood security. Development and evaluation of synergic effects and their actions associated with different farming systems. Developing appropriate institutional and market linkage including value addition for enhancing sustainability. Imparting training and capacity building of various stakeholders on IFS. Contd……

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5 Role of integrated farming system IFS approach as a biophysical and socio-economic capsule has immense potential to address instability of income, food and nutritional insecurity, unemployment, vulnerability and poverty of farmers as well as landless laborers.

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6 Goal of Integrated Farming Systems The goals of IFS are maximization of yield of all component enterprises to provide steady and stable In­come rejuvenation/amelioration of system’s productivity and achieve agro-ecological equilibrium.

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7 Components of IFS The components IFS include: Agriculture Fish farming Horticulture Duck rearing Forestry Pigeon rearing Mushroom cultivation Sericulture Azolla farming Dairy Kitchen gardening Poultry Fodder production Goat rearing Nursery Sheep rearing Seed production Piggery Vermiculture The different IFS are: crop-live­stock - forestry farming system, crop-fish-poultry farming system and crop-livestock-poultry-fishery farming system,

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8 Rice + Fish Fish only Fish only Nilembium + Fish Proposed Model of IFS at Shalimar Campus Division of Agronomy

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9 Treatments: S1 = Rice cultivation with fresh water irrigation S2 = Rice cultivation with fish pond water irrigation S3 = Rice cultivation with fish pond + mushroom, water irrigation S4 = Rice cultivation with fish pond + poultry, water irrigation Treatment application method : S1 = Rice crop as per recommended practice S2 = Rice crop as per recommended practice and irrigation water comes through fish pond. Rice straw and bran put in the fish pond for fish feed and recycling of crop residue nutrient to rice crop. S3 = Rice crop as per recommended practice and irrigation water comes through fish pond. Use of rice straw for mushroom production and rice bran and spent mushroom compost put in the fish pond for fish feed and recycling of crop residue nutrient along with spent mushroom compost to rice crop. S4 = Rice crop as per recommended practice and irrigated through fish pond. Use of rice bran for poultry feed and rice bran and straw put in the fish pond for fish feed and recycling of crop residue nutrient along with poultry excreta to rice crop.

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10 Scope of farming system Farm as a unit is to be considered and planned for effective integration of the enterprises to be combined with crop production activity. Integration of farm enterprises depends on many factors such as, Soil and climatic features of the selected area. Availability of the resources, land, labour and capital. Present level of utilization of resources Economics of proposed integrated farming system. Managerial skill of the farmer Integration of different agriculturally related enterprises with crop activity as base, will provide ways to recycle produces and waste materials of one component as input through another linked component to bring in improvement in soil health and reduce the cost of production of the products which will finally raise the total income of the farm.

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11 Choice of enterprise The basic points that are to be considered while choosing appropriate enterprise in Integrated farming system (IFS) are: Soil and climatic features of an area/locality Resource availability with the farmer Present level of utilization of resources Return/income from the existing farming system Economics of proposed integrated farming system Farmer's managerial skill Social customs prevailing in the locality Contd…

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12 With a view to mitigate risks and uncertainties of income from crop enterprises and to reduce the time lag between investment and returns it is essential that farmers include multi-enterprises in their production programme that yield regular and evenly distributed income throughout the year and are not subjected to vagaries of nature. The choice of a components in a farming system must ensure that interaction among the components is complementary with least competitiveness. Contd…….

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13 IFS-expected outcome Enhanced income Employment generation Nutrient recycling Alternate land use options Agrisilvicultural system – lesser risk Agri-horticultural system – higher income Silvi/hortipastural system - improved) sustainability IFS - solution to energy and fodder crisis Solve energy crisis Solve fodder crisis Solve fuel and timber crisis Avoid degradation of forests Integrated farming systems (Expected outcome)

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14 Advantages of integrated farming system approach Pooling and sharing of resources / input. Efficient use of family labour. Conservation , preservation and utilization of farm biomass including non conventional feed and fodder resource. Effective use of organics, regulation of soil fertility and soil health. Income and employment generation for many people Increase in economic status by utilization of under –utilized resources in an efficient and remunerative manner.

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15 Size of farming system The choice and size of farming system varies from place to place depending on the agro-climatic conditions, suitability of the enterprise to the location, availability of inputs and marketing facilities.

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16 Livelihood food security of an Indian family through Integrated Farming System Approach at PDCSR, Modipuram [Source : Singh et al., 2008] Total additional revenue generated (Av.Rs./year) after meeting food and fodder demands of the family 130622

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17 System Approach Careful exploitation of agro-biodiversity involving crops and species requires proper identification of varieties and other management practices including processing and value addition to fully harness the potential. Diversification of crops with the use of possible biodiversity will not only enhance the returns but also bring in sustainability besides preserving valuable biota as compared to monocropping.

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18 Flow chart showing holistic nature of integrated farming approach [Source: Gill, 2008]

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19 COST RETURN AND EMPLOYMENT POTENTIAL (MAN DAYS) UNDER DIFFERENT MIXED FARMING SYSTEMS Source: Tiwari et al., 1999 *MF, Mixed Farming

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20 Sunnhemp-a suitable green manure crop in coconut gardensPlace: ICAR Research Complex Goa [Source : Korikanthimath et al., 2008]

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21 High density cropping in coconut with banana, pineapple and pepper

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22 Intercropping of forage grasses and legumes in coconut

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23 Integrated coconut based farming systems studies at Goa Coconut Variety : Benaulim Spacing : 7.5 x 7.5 m Age : 12 years Intercrops Forage grasses : Hybrid Napiers, Guinea and Setaria Forage legumes : Centrosema pubiscens Integrated enterprise Dairy : Jersey x Sindhi crosses Bio gas unit Composting of coconut waste [Source: Korikanthimath et al., 2008]

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24 Integration of dairy with coconut is more profitable and employment generative [Source: Korikanthimath et al., 2008]

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25 Net returns from integrated coconut based farming systems [Source: Korikanthimath et al., 2008]

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26 Distribution of space under different enterprises, excess production and gross return per hectare (Estimated) Price: R+W, 1200; P, 20; O, 16; F, 40; M, 16; V, 2.50 Pro : R, 43; W, 42; P, 10+12.5+12.5; O, 20; F, 40; V, 95 x 3; M, 2500 x 2 LUE: 80-90% [Source: Gil, 2008]

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27 Productivity of Integrated Systems Rice-brinjal + mushroom + poultry integrated system recorded the highest total system productivity (21,487 kg rice grain equivalent yield) followed by rice-cowpea + mushroom + poultry integrated system (18,027 kg rice grain equivalent yield). The contribution of poultry component in these systems was to an extent of 28 to 34 per cent to the total system productivity. Inclusion of mushroom production in the system enhanced the productivity of these systems by 20 and 23 per cent, respectively, indicating the superiority of integrating poultry with rice based cropping systems. The crop contribution towards the mean system productivity ranged from 33 to 52 per cent. Highest contribution was from the rice-brinjal system due to its higher productivity. Rice-cowpea system contributed 43 per cent to the total system productivity. [Source: Korikanthimath et al., 2008]

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28 Rice grown under recycled mushroom spent substrate with paddy straw Integration of mushroom and rice

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29 Recycled paddy straw with mushroom spent substrate was found better over no recycled manure in retaining more moisture (7.70 and 6.69 cm. of soil moisture in top 30 cm. depth, respectively). The depletion of soil moisture was found faster during December–January period as compared to later months. Only recycled poultry manure treatment was able to retain more moisture (4.28 cm.) in the surface layer (0-15 cm depth) compared to sub surface layer (4.18 cm). Effect of paddy straw with Mushroom spent substrate (MSS) [Source: Korikanthimath et al., 2008]

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30 Economics of Integrated Farming Systems The pooled mean economic analysis of the integrated systems indicated that rice-brinjal with mushroom and poultry recorded higher gross returns (Rs.1,60,195/ha) as well as net returns (Rs.77,305/ha) although the cost of production was relatively higher (Rs.82,890/ha). The system also recorded a moderate benefit-cost ratio (0.93) with better per day net return (Rs. 204/day).

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31 Economics of Integrated Farming Systems [Source: Korikanthimath et al., 2008]

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32 Expected outcome/impact/deliverables Enhancement of production, quality products, resource base, market led farming, value addition, supply chain, farm profits, reduced transaction costs, post harvest losses. Improvement in farm level decision making, better gender participation, empowerment. Institutionalization of IFS approaches, linkage with development programs. Emergence of local groups as future service providers to promote the practice and process in the wider geographic locations. Provision platforms to community to further upgrade farming system in accordance to changed driving forces (bio-physical and socio-economical). Improvement in productivity, reduction in cost of production, increased profits to stakeholders, sustained adoption of technologies, gainful employment, income, food consumption, access to credit, market, management practices, GAP. Improved capacity building, preparedness to face challenges. Improvement in the economic status of disadvantaged group. Increased equity in income, resource holdings, social status and participation of rural households, and improved opportunities for women, female children and others who are traditionally excluded from mainstream development.

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33 Stability through IFS IFS involving diversified components such as agriculture, horticulture, forestry and animal husbandry have been proved to be economically viable, technically feasible, environmentally sustainable and socially acceptable.

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34 Agroforestry/Agri-horticulture It meets the human needs of food, fuel, fodder, timber and pesticides (eg. neem). It provides sustainable income with low cost of cultivation and returns are higher as compared to any cropping system involving only annual crops. It controls soil erosion and improves soil fertility and productivity by regular leaf fall and tapping the nutrients from lower regions of the soil. It very well adjusts with any vagaries of nature. Efficient use of erratic rainfall is possible by trees. Trees act as resting place for birds, which are relatively beneficial for agriculture, since harm done by birds is more than compensated by their action for control of insect pests. Shade created by trees is beneficial in raising certain shade loving crops and horticulture nursery and for vermiculture.

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35 Farming system model at ICAR institute for NEH region UMIAM AGRI-HORTI-SILVIPASTORAL MODEL

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36 Integrated fish based farming systems [Source : S. Matsui

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37 Fodder and poplar grown on pond embankments

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38 Hedgerow intercropping with maize - guava

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39 Example of an integrated farming system whichcombines rice cultivation, animal husbandry,aquaculture and horticulture (S. Matsui).

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40 Thermophilic anaerobic digestion (TAnD) and integrated farming is a new agricultural ecosystem. TAnD converts animal waste into useful resources including biogas (65% methane and 35% carbon dioxide) energy, nutrients for aquaculture and bio-fertilizer for horticultural produce.

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41 Influence of biogas slurry and cattle shed washings on fish production (kg) in 0.008 ha pond

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42 Influence of biogas slurry and cattle shed washings on economics of fish production

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43 Recycling of waste through vermi-compost

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44 Recycling of coffee pulp as feed for fish

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45 Cashew apple waste – a suitable ingredient for animal feed

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46 Cashew apple waste contains Dry matter- 18 % Crude protein-11 %, Crude fibre - 8.5 % At 20 % replacement of maize by CAW reduced the feed cost by Rs1.43/- for production of 1 Kg body weight gain in dual type backyard poultry, Vanaraja. It is suggested from this the present study that CAW could replace up to 20 % maize in the diet of vanaraja chicks without any adverse effect on their performance.

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47 Quantification of recyclable manurial resources from rice based farming systems. At ICAR Research Complex Goa [Source : Korikanthimath et al., 2008

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48 Net returns of rice based integrated farming systems R – Rice S – Sunnhemp G – Groundnut P – Poultry C – Cowpea M – Mushroom B – Brinjal [Source : Korikanthimath et al., 2008

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49 Comparison of different mixed farming systems

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50 Economics of integrated farming system (IFS) and crop cultivation alone [Sourced : Kumaresan et al., 2008]

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51 Integrated farming systems project management and economics of integrated forage animal production systems USDA [Source: Bryant, 2007]

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52 Constraints There are certain constraints like : Heavy investment in the initial stage, especially for the procurement of enter­prises, Involvement of multi-disciplinary activities likes animal husbandry, fishery, sericulture, horticulture, for­estry, agricultural engineering etc., Non-availability of improved cultivars/ varieties/ breeds of livestock at farms site, Lack of know-how especially on the constituents of feed and the possibility of supplementing from their own produces with cheaper rate and Lack of marketing for the produces from different enterprises at village level are anticipated in the progress of this technology.

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53 Future Thrust Areas on IFS There is a need to study the sustainability of the identified systems under different topographical situations in the long run including high value crops. There is a further need to study the nutrient dynamics of soil with continuous cropping and recycling of manurial resources with different systems over time. Modeling of the identified farming system options to suit a given agro-climatic and socio-economic situation. There is need to identify the constraints in adoption of identified farming systems by the farmers for further refinement.

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54 Development/refinement of research methodologies and analytical tools suited for farming system research and analysis using on-farm databases Participatory technology development including varietal improvement On farm value addition through vertical integration and post harvest processing Creation of databases on Integrated Farming System for different agro-climatic conditions Integration in terms of by product utilization, value addition, post harvest management and marketing Cataloguing and utilization of ITK concepts in the development of farming system modules Soil health aspects and nutrient flow in farming system Farming system development for the poorest and landless based on common property resource management Whole farm analysis for household nutritional and income security, and gainful employment for women folk and rural youth Future Researchable Issues in IFS

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55 Conclusion Efficient utilization of scarce and costly resources is the need of the hour to make crop production a viable proposition in the present day competitive scenario. Following the concept of Integrated farming systems through supplementation of allied agro-enterprises by recycling the waste of one enterprise in another is a right step in this direction. The crop residues and biomass available in plenty in the crop production system need to be properly managed to harness full benefits. Improving the fertilizer use efficiency with integrated approach not only enhances farm income but also overcomes environmental pollution. Contd….

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56 The crisis for shortage of water has already begun in many regions.Better utilization of this scarce resource will bring in more dividends in the long run. Availability of energy for crop production is becoming constraint and adding lot of expenditure for the farm management. A better planning and utilization of the available resources will usher in bright prospects for the farm economy as a whole. Contd….

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57 Thanks