ANTI-VIRAL AND ANTI-HIV DRUGS

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ANTI-VIRAL AND ANTI-HIV DRUGS turmeric, tulsi, neem, papaya

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ANTI-VIRAL AND ANTI-HIV DRUGS:

ANTI-VIRAL AND ANTI-HIV DRUGS By: A.M. Naseefa JSSCP , MYSORE

TURMERIC:

TURMERIC BOTANICAL SOURCE: Turmeric consists of the dried rhizome of Curcuma longa belonging to the family Zingiberaceae. Geographical sorce: the drug is cultivated in tropical Asia and Africa especially in India, west pakistan, Common Name: Termeric (english, Haldi (Hindi), Halad (Marathi),Haridra, Aushadhi, Gouri, and Kanchani in Sanskrit. Chemical Constituents: Curcumin (diferuloylmethane), a polyphenol compound responsible for the bright yellow color of turmeric, is believed to be the principal pharmacological agent. It is prepared from the roots of Curcuma longa. In addition to curcumin, turmeric contains the curcuminoids atlantone, bisdemethoxycurcumin, demethoxycurcumin, diaryl heptanoids, and tumerone. Turmeric also contains sesquiterpenoids and the constituent ar-tumerone. Other constituents include sugars, resins, proteins, vitamins, and minerals (including iron and potassium). AZEEZ. MYMOONA. NASEEFA. JSSCP ,MYSORE

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Anti-bacterial effect: both curcumin and oil fraction suppress growth of several bacteria like Streptococcus, Staphylococcus, Lactobacillus etc . The ethyl acetate extract of Curcuma longa L. has demonstrated a higher antibacterial activity than the methanol extract or water extract . Curcumin also prevents growth of H.pylori. Anti-fungal effect: Ether and Chloroform extracts and oil of Curcuma longa have antifungal effect. Turmeric oil is also active against Aspergillus flavus , Aspergillus parasiticus, Fusarium moniliforme,and Penicillium digitatum. Anti-protozoan activity: ethanol extracts of rhizomes has anti-Entamoeba histolytica activity. anti-Plasmodium falciparum and anti-Leishmania are the major effects of curcumin. Anti-viral effect: Curcumin also have antiviral activity. It acts as an efficient inhibitor of Epstien-Barr virus (EBV). It also shows anti-HIV activity by inhibiting the HIV-1 integrase needed for viral replication. It also inhibits UV light induced HIV gene expression. Thus curcumin and its analogues may have the potential for novel drug development against HIV. AZEEZ. MYMOONA. NASEEFA. JSSCP ,MYSORE

Uses of Turmeric: :

Uses of Turmeric : In digestion, poor circulation, cough, amenorrhea, pharyngitis toothache, chest pain, blood urine, hemorrhage, skin disorders, diabetes, arthritis, anemia, wounds. Turmeric applied locally to relieve inflammation and pain. Turmeric acts on the imbalanced processes of digestion, metabolism and nutrition (Jatarangi Level) and restores the normal function of the gastro intestinal system. It is also considered to have excellent natural antibiotic and antibacterial actions. It not only purifies the blood (Rakta dhatu shuddhi), but also warms it and stimulates formation of new blood tissue (Rakta dhatu vardhaka). AZEEZ. MYMOONA. NASEEFA. JSSCP ,MYSORE

TURMERIC:

TURMERIC AZEEZ. MYMOONA. NASEEFA. JSSCP ,MYSORE

Tulsi:

Tulsi BOTANICAL SOURCE: it consists of the leaves of Ocimum sanctum belonging to the family Labiatae. Common name: Holy basil, Tulsi (Hindi, Tamil, Telugu), Trittavu (Malayalam), Tulshi(Marathi). Varieties of Tulsi Krishna Tulsi (Ocimum sanctum) Rama Tulsi (Ocimum sanctum), Vana Tulsi (Ocimum gratissimum) Chemical Constituents: Leaves contain 0.7% volatile oil. Volatile oil contains about 71% eugenol and 20% methyl eugenol. The oil contains carvacrol and sesquiterpene hydrocarbon caryophyllene. A variety of biologically active compounds have been isolated from the leaves including ursolic acid, apigenin and luteolin. AZEEZ. MYMOONA. NASEEFA. JSSCP ,MYSORE

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Antimicrobial effects: Essential oil of Tulsi have antibacterial,antifungal and antiviral properties.It inhibites the growthof E coli, B.anthracis, M.tuberculosis etc. It's antitubercular activity is one-tenth the potency of streptomycin and one-fourth that of isoniazid. Antimalarial effects: Essential oil of Tulsi has been reported to possess 100% larvicidal activity against the Culex mosquitoes. Trials have shown excellent antimalarial activity of Tulsi. It's extracts have marked incecticidal activity against mosquitoes.It's repellant action lasts for about two hours Antiallergic and Immunomodulator effects: Essential oil of Tulsi was found to have anti-allergic properties. When administered to laboratory animals, the compound was found to inhibit mast cell degranulation and histamine release in the presence of allergen. These studies reveal the potential role of Ocimum sanctum extracts in the management of immunological disorders including allergies and asthma. AZEEZ. MYMOONA. NASEEFA. JSSCP ,MYSORE

Uses: :

Uses: Tulsi has very potent germicidal, fungicidal, anti-bacterial and anti-biotic properties that are great for resolving fevers., Tulsi reduces blood glucose levels. Thus it is useful for diabetics. Tulsi reduces total cholesterol levels. Thus it is useful for heart disease patients.Tulsi also reduces blood pressure . Tulsi is useful in the treatment of respiratory system disorders. A decoction of the leaves, with honey and ginger is an effective remedy for bronchitis, asthma, influenza, cough and cold. AZEEZ. MYMOONA. NASEEFA. JSSCP ,MYSORE

Tulsi:

Tulsi AZEEZ. MYMOONA. NASEEFA. JSSCP ,MYSORE

Neem:

Neem BOTANICAL SOURCE: it consists of dried leaves of Azadirachta indica belong to the family Meliaceae. Geographical sorce: India, Nepal, Pakistan, Bangladesh and Sri Lanka. Typically growing in tropical and semi-tropical regions. Neem trees now also grow in islands in the southern part of Iran. AZEEZ. MYMOONA. NASEEFA. JSSCP ,MYSORE

Chemical Constituents::

Chemical Constituents: There are many active compounds found in the neem tree. The most common ones are: Azadirachtin: Provides repellant, anti-hormonal and anti-feedant properties Nimbin: Provides anti-inflammatory, anti-pyretic, antihistamine and antifungal properties Nimbidin: Provides antibacterial, anti-ulcer, analgesic, anti-arrhythmic and antifungal properties Nimbidol: Provides anti-tubercular, anti-protozoan and antipyretic properties Sodium nimbinate: Provides diuretic, spermicidal and anti-arthritic properties Gedunin: Provides vasodilator, anti-malaria and antifungal properties Salannin: Provides repellant properties Quercetin: Provides anti-protozoal, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and antibacterial properties . Neem seed oil contains the major concentrations of theses active compounds alongwith many fatty acids like oleic acid, stearic acid, palmitic acid, linoleic acid, etc.. Lesser amounts of these active compounds are also found in neem leaves and bark . AZEEZ. MYMOONA. NASEEFA. JSSCP ,MYSORE

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Antibacterial activity: Oil from the leaves, seed and bark possesses a wide spectrum of antibacterial action against Gram-negative and Gram-positive microorganisms, including M. tuberculosis and streptomycin resistant strains. In vitro, it inhibits Vibrio cholerae Klebsiella pneumoniae, M. tuberculosis and M. pyogenes. Antimicrobial effects of neem extract have been demonstrated against Streptococcus mutans and S. faecalis. Antiviral activity: Aqueous leaf extract offers antiviral activity against Vaccinia virus, Chikungunya and measles virus. Antimalarial effects: Gedunin has been reported as the antimalarial agent of Azadirachta indica. Researchers have found that azadirachtin and selected semi-synthetic derivatives block the development of the motile male malarial gamete in vitro. Antimicrobial effect: NIM-76, a spermicidal fraction obtained from neem oil, may directly inactivate a virus versus preventing viral replication, as it did not inhibit viral multiplication once the infection was present. NIM-76 stimulated cellular mediated immunity and lymphocyte proliferation, which may contribute to its antimicrobial effects. AZEEZ. MYMOONA. NASEEFA. JSSCP ,MYSORE

Uses: :

Uses: Some research suggests that taking 30-60 mg of neem bark extract twice daily for 10 weeks seems to help heal stomach and intestinal ulcers. • Fever. • Upset stomach. • Breathing conditions. • Malaria. • Worms. • Head lice. • Skin conditions and diseases. • Heart disease. • Diabetes. • Birth control (contraception) AZEEZ. MYMOONA. NASEEFA. JSSCP ,MYSORE

Papaya:

Papaya BOTANICAL SOURCE: Papaya fruit and the enzyme papain are obtained from Carica papaya belong to the family Cariaceae Scientific Name(s): Carica papaya. Family: Caricaceae Common Name(s): Papaya , papaw , pawpaw , papaya , papayer , pepol . Chemical Constituents: fruit’s pulp contains a caoutchouc like substance, a soft yellow resin, fat, albuminoid, a digestive enzyme called papain also called papayotin. It also contains sugar, pectin,citric, tartaric and malic acids and dextrin. AZEEZ. MYMOONA. NASEEFA. JSSCP ,MYSORE

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Anthelmintic activity Carica papaya contains proven anthelmintic chemical agents such as benzyl isothiocyanate and papain. However, papain is unstable in the presence of digestive juices, which may account for its lack of efficacy as an anthelmintic in clinical studies. Benzyl isothiocyanate is therefore considered to be the chief or sole anthelmintic in papaya seed extracts. Other antiparasitic/antiprotozoal activity Animal data C. papaya has documented activity against protozoa in addition to intestinal parasites in animal models.These include antiamebic, antitrichomonal, antimalarial, and leishmanicidal properties. Antimicrobial activity Papaya may exert a proteolytic effect on bacteria resulting from the production of a coagulum that immobilizes microorganisms and protects the host against bacterial infections. In addition, papaya may improve the efficiency of phagocytic cells that destroy bacteria. Papaya also contains the alkaloid, carpaine, which has antibacterial properties. In laboratory tests, extracts from skin, flesh, and seeds of both ripe and unripe papaya showed in vitro antibacterial activity against several microorganisms, i ncluding Bacillus cereus , Bacillus subtilis , Enterobacter cloacae , Escherichia coli , Klebsiella pneumoniae , Proteus vulgaris , Pseudomonas aeruginosa , Salmonella typhi , Shigella flexneri , and Staphylococcus aureus . AZEEZ. MYMOONA. NASEEFA. JSSCP ,MYSORE

Uses::

Uses: papaya has a wide range of purported medicinal properties including antiseptic, antimicrobial, antiparasitic, anti-inflammatory,antihypertensive, diuretic,antihyperlipidemic, antidiabetic, and contraceptive activity. there is some evidence for use in healing decubitus ulcers and other wounds and in treating intestinal worms in humans. Cholesterol & Papaya- As it is a fruit that is rich in fiber it lowers blood cholesterol levels. It contains enzymes that help prevent oxidization of cholesterol, which in return helps to prevent heart-attacks. Anti-ageing & Papaya- The antioxidants in papaya help in controlling premature ageing. This quality of the papaya helps you to get a younger look. AZEEZ. MYMOONA. NASEEFA. JSSCP ,MYSORE

Uses::

Uses: Intestinal Worms & Papaya- The seeds of papaya too possess medicinal properties. They are very good in treating intestinal worms in the body. Constipation & Papaya- Papaya helps in preventing constipation and aids in digestion. The enzyme papain is a digestive enzyme that helps in natural digestion. Colon & Papaya- Its juice helps in curing infections of the colon by clearing the pus and mucus from it. You need to take it regularly to heal quickly. Weight Loss & Papaya- It is low in calories and high in nutritional values. Hence, it is a good food for those who want to lose some weight. AZEEZ. MYMOONA. NASEEFA. JSSCP ,MYSORE

Papaya:

Papaya AZEEZ. MYMOONA. NASEEFA. JSSCP ,MYSORE

REFERENCE::

REFERENCE: Textbook of Pharmacognosy sixteenth edition J.S.QADRY. www.sigmaaldrich.com www.power-of-turmeric.com/mechanism-of-action.html ayurveda-foryou.com www.drugs.com AZEEZ. MYMOONA. NASEEFA. JSSCP ,MYSORE

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AZEEZ. MYMOONA. NASEEFA. JSSCP ,MYSORE

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