MIS - enhancing decision making

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12 Chapter Enhancing Decision Making By: Devendra Parshva Dharmishta Pooja N.

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LEARNING OBJECTIVES Management Information Systems Chapter 12 Enhancing Decision Making Decision Making Types of decision and its requirement at different level. Stages of decision making Managerial Roles Kinds of system in decision support MIS DSS – Components, Model, types. GDSS ESS Conclusion

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Decision making is the developing concepts leading to the selection of a course of action among variations. Every decision making process produces a final choice, It can be an action or an opinion. It begins when we need to do something but we do not know what e.g. Decision to raise a Purchase Order Management Information Systems Chapter 12 Enhancing Decision Making What is Decision making??

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Decision Making and Information Systems Business value of improved decision making Improving hundreds of thousands of “small” decisions adds up to large annual value for the business Types of decisions: Unstructured: Decision maker must provide judgment, evaluation, and insight to solve problem Structured: Repetitive and routine; involve definite procedure for handling so they do not have to be treated each time as new Semistructured: Only part of problem has clear-cut answer provided by accepted procedure Management Information Systems Chapter 12 Enhancing Decision Making

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Decision Making and Information Systems Senior managers: Make many unstructured decisions E.g., Should we enter a new market? Middle managers: Make more structured decisions but these may include unstructured components E.g., Why is order fulfillment report showing decline in Minneapolis? Operational managers, rank and file employees Make more structured decisions E.g., Does customer meet criteria for credit? Management Information Systems Chapter 12 Enhancing Decision Making

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Information Requirements of Key Decision-Making Groups in a Firm Figure 12-1 Senior managers, middle managers, operational managers, and employees have different types of decisions and information requirements. Decision Making and Information Systems Management Information Systems Chapter 12 Enhancing Decision Making

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Decision Making and Information Systems F our stages of decision making Intelligence Discovering, identifying, and understanding the problems occurring in the organization Design Identifying and exploring solutions to the problem Choice Choosing among solution alternatives Implementation Making chosen alternative work and continuing to monitor how well solution is working Management Information Systems Chapter 12 Enhancing Decision Making

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Stages in Decision Making Figure 12-2 The decision-making process is broken down into four stages. Decision Making and Information Systems Management Information Systems Chapter 12 Enhancing Decision Making

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Decision Making and Information Systems Information systems can only assist in some of the roles played by managers Classical model of management Five functions of managers Planning, organizing, coordinating, deciding, and controlling More contemporary behavioral models Actual behavior of managers appears to be less systematic, more informal, less reflective, more reactive, and less well organized than in classical model Mintzberg’s behavioral model of managers defines 10 managerial roles falling into 3 categories Management Information Systems Chapter 12 Enhancing Decision Making

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Decision Making and Information Systems Mintzberg’s 10 managerial roles Interpersonal roles: Figurehead Leader Liaison Informational roles: Nerve center Disseminator Spokesperson Decisional roles: Entrepreneur Disturbance handler Resource allocator Negotiator Management Information Systems Chapter 12 Enhancing Decision Making

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Decision Making and Information Systems Three main reasons why i nvestments in information technology do not always produce positive results Information quality High-quality decisions require high-quality information Management filters Managers have selective attention and have variety of biases that reject information that does not conform to prior conceptions Organizational culture Strong forces within organizations resist making decisions calling for major change Management Information Systems Chapter 12 Enhancing Decision Making

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Systems for Decision Support Four kinds of systems for decision support Management information systems (MIS) Decision support systems (DSS) Executive support systems (ESS) Group decision support systems (GDSS) Management Information Systems Chapter 12 Enhancing Decision Making

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Systems for Decision Support Management information systems (MIS) Help managers monitor and control business by providing information on firm’s performance and address structured problems Typically produce fixed, regularly scheduled reports based on data from TPS E.g., exception reports : Highlighting exceptional conditions, such as sales quotas below anticipated level E.g., California Pizza Kitchen MIS For each restaurant, compares amount of ingredients used per ordered menu item to predefined portion measurements and identifies restaurants with out-of-line portions Management Information Systems Chapter 12 Enhancing Decision Making

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Systems for Decision Support Decision-support systems (DSS) Support unstructured and semistructured decisions Model-driven DSS Earliest DSS were heavily model-driven E.g., voyage-estimating DSS (Chapter 2) Data-driven DSS Some contemporary DSS are data-driven Use OLAP and data mining to analyze large pools of data E.g., business intelligence applications (Chapter 6) Management Information Systems Chapter 12 Enhancing Decision Making

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Systems for Decision Support Components of DSS Database Used for query and analysis Current or historical data from number of applications or groups May be small database or large data warehouse User interface Often a Web interface Software system With models, data mining, other analytical tools Management Information Systems Chapter 12 Enhancing Decision Making

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Overview of a Decision-Support System Figure 12-3 The main components of the DSS are the DSS database, the user interface, and the DSS software system. The DSS database may be a small database residing on a PC or a large data warehouse. Systems for Decision Support Management Information Systems Chapter 12 Enhancing Decision Making

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Systems for Decision Support Model: Abstract representation that illustrates components or relationships of phenomenon; may be physical, mathematical, or verbal model Statistical models Optimization models Forecasting models Sensitivity analysis models Management Information Systems Chapter 12 Enhancing Decision Making

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Sensitivity Analysis Figure 12-4 This table displays the results of a sensitivity analysis of the effect of changing the sales price of a necktie and the cost per unit on the product’s break-even point. It answers the question, “What happens to the break-even point if the sales price and the cost to make each unit increase or decrease?” Systems for Decision Support Management Information Systems Chapter 12 Enhancing Decision Making

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Systems for Decision Support Using spreadsheet pivot tables to support decision making Records of online transactions can be analyzed using Excel Where do most customers come from? Where are average purchases higher? What time of day do people buy? What kinds of ads work best? Pivot table : Categorizes and summarizes data very quickly Displays two or more dimensions of data in a convenient format Management Information Systems Chapter 12 Enhancing Decision Making

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Sample List of Transactions for Online Management Training Figure 12-5 This list shows a portion of the order transactions for Online Management Training Inc. (OMT Inc.) on October 28, 2008. Systems for Decision Support Management Information Systems Chapter 12 Enhancing Decision Making

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A Pivot Table that Determines Regional Distribution of Customers Figure 12-6 This PivotTable report was created using Excel 2007 to quickly produce a table showing the relationship between region and number of customers Systems for Decision Support Management Information Systems Chapter 12 Enhancing Decision Making

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A Pivot Table that Examines Customer Regional Distribution and Advertising Source Figure 12-7 In this pivot table, we are able to examine where customers come from in terms of region and advertising source. It appears nearly 30 percent of the customers respond to e-mail campaigns, and there are some regional variations Systems for Decision Support Management Information Systems Chapter 12 Enhancing Decision Making

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Systems for Decision Support Data visualization tools: H elp users see patterns and relationships in large amounts of data that would be difficult to discern if data were presented as traditional lists of text Geographic information systems (GIS): Category of DSS that use data visualization technology to analyze and display data in form of digitized maps Used for decisions that require knowledge about geographic distribution of people or other resources, e.g.: Helping local governments calculate emergency response times to natural disasters Help retail chains identify profitable new store locations Management Information Systems Chapter 12 Enhancing Decision Making

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South Carolina used a GIS-based program called HAZUS to estimate and map the regional damage and losses resulting from an earthquake of a given location and intensity. HAZUS estimates the degree and geographic extent of earthquake damage across the state based on inputs of building use, type, and construction materials. The GIS helps the state plan for natural hazards mitigation and response. Systems for Decision Support Management Information Systems Chapter 12 Enhancing Decision Making

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Systems for Decision Support Web-based customer decision-support systems (CDSS): S upport decision-making process of existing or potential customer Use Web information resources and capabilities for interactivity and personalization to help users select products and services E.g., search engines, intelligent agents, online catalogs, Web directories, newsgroup discussions, other tools Automobile companies that use CDSS to allow Web site visitors to configure desired car Financial services companies with Web-based asset-management tools for customers Management Information Systems Chapter 12 Enhancing Decision Making

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Group decision support systems (GDSS) Interactive system to facilitate solution of unstructured problems by group of decision makers Hardware – computer and networking hardware, overhead projectors, display screens GDSS software collects, documents, ranks, edits and stores participant ideas, responses May require facilitator and staff Enables increasing meeting size and increasing productivity Promotes collaborative atmosphere, guaranteeing anonymity Follow structured methods for organizing and evaluating ideas and preserving meeting results Management Information Systems Chapter 12 Enhancing Decision Making Systems for Decision Support

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Executive Support Systems (ESS) Executive support systems (ESS) Designed to help executives focus on important performance indications Balanced scorecard method: Measures outcomes on four dimensions: Financial Business process Customer Learning & growth Key performance indicators (KPIs) measure each dimension In developing an ESS, first concern is for senior executives and consultants to develop scorecard and then to automate flow of information for each KPI Management Information Systems Chapter 12 Enhancing Decision Making

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Executive Support Systems (ESS) Role of ESS in the firm Used by both executives and subordinates Drill-down capability: Ability to move from summary information to finer levels of detail Integrate data from different functional systems for firmwide view Incorporate external data, e.g. stock market news, competitor information, industry trends, legislative action Include tools for modeling and analysis Primarily for status, comparison information about performance Management Information Systems Chapter 12 Enhancing Decision Making

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Executive Support Systems (ESS) Business value of executive support systems E nables executive to review more data in less time with greater clarity than paper-based systems Needed actions identified and carried out earlier Improves management performance Increases upper management’s span of control Also enables decision making to be decentralized and take place at lower operating levels Increases executives’ ability to monitor activities of lower units reporting to them Management Information Systems Chapter 12 Enhancing Decision Making

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Executive Support Systems (ESS) National Life M arkets life insurance, health insurance, and retirement/investment products executive information system Executive information system: Allows senior managers to access corporate databases through Web interface Shows premium dollars by salesperson Authorized users can drill down into these data to see product, agent, and client for each sale Data can be examined by region, by product, and by broker, and accessed for monthly, quarterly, and annual time periods Management Information Systems Chapter 12 Enhancing Decision Making

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Executive Support Systems (ESS) Pharmacia Corporation: Global pharmaceutical firm Spends $2 million on research and development annually Balanced scorecard shows: Performance of U.S. or European clinical operations in relation to corporate objectives Attrition rate of new compounds under study Number of patents in clinical trials How funds allocated for research are being spent Management Information Systems Chapter 12 Enhancing Decision Making

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Case Study

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Technology Renault Speeds up Delivery with a new DSS

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Management Does Compstat reduce crime??

Conclusion ::

Conclusion : Decision Making Types of decision and its requirement at different level. Stages of decision making Managerial Roles Kinds of system in decision support MIS DSS – Components, Model, types. GDSS ESS Case Study

Bibliography ::

Bibliography : www.Slideshare.com MIS by Kenneth C. Laudon and Jane P. Laudon

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All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted, in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise, without the prior written permission of the publisher. Printed in the United States of America. Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall

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Queries

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Thank You

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