English Grammer-1

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Content Development Programme English Grammar : 

Content Development Programme English Grammar DEVLOGIX, HYDERABAD

Chapterisation : 

Chapterisation I. The Sentence Vocabulary Synonyms Antonyms Tenses Parts of speech The Auxiliaries Direct and Indirect speech Letters Speaking skills

The sentence : 

The sentence There are four different kinds of sentences 1). Assertive or Declarative sentence Ex. a. He is a good cricketer b. His name is Amarnath 2. Imperative sentence (Commands and Requests) a. Shut the door b. Please get me a glass of water 3. Exclamatory sentence (!) (wishes) What a fool he is! b. What a pity you couldn’t come! 4. Interrogative sentence (?) (Questions) a. Have you done your home work? b) Did you not hear the bell?

Parts of speech : 

Parts of speech Sentences, clauses and phrases are made of words. According to their nature and function in the sentence, words are divided into the following eight classes called parts of speech. 1. Noun 2. pronoun 3. Adjective 4. Verb 5. Adverb 6.Preposition 7. Conjunction 8.Interjection

Slide 5: 

1) Noun : A noun may be defined as the name of a person, place or thing. a). Concrete noun: Names of persons or things that we can touch and see. Ex: Mohan, table, water, crowd, gold. Concrete nouns can be sub-divided into four groups 1. Proper nouns (Govind,Akbar,John,Delhi, Everest, Africa) 2. Common nouns ( Boy, king, river, mountain, tree, chair, cow) 3. Collective nouns (a crowd of people, a team of players, a flock of sheep) 4. Material nouns (gold, silver, clay, stone, wood, cotton, iron, wool) b). Abstract noun: Names of things that we can only think of, but cannot touch or see. Ex: Patience, beauty, death, youth, pleasure.

Slide 6: 

2). Pronoun: Pronoun is word that is used in the placed of a noun. Ex: I, We, She, He, It, They : There are nine kinds of pronouns Personal Pronoun Reflexive Pronoun Emphatic Pronoun Demonstrative Pronoun Indefinite Pronoun Interrogative Pronoun Distributive Pronoun Reciprocal Pronoun Relative Pronoun

Slide 7: 

3). Verb: A verb is a word that describes an action. Ex: Write, Read, Work, Watch, Play. Verbs are of two kinds: Transitive and Intransitive verbs 4). Adverb: Adverbs tell you more about verbs. Ex: Quick - quickly Bad - badly Angry - angrily

Slide 8: 

5). Adjectives: Adjective tell you more about nouns. Ex: It is a small rabbit it is a big mouse it is a young monkey Adjectives are six kinds 1. Adjective of quality 2. Adjectives of quantity 3. Adjectives of number 4. Demonstrative Adjective 5. Distributive Adjective 6. Interrogative Adjective 6). Preposition: Preposition of place describe or indicate the position of a thing, a person or an animal Preposition are two kinds, 1). Preposition of place 2). Preposition of time Eg: on , in, at, between, under, beside, over, across (place) I was born in 1982 (time) My bike is beside the shop ( place)

Slide 9: 

7. Conjunction: Conjunction are used to connect two phrases, two sentences or two clauses. Ex: And, but, because, as , therefore, so-that Rama and Laxmana are brothers He worked hard but failed in the exams 8). Interjection: It is an exclamatory word, denoting some sudden feelings Ex: wow!, Harrah!, oh!, ouch! 1. Alas! The child is dead 2. Hurrah! The school team had won the match.

Articles : 

Articles 1). A, An - Indefinite 2). The - definite an - should be before vowel sounds a - should be before consonant sounds Ex: an egg an elephant a picture an apple an onion a chair The - news papers holy books unique mountains

Tenses-kinds : 

Tenses-kinds Present 1. Indefinite 2. Continuous 3. Perfect Perfect continuous Past 1. Indefinite Continuous Perfect Perfect continuous Future Indefinite Continuous Perfect Perfect continuous

Simple Present : 

Simple Present Structure: Subject+verb+object Definition: It denotes habitual actions, hobby, daily events, universal truths, scientific laws, quotations, proverbs. Ex: I drink water we drink water He drinks water They drink water

Present Continuous : 

Present Continuous Structure: Subject + is,am,are+ ing + Verb 1 + object Definition: A tense that describes an ongoing action in the present. Ex: I am watching television we are watching television She is watching television They are watching television

Present Perfect : 

Present Perfect Structure: Sub+have/ has +Verb3+object Definition: It denotes an action as having completed in the present Ex: I have written a novel we have written a novel He has written a novel They have stolen money

Present Perfect continuous : 

Present Perfect continuous Structure: Sub+have/has been+ing+V1+object Definition: It denotes an action which is started in the past and continuing to the present. Ex: It has been raining for a week They have been discussing since Monday He has been studying since 9’o’ clock Raju has been painting the wall for 1 hour

Simple past : 

Simple past Structure: Subject/Verb2/object Definition: It denotes an action which is started in the past and completed in the past. Ex: He found a pen last night They sold the apple last week She met his friends this morning we made a chair this evening

Past continuous : 

Past continuous Structure: Subject/was+were/Verb1/ing form Definition: It denotes the idea that both actions were happening at the same time Ex: 1. When she was cooking, her brother came. 2. What were you doing while you were waiting?

Past perfect tense : 

Past perfect tense Structure: Subject+ had+Verb2+object Definition: It indicate that one action occurred before another action in the past. Ex: 1. They had taken a pen before I went to the shop. 2. I had left the office before you called. 3. She had cried for half an hour before her brother came. 4. When I woke up this morning, my roommate had left already. 5. Before I arrived at the theater, the movie had already begun.

Past perfect continuous tense : 

Past perfect continuous tense Structure: Subject + had been+Verb1+ing +time Definition: It denotes a past action which is in progress before some second action happened in the past. Ex: 1. He was late because he had been playing cricket. 2. when they appointed him, he had been suffering from fever 3. when I met him yesterday, he had been learning Tamil for six months.

Simple Future : 

Simple Future Structure: Sub+will/shall+V1+object Definition: It denotes an action which is going to take place in future. Ex: 1. I will make tea for you 2. I shall fetch some water 3. I will meet her this evening 4. you will attend the party tomorrow.

Slide 21: 

Direct and Indirect Speech We can report what a person says in two ways. Look at the following sentences: Ex: 1. Mohan said, ‘I want to become a doctor.’ (Direct) 2.Mohan said that he wanted to become a doctor. (Indirect) Rules for Changing Direct into Indirect Speech All Present Tenses of the direct are changed into their corresponding past forms in the Indirect: For example: Is, am become was; Are becomes were; Has, have become had; Can becomes could; May becomes might; Shall becomes should, will becomes would.

Slide 22: 

Simple present changed into the simple past: Direct: The boy said, ‘ I like sweets.’ Indirect: The boy said that he liked sweets. The Present Continuous is changed into the Past Continuous: Direct: He said, ‘I am buying a new pen.’ Indirect: He said that he was buying a new pen. The Present Perfect - Past Perfect: Direct: He said, ‘ I have read this novel.’ Indirect: He said that he had read that novel. The Present Perfect continuous - Past Perfect Continuous: Direct: He said, ‘ I have been waiting here for a long time.’ Indirect: he said that he had been waiting there for a long time. The simple past in the direct sometimes remains unchanged in the indirect, and sometimes is changed into the Past Perfect: Direct: He said,' I bought a house in New Delhi.’ Indirect: He said he had bought a house in New Delhi.

Slide 23: 

The Past Continuous - Past Perfect Continuous: Direct: He said, ‘Sudhir was swimming in the pool.’ Indirect: He said that Sudhir had been swimming in the pool. First and Second Persons in the Direct are changed into the Third Person in the Indirect: Direct: He said, “ I shall pay your wages tomorrow.’ Indirect: He said that he would pay his wages the next day. If person addressed reports the speech himself, then the Second Person is changed into the first. Direct: He said to me, ‘You alone can save her.’ Indirect: He told me that I alone could save her.

THE AUXILIARIES : 

THE AUXILIARIES An Auxiliary Verb is one which helps other verbs to form other Tenses than the simple Present or Past. The following are the Auxiliary verbs : Be and its form : am, is, are, was, were. Have and its forms: has , had. Do and its form: does, did. Shall - should; will - would. Can - could; may - might. Must - ought; need - dare.

Slide 25: 

Ex: 1.The cow is eating grass. 2.I am writing a novel. 3. The Germans were marching into Belgium. 4. He has done wrong. 5. They have worked very hard. 6. He did not come in time. He will come. He shall come. He can come . He may come. He must come. He ought to come. He need not come. He dare not come.

LETTERS : 

LETTERS Three kinds of letters Personal Letter 2. Social Letter 3. Business Letter All letters contain four elements. The date and Address A Salutation or Greeting The body of the letter 4. The Signature

Slide 27: 

Formal Letter Eg: Address: The return address should be written in the top right-hand corner of the letter. The address of the person you are writing to: The inside address should be written on the left, Starting below your address. Date: You can write this on the right or the left on the line after the address. A Salutation: 1. Dear Sir o r Madam (or) 2. Dear Mr. Kumar The body of the letter: Opening paragraph Paragraph-2 Paragraph-3 Closing paragraph Ending a letter: 1). Yours faithfully: (Do not know the name of the person) 2). Yours sincerely: (Know the name of the person) 3). Your signature.

Slide 28: 

Thank you

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