satellite communication

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Slide 1:

SATELLITE COMMUNICATION (APPLICABLE TO INDIAN RAILWAYS) A technical seminar report submitted to JNTU KAKINADA UNIVERSITY In the partial fulfillment of requirement in degree of Bachelor of Technology In Electronics and Communication Engineering Submitted by S . NARESH BABU(07F01A04A3) Under the Esteemed Guidance of K.VASU BABU,M.Tech. Assistant Professor. St.ANN’S COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING ANDTECHNOLOGY CHIRALA Department of Electronics and Communication Engineering .

Introduction: :

Introduction: Indian Railways is having the world’s largest railway network. The leading nations have the separate rail lines for the goods and for the passenger trains but not practiced in India. There are a large number of the accidents that are happening in which many lives are lost and also huge loss of the railway and the national property.

Slide 3:

Most of the accidents occur due to negligence, technical faults non-reliable data and late understanding and slow or no response towards the danger signs. Thus there is need to develop the sensitive Guard Rooms, Cabins, Stations, Control Rooms and many other units. There is also need to deploy the auto-alert and auto-control systems.

Principle And Working: :

Principle And Working: The main principle used for the safety of the Indian Railways is that whenever a train will move over the track there will be vibrations that will be created on the track. These vibrations are dependent on the speed of the train, load or the weight of the train. These vibrations travel long distances because of one the metal tracks and the other reason is the connection of these tracks by means of the fish plates.

Slide 5:

There will be microphones on the tracks such that they will constantly note the vibrations that are coming from the train. The vibrations that will be coming from the train will depend on the different factors as well as the distance of the sensor from the moving train. There will be a software that will convert these vibrations in such a form that they can be compared with the already existing data of the database.

G.P.S. (Global Positioning System): :

G.P.S. (Global Positioning System): The GPS is a world wide network radionavigation system formed from a constellation of minimum of the 24 satellites which are 60 degrees equally spaced and their ground stations. GPS uses the artificial satellites to compute the position of the receiver in terms of the four coordinates that is X, Y, Z and time by using the triangulation method. These are inclined at 55 degrees to the equatorial plane.

Slide 7:

This arrangement makes it possible that the receiver is always in range at least 5 satellites. These ground stations also maintain the clock of the satellite and on the earth and if necessary they can make suitable changes while the satellite is in the orbit.

Slide 8:

The main function is to get the interconnectivity of the various points like the position and speed of the train and respond to the signals that are picked up by the sensors and send the signals to the Train Drivers and the Guards of the Train. Ground Stations containing the network of the Cabins, Station Masters, Control Rooms and all the related points on the ground. Thus giving all the details of the train in a very much understandable and visual form.

Slide 9:

The signals that are picked up by the satellites will be then processed and checked for any kind of the faulty situations by simply comparing the signals using the Software and the DBMS. This will help the Drivers, Station Masters, Cabin men and many other to operate the traffic of the trains with ease and this will also help in the communication of all the units (stationary and moving).

Current Uses Of The GPS: :

Current Uses Of The GPS: 1. Rescue missions on the open sea. 2. Military operations. 3. In the forests and tourist places. 4. In the mobile phones. 5. Navigation in the Open Sea.

Microphone Sensors: :

Microphone Sensors: This will be the most critical selection of the unit of the network. When a train moves there are huge amount of the vibrations or the noises are created that are possible to get recognized from a large distances (every one knows the childhood game to know whether a train is coming the children place their ears on the tracks). Thus with the advanced form of the microphones we can note down these vibrations on the track and are compared with the standard values.

Fibre Optic Wires: :

Fibre Optic Wires: These are the latest advances made for the transfer of the data and the signals with the speed that is nearly equal to the speed of the light. These are required to transfer the data that is collected from the sensors to the Networking Of G.P.S., Sensors And Software Systems With The D.B.M.S. there respective places in the network that is needed to be developed by the railways.

Software And DBMS: :

Software And DBMS: Software is the programs that can perform some tasks that are assigned to them. The DBMS is the Data Base Management System which can store a huge amount of the data in them. The main purpose of the software is to convert the vibration noted by the sensors and convert it into some graphical or some other form that can be used to store the details of the train in the DBMS.

Slide 14:

The DBMS will contain many details of the vibrations or the signals that are observed under good conditions from the various analyses done on the trains according to there weight and distance from the sensors. Software is to compare the vibrations that are produced by the train with the data that is stored in the DBMS.

On-board Unit with GPS and Wireless Communications: :

On-board Unit with GPS and Wireless Communications: This unit consists of communication satellite antennae, satellite positioning antennae, the on-board receiver system and communication interface devices, etc. The on-board unit can continuously measure different parameters, tag the data with time and position information, reports irregular conditions. The train driver’s cabin must be such that the driver will come to know about the track, weather, bridges and constructional status in advance.

Important Establishments: :

Important Establishments: 1. Need of the towers for the transfer of the details and the communication between other establishments, trains and the satellites. 2. A visual display system to show the actual position of the trains along with other details like visual and audio warning systems. 3. Receivers and the transmitters tuned to proper frequencies and in accordance to the network.

Transmitter & Receiver: :

Transmitter & Receiver: Main allocations 5.925 to 6.425 GHz (for uplink) & 3.700 to 4.200 GHz ( fordownlink ). The Range of the Train’s device will be 25-75 Km (as per the requirements and the system integration). which may change as per the advancements that are made and the system requirements .

System Integration: :

System Integration : After the components will be fabricated then these will be integrated to perform the required and proposed functions. This will help the Indian Railways for a very longtime.

Slide 20:

Implementation Problems : The implementation time is large because of the training and system integration. The cost may seem high to some non technocrats. Expected Benefits To The Indian Railways: 1. Railway Safety. 2. Automation in the Work. 3. Reduction in the Stress Levels. 4. Time Delays: As every time the position of the train will be known. 5. Train Traffic Control: due to continuous monitoring. 6. Futuristic method: with this method it is possible to make fully automatic train network which may even not have the driver in it.

Conclusion: :

Conclusion: This method is having good expected results The project can also work for a very large time period and is having good expected results. Thus the proposal should be considered for the most important transport system in India and for the safety the costliest ‘human life’ and the national property

References: :

References: 1. Satellite Communication by “Charles W. Bostian & Timothy Pratt” 2. Electronic Communication Systems by “George Kennedy & Bernard Davis” 3.www.trimble.com 4.www.discoveryindia.com 5.www.irsuggestions.org