Cement

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Field tests for cement, manufacturing of cement and types of cement.

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JK Lakshmipat University

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Acknowledgement I sincerely acknowledge my gratefulness to Mr. Vinod Kumar VishwakarmaSir for his guidance, supervision and assistance in completion of my work.

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CEMENT

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Typical cement ingredients   Cement ingredients – * Calcium Oxide (Lime)  * Silicon Dioxide (Silica)  * Aluminium Oxide (Alumina)  * Calcium Sulphate  * Iron Oxide  * Magnesium Oxide  * Sulphate  * Alkalis

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Calcium Oxide:  It is the main ingredient of cement. 61% to 67% of the mass of cement is Calcium Oxide. it is expressed by CaO . In general, we know the calcium Oxide as lime.  Function:  It makes cement sound and provides strength to cement. Silicon dioxide:  It is also a major ingredient of cement. It is known as silica. It holds 19-23% of cement mass. It is chemically expressed by SiO 2 .  Function:  The function of silica is also to give strength to cement. Aluminium oxide:   It is called alumina. The chemical name of it is AI 2 O 3 . Cement contains 2%-6% alumina of its mass.  Function:  It adds quick-setting property to cement. Functions Of Cement Ingredients

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Calcium Sulphate:  It's chemical name is CaSO 4 . Function:  It helps to increase the initial setting time of cement. Iron Oxide:  It is also called Ferric Oxide. Cement has 0.5%-6% iron oxide of its mass. Iron Oxide's chemical name is Fe 2 O 3 .  Function:  It provides colour and hardness to cement. It also provides some strength to cement.  Magnesium Oxide:  Magnesium Oxide is expressed by MgO . It also provides colour and hardness to cement.  Sulphate:  It is also called Sulphur. It holds 1.5%-4% of the mass of cement. The chemical name of Sulphur is S.  Function:  A very small quantity of Sulphur in the cement makes it (Cement) sound.  Alkalis:  A very small quantity of this may present in the cement.

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Interlocking of 3D network Dense network of hydrated crystals Hydration Of Cement

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Manufacturing Of O rdinary Cement (Dry Process)

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Field Tests For Cement

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Specifications Of Ordinary Cement Specifications? Ordinary Portland Cement Requirement of IS:8112:1989 Test Results Fineness (cm2/ gm ) Specific Surface 2,250 minimum 3,000-3,300 Setting Time (minutes) Initial 30 minimum 90-115 Final 600 minimum 165-165 Compressive Strength (kg/cm 2 ) (Cement: sand mortar cubes) 3 days 230 minimum 330-390 7 days 330 minimum 430-460 28 days 430 minimum 510-570

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Varieties of Cement Acid-resistant cement: The acid-resistant cement is used for acid-resistant and heat-resistant coatings of installations of chemical industry. It is not water-resistant and it fails when attacked by water or weak acids. By adding 0.50% of linseed oil or 2% of ceresit , its resistance to the water and it is then known as acid and water resistant cement. Blast furnace cement: The slag is a waste product in the manufacturing process of pig iron in blast furnace and it contains the basic elements of cement, namely, alumina, lime and silica. It proves to be economical as slag, which is a waste product, is used in its manufacture. This cement is durable, but not suitable for use in dry arid zones.

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Colored Cement: The cement of desired color may be obtained by intimately mixing mineral pigments with ordinary cement. The chromium oxide gives green color. The cobalt imparts blue color. The iron oxide in different proportions gives brown, red or yellow color. The manganese dioxide is used to produce black or brown colored cement. Expanding Cement: This type of cement is produced by adding an expanding medium like sulpho -aluminate and a stabilizing agent to the ordinary cement. Hence this cement expands whereas other cements shrink. The expanding cement is used for the construction of water retaining structures and also for repairing the damaged concrete surfaces.

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High Alumina cement: High-alumina cement is a rapid-hardening cement made by fusing at 1,500 to 1,600 °C (2,730 to 2,910 °F) a mixture of bauxite and limestone in a reverberatory or electric furnace or in a rotary kiln. High-alumina cement gains a high proportion of its ultimate strength within 24 hours and has a high resistance to chemical attack. It also can be used in refractory linings for furnaces. A white form of the cement, containing minimal proportions of iron oxide and silica, has outstanding refractory properties. Hydrophobic Cement: Hydrophobic cement is obtained by grinding portland cement clinker with a film-forming substance such as oleic acid in order to reduce the rate of deterioration when the cement is stored under unfavourable conditions . Its strength after 28 days is equal to that of ordinary Portland cement. When hydrophobic cement is used, the fine pores in concrete are uniformly distributed and thus the frost resistance and the water resistance of such concrete are considerably increased.

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Low heat cement: In order to reduce the amount of heat produced during the setting action of cement, this type of cement is used. This cement possesses less compressive strength. The initial setting time is about one hour and final setting time is about 10 hours. It is mainly used in mass concrete structures such as dams, retaining walls, bridge abutment etc. where hydration causes rise in temperature in concrete mass and may develop thermal and shrinkage cracks. Pozzuolana cement: The pozzuolana is a volcanic powder. It resembles surkhi which is prepared by burning bricks made from ordinary soils. The percentage of pozzuolana material should be between 10 to 30. It evolves less heat during setting, is cheaper, possesses higher tensile strength and also offers great resistance to the expansion. It has disadvantages too, i.e. , its compressive strength in early days is less and it possesses less resistance to the erosion and weathering action.

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Quick setting cement: This cement is produced by adding a small percentage of aluminium sulphate , reducing gypsum and other retarders and finely grinding the cement. The setting action of cement starts within 5 minutes after adding of water and it becomes hard like stone in less than 30 minutes or so. This cement is used to lay concrete under static or running water. Rapid hardening cement: The initial and final setting times of this cement are same as those of OPC but it attains high strength in early days as it contains high percentage of tricalcium silicate C 3 S . This cement has advantages like It Is light in weight. It is not damaged easily. This cement requires short period of curing. As it sets rapidly, the construction work may be carried out speedily.

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Sulphate resisting cement: Ordinary Portland Cement is susceptible to the attack of sulphate resulting in expansion or disruption of the set concrete occurs. It is a cement with low C 3 A content and comparatively low C 4 AF content. It is used in marine construction, canal linings, sewage treatment worker, foundations and basements where soil contains sulphate . White Cement: This is just a variety OPC and it is prepared from such raw materials which are practically free from coloring oxides of iron, manganese or chromium. For burning of this cement, the oil fuel is used instead of coal. It is used for floor finish, plaster work, ornamental work, swimming pools etc. It should not set earlier than 30 minutes. It should be carefully transported and stored in closed containers only. It is more costly than OPC because of specific requirements imposed upon the raw materials and the manufacturing process.

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MADE BY- NAMAN SUKHIJA 2012BTECHCE 013

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BIBLIOGRAPHY www.google.com Building Materials- Rangwala www.allaboutconstruction.com www.wikipedia.org http :// www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/101833/cement/76652/Slag-cements#toc76653 http://www.youtube.com/watch?feature=player_detailpage&v=f_YnylDTpo4

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