kyoto protocol and cdm


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Contents Global warming: causes and effects Kyoto Protocol: facts, figures, targets, worldwide participation and mechanisms devised. CDM: concept, steps, methodologies, registration, additionality, baseline and issuance of CERs

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Global warming

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Green House Gases Carbon Dioxide Methane Nitrous Oxide Hydro fluorocarbons Per fluorocarbons Sulfur Hexafluoride Nitrogen Oxides Carbon monoxide Non Methane Volatile Organic Compounds (NMVOCs) Direct GHG Indirect GHG

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Effects of Global Warming Rise in temperature Increase in sea level Increase in floods, draughts and other such natural calamities Fluctuations in the pattern of flora and fauna

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Effects of Global Warming

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Effects of Global Warming

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Effects of Global Warming

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Need to check on GHG emissions!

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Need to check on GHG emissions! From the Stern Report: “The impacts of climate change are already being felt and, if GHG emissions are not curbed, could soon become catastrophic” “The cost of doing nothing could reach 20% of gross global product by mid century, with conservative estimates suggesting at least 5%; resulting in the worst economic depression in modern history” From the IPCC: “The understanding of anthropogenic warming and cooling influences on climate has improved since the Third Assessment Report (TAR), leading to very high confidence that the globally averaged net effect of human activities since 1750 has been one of warming” “Warming of the climate system is unequivocal, as is now evident from observations of increases in global average air and ocean temperatures, widespread melting of snow and ice, and rising global average sea level” Unites States Secretary of Energy Samuel Bodman: “Human activity is contributing to changes in the Earth's climate. That issue is no longer up for debate''

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Instances where the globe united to fight Climate Change 1. United Nations Conference on Human Environment (1972) 2. Vienna Convention for Protection of Ozone Layer (1985) 3. Montreal Protocol (1985) 4. Intergovernmental Panel for Climate Change (1988) 5. United Nations Conference on Environment and Development (1992) 6. Conference of the Parties to the UNFCCC (from 1995) 7. Kyoto Protocol (1997) 8. Marrakesh Accord (2001) 9. World Summit On Sustainable Development (2002) 10. Global Environment Facility (GEF) 11. Prototype Carbon Fund, World Bank (2002)

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UNFCCC • Ultimate objective of stabilizing global greenhouse gas concentrations in the atmosphere • Developed countries (Annex I countries) aim to restore GHG emissions to 1990 levels • Support capacity building in, and facilitate technology transfer to developing countries to mitigate, and to adapt to climate change • Meet as a “Conference of Parties” annually, to monitor progress

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History of Kyoto Protocol IPCC “Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change” formed 1988 UNFCCC enters into force- Aspirational objectives, no specific targets or timeframes 1994

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Why Kyoto Protocol?? “ global problems need…. …global solutions”

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Kyoto Protocol – Basic Facts The Kyoto Protocol of 1997 is a treaty between Governments. It places a cap on the emissions of six different greenhouse gases of industrialised countries The Kyoto Protocol defined three innovative “flexibility mechanisms” to lower the overall costs of achieving its emissions targets. The Kyoto Protocol entered into force on 16 February 2005. It is now an legally binding instrument of international law Currently negotiations are taking place about a post-2012 regime

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38 Developed countries and economies in transition (Annex 1) agreed to reduce GHG emissions by 5.2% below 1990 levels in the commitment period 2008-12. The United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change agreed to a set of a "common but differentiated responsibilities." The parties agreed that: 1. The largest share of historical and current global emissions of greenhouse gases has originated in developed countries; 2. Per capita emissions in developing countries are still relatively low, and 3. The share of global emissions originating in developing countries will grow to meet their social and development needs

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Participation in Kyoto Protocol

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Implementati : 

Implementati Mechanisms devised at Kyoto Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) International Emission Trading (IET) Joint Implementation (JI)

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Mechanisms devised at Kyoto

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What is CDM??? CDM is the only flexibility mechanism that involves developing nations. Designed to provide developed countries with flexibility to meet GHG emission targets that they agreed to achieve under the protocol Developed countries may finance GHG emission reducing projects undertaken in developing nations and receive credits to help them meet their mandatory limits. Assist developing countries who host CDM projects to achieve sustainable development.

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CDM Concept

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CDM Project Steps The project proponent(PP) prepare the Project Design Document(PDD). The PDD is validated by a designated operational entity (DOE). The project should be approved by a designated national authority(DNA). Monitoring is done by PP. Certification/ validation is done by DOE. Issuance of Certified Emission Reductions (CERs) by the Executive Board (EB) of UNFCCC.

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CDM Project Steps

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CDM methodologies A new Baseline and/or Monitoring Methodology shall be submitted by the DOE to the EB for review, prior to a validation and submission for registration of a project activity. The previously approved methodology by the EB are made publicly available along with any relevant guidance. Using approved methodologies, the DOEs may proceed with the validation of the projects and submit PDD for registration.

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Registration of a Project Registration is the formal acceptance by the EB of a validated project by DOE as a CDM project activity. Registration is the prerequisite for the verification, certification and issuance of CERs related to that project activity.

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Baseline Describes emissions in the absence of the project. You have to identify the baseline first. For the identification of baselines approved methodologies are used.

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Additionality The emissions reduced by the project must be additional to those that would have occurred in the absence of the CDM project. The CERs are issued against this additionality.

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Sustainable development 1.Social well being: The CDM project activity should lead to alleviation of poverty by generating additional employment, removal of social disparities and contribution to provision of basic amenities to people leading to improvement in quality of life of people. 2.Economic well being: The CDM project activity should bring in additional investment consistent with the needs of the people. 3.Environmental well being: This should include a discussion of impact of the project activity on resource sustainability and resource degradation, if any, due to proposed activity; biodiversity friendliness; impact on human health; reduction of levels of pollution in general; 4.Technological well being: The CDM project activity should lead to transfer of environmentally safe and sound technologies that are comparable to best practices in order to assist in upgradation of the technological base. The transfer of technology can be within the country as well from other developing countries also.

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Scope of CDM

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Bibliography Icf international IPCC assessment reports IPCC National Greenhouse Gas Inventories Programme Wikipedia US EPA webpage Greenhouse Gas Inventory Experts Network

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Thank You!!! Monish Tyagi Naman Jain

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