Entomology by Dr Najeeb

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IN THE NAME OF ALLAH THE MOST GRACIOUS THE MOST COMPASSIONATE

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DR: NAJEEB MEMON Assist: Professor Faculty of Community Medicine & Public Health Sciences Liaquat University of Medical & Health Sciences Jamshoro, Sind Pakistan mnajeeb80@gmail.com

Entomology:

Entomology BY: DR: NAJEEB MEMON Wingless Insects

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More than 750,000 species of insects worldwide. . Approximately 10,000 species of insects are harmful to humans.

Arthropods of Medical Importance Winged Insects Wingless Insects:

Arthropods of Medical Importance Winged Insects Wingless Insects CLASS ARTHROPODS Characteristics Features Body Division Legs Antennae Wings Where Found 1, Insecta Mosquitoes Flies Human Lice Fleas Louse Head Thorax Abdomen 3 Pairs 1 Pair 1 or 2 pairs Some are wingless On Land 2, Arachnida Ticks (Soft, Hard) Mites Cephalothorax & Abd: (No division In some cases) 4 Pairs None None On Land 3, Crustacea Cyclops Cephalothorax & Abd: 5 Pairs 2 Pairs None In Water 4,Chilopoda

WINGES WINGLESS:

WINGES WINGLESS WINGES WINGLESS 1. Mosquito (C.M) 1. Flea (Xenopsylla Cheopis) (C.M) 2. Housefly (Musca Domestica) (C.M) 2. Louse (Pediculus humanis) (I.M) 3. Sand fly (Phlebotomus) (C.M) 3. Tick (I.M) 4. Tse Tse fly (Glossina) 4. Mites (Chiggers) (I.M) 5. Black fly 5. Red Bug (I.M) 6. Cockroach 7. Rudivid Bugs Others:- Blue, Green flies

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WINGED INSECTS Sand fly Tse Tse fly Black fly Cockroach Rudivid Bugs

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Ticks Mites Fleas Red Bugs WINGLESS INSECTS

Transmission of Arthropod borne diseases:

Transmission of Arthropod borne diseases Transmissions Direct Contact From man to man Scabies pediculosis Mechanical Diarrhea Dysentery Typhoid Trachoma Biological Propagative Only multiplication No developmental Plague bacilli in rat Flea Yellow f virus in Aedes mosq: Cyclo propagative Multiplication developmental Malaria parasites in mosquito Cyclodevelopmental No multiplication developmental Filaria parasite In mosquito Guinea worm embryo in cyclops

Complete Metamorphosis Egg - Larvae- Pupae- Adult :

Complete Metamorphosis Egg - Larvae- Pupae- Adult CHANGE IN FORM FROM EGG TO ADULT

Complete Metamorphosis:

Complete Metamorphosis Egg - Larvae- Pupae- Adult E.g:- Mosquito, Fly, Flea

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Complete Metamorphosis

Incomplete Metamorphosis :

Incomplete Metamorphosis E.g:- Louse, Ticks Egg- nymph- adult

Incomplete:

Incomplete INCOMPLETE METAMORPHOUS Insects change shape gradually!

Why study of this is important?:

Why study of this is important? 1 Mosquito Malaria, Filaria, JE, Dengue Fever, Yellow Fever Chikungunya 2 Housefly Typhoid, Cholera, Diarrhea & Dysentery, Poliomyelitis, Gastroenteritis, Trachoma, Amob: 3 Sand fly Kala- azar, Oriental sore, sand fly fever 4 Tse tse fly Sleeping sickness 5 Cockroaches Enteric pathogens 6 Black fly Onchocerciasis 7 Reduviid Bugs Chagas disease 8 Rat flea Bubonic Plague, Endemic typhus, chiggerosis 9 Louse Epidemic Typhus, Relapsing fever, trench fever 10 Tick (Hard ) Tick typhus, Viral hemorg: fever, tularemia 11 12 Tick (Soft ) Itch mite Q fever, Relapsing fever Scabies

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Fleas (Gliding b/w hair & feathers of host) Found in Holes, Fissures, Furniture. (Complete Metamorphosis) Egg, Larva, Pupa, Adult Types: 1. Rat fleas ( Xenopsylla Cheopis) (Oriental) 2. Human fleas (Pulex irritants) – Cosmopolitan in distribution 3. Dog & Cat fleas (Ctenocephalus canis) 4. Sand fleas (Tunga penetrans) Act as a Passive carrier of Pasterurella pestis responsible for Plague & Murine typhus

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Diseases: 1. Bubonic Plague, 2. Endemic (Murine) typhus, 3. Chiggerosis 4. Tularemia (in Rodents) act as Intermediate host Preventive Measures: 1. Hygienic control 2. Destroy Rats 3. Rats Proofing / Catch through nets/ use Jalis 4. Rats Sterile (Use chemicals ZnSo 4 , DDT, Gammexane) 5. Rat Run Spray 6. Burry the rats 7. Check up of Pet animals (Dogs & Cats)

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2. Louse (Pediculus humanis) TYPES: Head louse (Pediculus Capitus) Body Louse (Pediculus Coroporais) Pubic Louse (Phthirus Pubis) Pediculosis: Louse infestation (Lousy Person) DISEASES: Louse Born Typhus ( Epidemic Typhus) Rickettsia Rowazekii Relapsing Fever Trench Fever (Rickettsia quantana) No infection there, only small breech in skin causing swelling / irritation Then louse burst. Other says when scratching ----- burst the louse -----fluid touch with wound ------ infection is there. Body louse

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Very sensitive to heat Keep clothes to heat / boiling water. Preventive Measures: Keep the hair short Combing Manual removing Hot bath Anti lice shampoo / soaps Use Coopex (Anti louse) International Rules: (Health Regulation) For Afghanistan to Pak (in Winter Season) DDT Dusting (Through Gun (DDT bag)----- burst----DDT Dusting (For controlling Louse & Typhus Fever) Ironing of Cloth (Delouse) .

Mite (Itch mite):

Mite (Itch mite) Scabies Burrows Prev: Measures: Benzyl Benzoate Tetmosol Sulphur Ointment

Ticks:

Ticks Hard Tick: Tick typhus, tularemia Viral fever, Soft Tick: Q fever, Relapsing fever Types : Hard Tick Soft Tick Preventive Measures: 1. Insecticidal Control (DDT, Lindane) 2. Env: Control: Paths should be filled up 3. Protective clothes (With repellent, Indalone

Principles Of Arthropod Control:

Principles Of Arthropod Control 1. ENVIRONMENTAL 2. CHEMICAL 3. BIOLOGICAL 4. GENETIC 5. NEWER METHODS

Principles Of Arthropod Control:

Principles Of Arthropod Control 1. Environmental Control Elimination of breeding places Filling & Drainage operation Proper disposal of refuse & water management Health education & cleanliness in & around homes 2. Chemical control: BY insecticides like DDT 3. Biological Control: Use of Larvi vorous fish 4. Genetic Control: Sterile male technique Chromosomal translocations Cytoplasmic incompatibility 5. Newer Methods: Insect growth regulators Sex attractants or Pheromones Chemosterilants

Malaria Control:

Malaria Control 1. Environmental Control Elimination of breeding places Filling & Drainage operation Proper disposal of refuse & water management Health education & cleanliness in & around homes

2. Chemical Control:

2. Chemical Control

3. Biological Control:

3. Biological Control By Larvi vorous Fish

4. Genetic Control: :

4. Genetic Control: Sterile male technique ( Reproduction) Chromosomal translocations ( Breaking down of chromosomes ) Cytoplasmic incompatibility (Sperms , egg unable to form viable offsprings)

5. Newer Methods:

5. Newer Methods Insect growth regulator (Adulticide) Chemosterilants ( chemical compound causes reproductive sterility )

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