History of Psychiatry

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Escape out of evil spirits By: DR: ABIDA ABRO STUDENT OF DPM Part – II INSTITUTE OF PSYCHIATRY (SIR C.J) HYDERABAD SIND PAKISTAN. HISTORY OF PSYCHIATRY

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PRE HISTORICAL ERA

PRE HISTORICAL ERA:

PRE HISTORICAL ERA All human societies have beliefs, that provide explanations for birth , death , and disease . Throughout history, illness has been attributed to witchcrafts , demons , adverse astral spirit , or the will of the god . These ideas still retain some power, with faith healing and shrines still used in some places, although the rise of scientific medicine over the past millennium has altered or replaced many of the old beliefs.

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Stone age … Trephening marks Escape out of evil spirits

Shamans:

Shamans Shamans are intermediaries or messengers between the natural world and spirit worlds . Shamanism comprises a range of beliefs and practices concerned with communication with the spiritual world. showing a woman shaman likely of the Turkic Khakas ethnicity.

ASCLEPIUS:

ASCLEPIUS god of medicine & son of Apollo Healing in ancient Greek religion . Asclepius represents the healing aspect of the medical art. In honor of Asclepius, snakes were often used in healing rituals and non-venomous snakes were allowed to crawl on the floor in dormitories where the sick and injured slept. From about 300 BC onwards, the cult of Asclepius grew very popular and pilgrims flocked to his healing temples ( Asclepieia ) to be cured of their ills.

ASCLEPIUS Asclepieia (Temples of Healing ) :

ASCLEPIUS Asclepieia (Temples of Healing ) He is associated with the physician staff with a snake wrapped around it. Today this is the symbol of the medical profession .

Hippocrates (BC.460-377):

Hippocrates (BC.460-377) "Father of Medicine“ Hippocrates assigns the brain as the organ of thought and sensation. Mental illnesses such as anxiety and depression are isolated . He even stated that epilepsy was caused from a blockage in the brain. He was the first physician to actually examine his patients .

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Hippocrates believed the health is good when the four humours, Blood, yellow bile, black bile and phlegm , are in balance. When we vomit, cough or sweat for example, the body is trying to get rid of excessive amounts of one or more of these humours . The Hippocratic Oath, still sworn by new doctors in many parts of the world .

Charaka & Susruta:

Charaka & Susruta Physician & Surgeon from India Charaka… 100 A.D Susruta…. 500 A.D Emphasize the importance of emotions in the causation of mental illnesses. Charaka was the first physician to present the concept of digestion, metabolism and immunity. Susruta was a pioneer in many surgical practices that are in use even today. Today, Ayurveda, the holistic Indian system of medicine, is becoming popular all over the world. Susruta, along with Charaka, is the beacon-light of this great science.

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Susruta

Galen (131- 200 A.D):

Galen (131- 200 A.D) Galen invented the use of the pulse for diagnosis and his books on anatomy were used until the 19th century. Galen was appointed as a physician in 157 A.D. Galen maintained Hippocrates beliefs in the four humors as the cause of mental disturbance . However, Galen also suggested that a failure to control one’s passions (i.e., anger) might cause a kind of madness.

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Galen (130-200) from Finger S. (1994) Origins of Neuroscience A History of Explorations into Brain Function .  Figure 1.16, p. 15.  New York, Oxford University Press.

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The Dark Ages (500 – 1000 AD)

The Dark Ages (500 – 1000 AD):

The Dark Ages (500 – 1000 AD) In the latter part of the Middle Ages, insane asylums were created to take the mentally ill people off of the streets. Actually these asylums were in reality prisons and not treatment centers. They were filthy and dark and the inmates were chained. These mentally ill people were treated more like animals than human beings. .

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While in Arabia & parts of Asia there was a revival of scientific interest in Greco- Roman Medicine. 705 AD: Asylum 4 mentally ill….in Baghdad 900 AD: Rhazes ( Mohd Zakria Razi ) -- One of the Greatest name in Arabian Medicine -- known as Persian Galen -- Director & chief physician at Baghdad hospital -- wrote more than 200 books

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1000 AD: Avicenna ( Ibn Sina ) a Persian physician and philosopher, born near Bukhara. He is regarded as a father of early modern medicine and clinical pharmacology, celebrated until today by nations of the East and West. History records that in Arabia & Asia mentally ill patients received a much more treatment than in Christine land. Muslim belief: insane were loved by God Indian belief ; Buddhism & Jainism also advocated human treatment for mentally ill.

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Avicenna ( Ibn Sina )

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MIDDLE AGES (1000- 1500 AD)

MIDDLE AGES (1000- 1500 AD):

MIDDLE AGES (1000- 1500 AD) Doctors in the middle ages were usually priests or other religious scholars. The patients were given food and comforted by religious nursing staff but little else was done to cure their illness. Traditional cures, using herbal remedies and potions were seen as witchcraft and outlawed by the church. Dancing mania :-During the initial outbreaks of the mania, religious ceremonies were held in an attempt to exorcise the demons thought to be causing the mania. Laws stated that only trained and registered people could practice medicine.

(Cont:) MIDDLE AGES (1000- 1500 AD):

(Cont:) MIDDLE AGES (1000- 1500 AD) Schools and universities began to educate wealthy individuals in: religion, arts, law and medicine. Generally men, and occasionally a few women, were trained and allowed to become physicians. As universities developed, more and more came from a non-religious background and eventually it was not necessary to be a cleric to practice medicine.

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Surgery Surgery was a crude practice during the middle ages but operations such as :- Amputations, Setting broken bones, Replacing dislocations & binding wounds were relatively common. Opium was sometimes used as an anaesthetic while wounds were cleaned with wine to try and prevent infections.

HUMAN REFORMS:

HUMAN REFORMS Pinel, Philippe in France (1745-1826) ( founder of Modern Psychiatry ) Tuke, William in England (1732-1822 ) ( Pioneer of new methods of treatment ) Rush Benjamin ( Father of American Psychiatry ) ( 1745- 1813) Tranquilizing chair for manic patients Esquirol, Jean ( 1838) ---- Defined Hallucination Dorothea Dix in US ( 1802 – 1887 ) ( Found many Asylums) Bethlehem hospital…1547 Pennsylvania Hospital .. 1752.. USA First journal on Psychiatric care was published in 18 th century by Riel Bethlehem hospital Philippe Pinel

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HISTORY OF MODERN PSYCHIATRY

HISTORY OF MODERN PSYCHIATRY:

HISTORY OF MODERN PSYCHIATRY Griesinger, Wilhelm (1845 ) ( Pathology & therapy of mental disorders) Morel, Benedict (1809 – 1873 ) ( Classification of mental illness) Kahlbaum , K ( 1828 – 1899 ) ( Described Syndrome of Catatonia ) Hecker, E (1843 – 1909 ) ( Described condition of Heberphrenia ) Kraeplin, Emil ( 1855 – 1926 ) ( Described in detail “Dementia Praecox” Sigmund Freud, ( Father of Modern Psychiatry - 1856 - 1939 )

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Bleuler, Eugene ( Director of Clinic in Switzerland 1857 – 1939 ) (First proposed the name of “Schizophrenia” & 4 As) Meyer, Adolf ( 1866- 1950 ) ( American, Founder of Psychological school of Psychiatry )

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Adler (1870 – 1937 ) ( worked on Individual psychology & Birth order ) Jung ( 1875 – 1961 ) ( gave concept of “Collective Unconscious”) Von Meduna ( 1934 ) ( Introduced Electroconvulsive therapy )

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WHO (1948) ( Mental disorders are first time included in “ International classification of Diseases” in 6 th Edition) Pierre, Henri, Jean (1952) ( Team of French scientists discovered “ Chlorpromazine '” & revolutionized the treatment of Psychotic illness.) American Psychiatric Association (1952) ( In collaboration with the New York Academy of Medicine brought “ Diagnostic & Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders ( DSM – I ) Schneider, Kurt (1887 – 1967) ( Described symptoms of Schizophrenia )

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