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Meaning and definition, evolution of motivational theories, content and process Theories of motivation: Maslow's, Herzberg's, McClelland's and Alderfer‘s theories, Equity, Goal-seeking and VIE theories, and Porter & Lawler's extension of VIE theory. Understanding the meaning and importance of Intrinsic and Extrinsic Slide 3: 6–3 Motivation and motivators. Evaluation of motivational theories and basic understanding of their application in the work context. Meaning of work motivation. Understanding basic approaches to motivating performance at work. Slide 4: 6–4 Meaning : Meaning Derived from latin word ‘movere’ which means to move Motive is anything that initiates or sustains activity Inner state of energies, activities or moves and that directs or channels behavior towards goals Slide 6: Key Elements Intensity: how hard a person tries Direction: toward beneficial goal Persistence: how long a person tries Need : Need Deficiencies that energizing or trigger behavior to satisfy those needs Types of Needs : Types of Needs 6–8 Innate Needs - Generic Goals Physiological (or biogenic) needs that are considered primary needs or motives Acquired needs – Product specific goal Generally psychological (or psychogenic) needs that are considered secondary needs or motives Drives : Drives Intrinsic or innate tendencies to seek certain goals or maintain internal stability Drive to acquire Drive to bond Drive to learn Drive to defend Motives : Motives It is a restlessness, a lack, a force Motive is the kingpin of motivation The motivation of people depends on the motives Motives gives direction to human behavior They are generally goal directed which may be conscious or unconscious Primary or physical motives Psychological and primary motives Rational motives Emotional motives Slide 11: 6–11 Model of the Motivation Process Learning Unfulfilled needs wants, and desires Tension Goal or need fulfillment Drive Behavior Cognitive processes Tension reduction Slide 12: 6–12 Techniques of motivation Financial or non – financial Carrot and stick approach to motivation Reward / punishment Carrot is reward for working and stick is the punishment to not working Helps to influence the internal environment Slide 13: Motivation through job enrichment It is non financial technique of motivation Job itself must provide opportunities for achievement, recognition, growth, responsibility and advancement. Job enlargement = horizontal expansion (more tasks) Job enrichment = vertical expansion (more challenging and interesting tasks) Variety of work content Nature of motivation : Nature of motivation Motivation is personal and internal feeling Motivation produces goal directed behavior Motivation is a continuous process Motivation is complex Motivation is system oriented It can be either positive or negative Evolution of motivation theories : Evolution of motivation theories Early theories Scientific management Financial incentives High earns high works Human relation model Human relation > Task Alton mayo … Slide 16: Contemporary theories Content theories Maslow’s Need Hierarchy Herzberg’s two factor theory Alderfer’s theory Process theories Vroom’s Expectancy model Adam’s equity theory Porter’s performance model Reinforcement Maslow’s Need Hierarchy : Maslow’s Need Hierarchy Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs : Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs Self-actualisation Esteem Love Safety Physiological E.g -Meals Experiment with ethnic cuisine A meal at the best restaurant in town Social meal with friends and family Safe food from a reputable source Food from any uncontaminated source Internal Satisfaction The respect of others Action for and from others Survival Satisfaction of basic hunger Two-Factor Theory (Frederick Herzberg) : Two-Factor Theory (Frederick Herzberg) Slide 21: Factors characterizing events on the job that led to extreme job dissatisfaction Factors characterizing events on the job that led to extreme job satisfaction Contrasting Views of Satisfactionand Dissatisfaction : Contrasting Views of Satisfactionand Dissatisfaction E X H I B I T 6-4 Presence Absence ERG Theory (Clayton Alderfer) : ERG Theory (Clayton Alderfer) Core Needs Existence: (physiological Safety need) provision of basic material requirements. Relatedness: (Social Needs) desire for relationships. Growth: (Esteem & Actualization) desire for personal development. Concepts: More than one need can be operative at the same time. If a higher-level need cannot be fulfilled, the desire to satisfy a lower-level need increases. Slide 24: Indian : Safety Needs Spain and Japan : Social Needs America : Growth David McClelland’s Theory of Needs : David McClelland’s Theory of Needs Matching Achievers and Jobs : Matching Achievers and Jobs Slide 28: Referent Comparisons: Self-inside Self-outside Other-inside Other-outside What am I and what am I doing What am I and what am I receiving What others and what they do What others and what they receive Equity Theory : Equity Theory Equity Theory : Equity Theory Equity Theory : Equity Theory Choices for dealing with inequity: Change inputs Change outcomes Distort/change perceptions of self Distort/change perceptions of others Choose a different referent person Leave the field (quit the job) Equity Theory : Equity Theory Propositions relating to inequitable pay: Overrewarded employees produce more than equitably rewarded employees. Overrewarded employees produce less, but do higher quality piece work. Underrewarded hourly employees produce lower quality work. Underrewarded employees produce larger quantities of lower-quality piece work than equitably rewarded employees Inequity : Inequity Inequity exists when worker’s outcome/input ratio is not equal to referent. Underpayment inequity: ratio is less than the referent. Worker feels they are not getting the outcomes they should given inputs. Overpayment inequity: ratio is higher than the referent. Worker feels they are getting more outcomes then they should given inputs. Restoring Equity: Inequity creates tension in workers to restore equity. In underpayment, workers reduce input levels to correct. Overpayment, worker can change the referent to adjust. If inequity persists, worker will often leave the firm. Goal-Setting Theory (Edwin Locke) : Goal-Setting Theory (Edwin Locke) Slide 36: Characteristics of effective goal Specific goal (Measurable) Relevant goals Challenging goals Goal commitment Goal participation Goal feedback Specific, credible, sufficiently frequent, timely and relevant Vroom’s Expectancy theory : Vroom’s Expectancy theory Expectancy Theory : Expectancy Theory Vroom suggests that motivation will be high when workers feel: High levels of effort lead to high performance. High performance will lead to the attainment of desire outcomes. Consists of three areas: Expectancy, Instrumentality, & Valence. Slide 40: Motivation (Force) = Valence * Expectancy Expectancy = the belief that efforts lead to performance = efforts to first level outcomes Expectancy Theory : Expectancy Theory High Expectancy (Worker knows that if they try, they can perform) High Instrumentality (Worker perceives that high performance leads to outcomes) High Valence (Worker desires the outcomes resulting from high performance) High Motivation Expectancy, Instrumentality, & Valence : Expectancy, Instrumentality, & Valence Expectancy, Instrumentality, & Valence : Expectancy, Instrumentality, & Valence Expectancy is the perception that effort (input) will result in a level of performance. You will work hard if it leads to high performance. You would be less willing to work hard if you knew that the best you would get on a paper was a D regardless of how hard you tried. Instrumentality: Performance leads to outcomes. Workers are only motivated if they think performance leads to an outcome. Managers should link performance to outcomes. Valence: How desirable each outcome is to a person. Managers should determine the outcomes workers want most. High Motivation: : High Motivation: According to the Expectancy Theory, high motivation results from high levels of Expectancy, Instrumentality, & Valence. If just one value is low, motivation will be low. This means that even if desired outcomes are closely link to performance, the worker must feel the task is possible to achieve for high motivation to result. Managers need to consider this relationship to build a high performance firm. The porter and Lawer Model of motivation : The porter and Lawer Model of motivation Comprehensive theory of motivation Managers operates on the basis of some sort of expectancies which, Actual Reward > Perceived Reward == Satisfaction Actual Reward < Perceived Reward == Dissatisfaction Slide 46: Value of Reward Abilities and traits Intrinsic Rewards Perceived Equitable rewards Performance Accomplishment Satisfaction Role perception Perceived efforts Efforts Extrinsic Reward Work motivation : Work motivation Reinforcement Theory : Reinforcement Theory Concepts: Behavior is environmentally caused. Behavior can be modified (reinforced) by providing (controlling) consequences. Reinforced behavior tends to be repeated. Flow and Intrinsic Motivation Theory : Flow and Intrinsic Motivation Theory Ken Thomas’s Model of Intrinsic Motivation : Ken Thomas’s Model of Intrinsic Motivation Employees are intrinsically motivated when rewards an employee gets from work result from: Choice– the ability to freely self-select and perform task activities. Competence– the sense of accomplishment from skillfully performing chosen tasks or activities. Meaningfulness– pursuing a task that matters in the larger scheme of things. Progress– the feeling of significant advancement in achieving the task’s purpose. Theory X and Theory Y (Douglas McGregor) : Theory X and Theory Y (Douglas McGregor) Ouchi’s theory Z : Ouchi’s theory Z Comparative study of Japanese and American management practices Integrated model of motivation Trust Strong bond between organisation and employee Employee involvement Integrated organisation Coordination Informal control system Slide 53: Short term employment Individual decision making Individual responsibility Rapid evaluation and promotion Explicit, formalized control Specialized career path Segmented concern for employees Life time employment Consensual decision m making Collective responsibility Slow evaluation and promotion Implicit, informal control Non specialized career path Holistic concern for employees Slide 54: Importance of Motivation Higher efficiency Optimum utilization of resources Reduction in labour turnover Better industrial relations Easier selection Facilitates change Integrating Contemporary Theories of Motivation : Integrating Contemporary Theories of Motivation Motivation : Motivation Defined as the psychological forces within a person that determine: 1) direction of behavior in an organization; 2) the effort or how hard people work; 3) the persistence displayed in meeting goals. Intrinsic Motivation: behavior performed for its own sake. Motivation comes from performing the work. Extrinsic Motivation: behavior performed to acquire rewards. Motivation source is the consequence of an action. As Marketing Requested It : As Marketing Requested It As Sales Ordered It : As Sales Ordered It As Engineering Designed It : As Engineering Designed It As Production Manufactured It : As Production Manufactured It As Maintenance Installed It : As Maintenance Installed It What the Customer Wanted : What the Customer Wanted You do not have the permission to view this presentation. In order to view it, please contact the author of the presentation.