Glyphosate in GM soy Paris nov 2015 Thomas Bohn

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Glyphosate contamination of GM soy into food and feed chains :

Glyphosate contamination of GM soy into food and feed chains Thomas Bøhn PhD Research Professor GenØk Centre for Biosafety, Tromsø , Norway

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Genetically modified organisms (GMOs) Contained use (medical) Open use (agriculture) Resistance Evolution GM plants Maize Soybean Cotton Canola (Major food/feed products globally) Insect resistance ( Bt -toxins) Herbicide resistance (Roundup) GM traits ~ 85 % of GM plants

Work done with the Daphnia model, part I:

Roundup and glyphosate “The environmentally friendly herbicide” “Practically non-toxic ” “A once in a century herbicide” 750 different herbicide products Work done with the Daphnia model, part I Glyphosate in feed (mg/kg) Daphnia magna

Acute Toxicity of glyphosate on Daphnia magna :

Acute Toxicity of glyphosate on Daphnia magna Early Monsanto s tudies for EPA (McAllister and Forbis 1978) LC 50 48 hour 1000 500 100 10 930 mg/litre

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Acute toxicity revised From Cuhra et al. 2013 Ecotoxicology Glyphosate ~ 100-300X more toxic

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From Cuhra et al . 2013 Ecotoxicology Chronic toxicity Significant effects below environmental concentrations accepted in the US (0.7 mg/l) Survival – 1.35 mg/l Reproduction 0.45 mg/l Juv. body size 0.05 mg/l

Work done with the Daphnia model, part II:

“Roundup Ready”, Herbicide Tolerant GM soy Work done with the Daphnia model, part II Glyphosate in feed (mg/kg)

The global number 1 GM trait and plant:

T he global number 1 GM trait and plant RR GM soy is dominating world soy production (81 %) Sprayed with Roundup/glyphosate herbicides in the growing season

Soy material for testing:

Soy material for testing Iowa farmers (n=31) GM (n=10) Conv. (n=10) Organic (n=11)

Glyphosate and AMPA in soybeans:

Glyphosate and AMPA in soybeans “Extreme levels and far higher than those typically found” (Monsanto 2011) From Bøhn et al. 2014 Food Chemistry ( below detection limit)

Negative effects in food?:

Negative effects in food? In Daphnia magna model 0.05 – 1.35 mg/L of glyphosate give negative effects In food and feed 9.0 mg/kg of glyphosate residues in GM soybeans on the market

Elemental composition in soy:

Elemental composition in soy

Substantially different!:

Substantially different! Discriminant analysis for GM, conventional and organic soy samples based on 35 variables (Glyphosate/AMPA residues are not included) From Bøhn et al. 2014 Food Chemistry

Feeding experiments in Daphnia: Organic soy superior :

Feeding experiments in Daphnia: Organic soy superior (From Bøhn et al. 2015)

Feeding test with GM soybeans only:

Feeding test with GM soybeans only

More glyphosate in soybeans – reduced fecundity:

More glyphosate in soybeans – reduced fecundity Fecundity Glyphosate in feed (mg/kg) R 2 = 3.4 % P = 0.024 (Cuhra et al. 2015)

More glyphosate in soybeans – delayed reproduction:

More glyphosate in soybeans – delayed reproduction R 2 = 5.3% P = 0.005 (Cuhra et al. 2015)

High glyphosate in soybeans – reduced life span:

High glyphosate in soybeans – reduced life span Expected longevity (days) Low Medium High Gly + Ampa (mg/kg) ** P<0.01 (Cuhra et al. 2015)

How much glyphosate is used?:

How much glyphosate is used? About 1 mill tonnes produced / year Equals about 1 mill cars …i.e. a quadruple cue along Norway …… or from Oslo through France

Fate of glyphosate:

Fate of glyphosate Weeds Non-target organisms Terrestrial , soil , aquatic ecosystems HT GM crops Exposed to glyphosate :

How much glyphosate in food/feed?:

How much glyphosate in food/feed? 225 mill tonnes of HT GM soy produced Residues of 9 mg/kg glyphosate ( Bøhn et al. 2014) In sum: approx. 2000 tonnes of glyphosate in food and feed from HT GM soy

Recent research on glyphosate:

Recent research on glyphosate From Fritschi et al. 2015) New classification from IARC 2015: « Glyphosate is probably carcinogenic to humans »

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From Fritschi et al. 2015)

Recent research on glyphosate:

Recent research on glyphosate Endocrine disruption , neurotoxicity in rats ( Cavalli et al. 2013, Cattani et al. 2014) Neurotoxicity in humans ( Grandjean and Landrigan 2014) Gene expression changes in rat liver + kidney (263 genes > 2-fold) after exposure to 0.0001 ppm Roundup in drinking water (Mesnage et al. 2015) Reprotoxicity – reduction of testosterone / sperm counts in rats ( Abarikwu et al. 2015)

Conclusions :

Conclusions Glyphosate /Roundup much more toxic than believed Herbicide tolerant GM soy accumulates glyphosate ( approx . 2000 tonnes ) Feeding studies in ecotox model organism D. magna support the hypotheses that : GM soy has inferior quality compared to conventional and particularly organic soybeans Glyphosate residues negatively affect food / feed quality in GM soybeans

The ‘Glyphosate Paradox’:

The ‘ Glyphosate Paradox’ From bio-degradable to non- degradable From « practically non- toxic » to significant toxicity From low volume use to 1 mill tonnes / year Response from Regulation level : Increasing Residue Levels accepted in food and feed ! In GM soy 0.1 ppm (1999), to 10, 20, 40 (2014) ppm …

Further research in D. magna :

Further research in D. magna Toxicity Roundup Dicamba 2,4-D Combinatorial tox Feeding studies to test GM plant quality Soy Maize Multistack plants Data on genotype Transcriptomics miRNA Pathway analysis Link to Birmingham (DGC) Data on phenotype Survival Growth Fecundity Population effects

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Daphnia magna “Daphnia borealis”

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Thank you for your attention!

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