Environmental Studies


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Environmental Studies : 

Environmental Studies Dr. Nishith Dharaiya Asst. Professor Department of Life Sciences HNG University, Patan

Environment : 

Environment Our Surrounding! The sum total of all the conditions and influences that affect the development and life of organisms. Every organism lives in their own environment. For us, Environment consists of Air, Water and Land. Our existence on the Earth is depend up on the maintenance of symbiotic equilibrium with our environment.

Why Study Environment??? : 

Why Study Environment??? Environmental studies deals with every issue that affects a living organism. It is applied science, as it seeks practical answers to the increasingly important question of how to make human civilization sustainable on the Earth’s resources. Integration of all the field of knowledge. Essential to study to overcome “Environmental Crisis”

Slide 4: 

Why for IT student? Development of data base Environmental management system RS and GIS Eco-Informatics an emerging area Think for environment when develop new technology General awareness….

Slide 5: 

Major Components of Environment Air Water Soil Atmosphere : Virtual Ocean of Air Hydrosphere : The surface of Earth filled with any form of Water Lithosphere : Outer shell of the Earth composed of crust and the rigid outer most mantle Biosphere : The place on earth where life exists

Slide 6: 

Branches of Environmental Science Biology : Environmental Biology Env. Microbiology Env. Biotechnology Chemistry : Environmental Chemistry Management : Environmental Management Env. Risk Assessment Env. Impact Assessment Env. Audit Education : Environmental Education Law : Environmental Law Engineering : Environmental Engineering Medicine : Environmental Health

Slide 7: 

Ecology (Environmental Biology) Branch of Biology which deals with Environmental components Systematic and scientific study of the interaction among all the components of Environment The word first given by a German Scientist E. Hackle (1869) and become very popular in 1900 Earth’s Environment A biotic Components Biotic Components Interaction = ECOSYSTEM

Slide 8: 

Diverse and Dynamic by their size, structure and function Ecosystem Natural Man made Terrestrial Aquatic Agricultural field Forests Fresh- Marine Range land Deserts water Urban area Grass land River Garden, Dams Mountain Marsh Etc. Etc. Lake Ecosystem

Slide 9: 

Components Inorganic Components: Carbon, Nitrogen, Phosphorus, Water, Carbon Dioxide, etc. Organic Components: Protein, Carbohydrates, Lipid, etc. Physical Components: Temperature, Pressure, Light, Humidity, etc.

Slide 10: 

Components Producers: Green plants Consumers: Animals (Herbivores and Carnivores) Decomposers: Bacteria, Fungi, other microorganisms

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Functions Flow of Energy Food Chain Diversity by time and geographic location Nutrient cycling Development, Growth and Evolution Control on all above functions

Slide 12: 

Conservation of Ecosystem Important for Environmental Protection Maintenance of Balance System must run! Conserve for all If disturbed… our existence may be under threat!!!

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Biodiversity Also termed as biological diversity – is the variety of all these living things and their interactions. In short… Biodiversity = Microorganisms +Plants +Animals found on Earth Biodiversity organizes on three levels – Species, Genetic and Ecosystem diversity

Slide 14: 

Biodiversity Species: Group of organisms with same characteristics An individual of a species can reproduce successfully, creating fertile offspring, only with another member of the same species

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Known Species 12,000 species of amphibians and reptiles 4,000 species of bacteria 4,500 species of mammals 5,000 species of viruses 10,000 species of birds 22,000 species of fish 70,000 species of fungi 270,000 species of plants 400,000 species of invertebrates (Without insects) 960,000 species of insects, approximately 600,000 of which are beetles 24

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Genetic Diversity Biodiversity is much more than the variety of species. It also includes the genes that every individual inherits from its parents and passes on to the next generation. you and your siblings might have different eye and hair colours, body shapes and heights. Genetic variation is extremely important to the survival of species.

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Ecosystem diversity Genes determine the traits of the individuals that form populations of a species Populations and the non-living environmental components – such as water or minerals – surrounding them interact dynamically to form an ecosystem Species are not evenly distributed around the globe. Ecosystems like tropical forests and coral reefs are very complex and host a large number of species.

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The importance of Biodiversity Food Medicine Fuel, timber, fire and other resources Cultural Pollination Air and Water purification Climate modification Draught Control Habitat Economic value

Slide 19: 

Biodiversity Loss 1 to 10 species go extinct as part of natural processes every year A growing human population, increased human consumption, and the growth of technology are placing tremendous stress on Earth’s natural systems The leading causes of biodiversity loss at present include land-use changes, changing levels of atmospheric CO2, changing climate, invasive species and air pollution.

Slide 20: 

Biodiversity Loss Most of these stresses will cause degradation and loss of habitat Factors leading to biodiversity loss Habitat Loss Overuse of resources Invasive Species Pollution Global Climate Change

Slide 21: 

Conservation of Biodiversity Sustainable use of resources In situ Conservation Creating Protected Areas Ex situ Conservation Zoological Gardens Botanical Gardens Captive Breeding Gene banks Sperm banks…

Slide 22: 

Protecting Biodiversity Our duties… Research and Monitoring Environmental Education Awareness Campaign Eco Tourism Law enforcement Live sustainable life

Slide 23: 

Examples of Biodiversity

Slide 24: 

Asiatic Wild Ass- The species only found in India

The Pride of Asia- Asiatic Lion : 

The Pride of Asia- Asiatic Lion

A Lioness on Hunt…. : 

A Lioness on Hunt….

Leopard : 


Sambar- The largest Deer : 

Sambar- The largest Deer

Reptiles : 


Ecosystems… : 


Slide 31: 

Dr. Nishith Dharaiya Save wildlife for Our life

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