Hepatitis ABCDE.ppt

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hepatitis

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VIRAL HEPATITIS Hepatitis A Hepatitis B Hepatitis C Hepatitis D Hepatitis E

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Viral Hepatitis Inflammatory liver disease, characterized by jaundice, abdominal pain, and anorexia due to viral infection caused by viruses A, B, C, D and E, alcohol abuse, or various toxins.

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Caused by acute viral infection, toxicity, or drug induced Liver is enlarged and congested Distortion of lobular pattern Results in increased portal circulation pressure Circulation then decreased to liver Edema of biliary channels Results in obstructive jaundice Pathophysiology of Hepatitis

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Types of Hepatitis Hepatitis A – Infectious hepatitis Hepatitis B – Serum hepatitis Hepatitis C – Non-A non-B or Post transfusion hepatitis Hepatitis D – with Hep B Hepatitis E - Epidemic hepatitis

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Hepatitis A Caused by hepatitis A virus Humans as their reservoir SOC: Infected feces, HAV-contaminated food POC: 1–2 weeks before the onset of symptoms until about 7 days after the patient becomes jaundiced. Fecal oral contamination Oral anal sexual activity contamination, shellfish from contaminated water Incubation 18 – 45 days Immune globulin within two weeks of exposure

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Hepatitis A SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS Most are anicteric and asymptomatic Flu-like URTI with low-grade fever Anorexia Indigestion nausea Aversion to cigarette smoke and other strong odors May or may not be jaundiced

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Hepatitis B Hepatitis B Virus (HBV) Reservoir: Humans Source of infection: -infected individuals - receipt of blood transfusion or other blood products - use of shared needles - history of tattooing, ear or body piercing, or acupuncture Incubation: 30-180 days Period of communicability: -1-2 months before and after the onset of symptoms Mode of transmission: Heterosexual transmission, contact with blood and body fluids

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Hepatitis B SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS Loss of appetite, dyspepsia, abdominal pain Gen. aching malaise and weakness Jaundice Ligh-colored stools and dark urine Hepatomegaly and splenomegaly Enlarged posterior cervical lymph nodes

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Hepatitis C Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) Source of infection: Parenteral drug, needlestick injuries, Blood transfusion High-risk sexual contact (multiple partners, history of other STDs, anal sex, etc.) Incubation: 15-160 days Contact with blood and body fluids: transfusion of blood and blood products Period of communicability: -one or more weeks before onset of symptoms and persists in most persons

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Hepatitis C SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS Asymptomatic or experience mild symptoms Fatigue Abdominal pain and poor appetite Jaundice Headaches joint aches muscle aches nausea

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Hepatitis D Hepatitis D Virus (HDV) Reservoir: humans Animals: chimpanzee and pigs Source of infection: same as Hepa-B Incubation: 30-180 days Period of communicability: not been yet determined, but virus excretion in stool has been demonstrated up to 14 days after onset of illness Co-infects with hepatitis B, close personal contact

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Hepatitis D SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS Similar to those with hepatitis B May progress to chronic active hepatitis and cirrhosis always associated with a coexistent hepatitis B virus infection, either simultaneous new infections (co- infection) or a chronic hepatitis B infection (superinfection)

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Hepatitis E Hepatitis E Virus (HEV) Reservoir: Infected Humans and Animals: wild and domestic esp. swine Incubation: 14-60 days Period of Communicability: -Not known. - Hepa-E virus has been detected in stools 14 days after the onset of jaundice and approximately 4 weeks after ingestion of contaminated food or water and persists for about 2 weeks. Source of infection: - Contaminated water in areas of poor sanitation household member,sex partners, shared injection equipment S/S: JAUNDICE is almost always present

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Nursing care management Preventive & Physical Care: Hepatitis A - immune globulin and inactivated vaccine - handwashing - personal hygiene Hepatitis B - Hepa-B Immune globulin and hepa-b vaccine Hepatitis C - No available vaccine Hepatitis D - Hepa-B vaccine Hepatitis E - Experimental vaccine is yet being tested Routine precautions should be taken during travel in risk areas

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Prevention Teaching Adequate sanitation and hygiene Wash hands before eating and after using the toilet Drink only purified or bottled water No sharing of eating utensils, needles, toothbrushes, razors, etc. Use a condom Choose your tattoo or piercing person carefully. Inspect the facility

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Control: - patients and families must be taught on the transmission of disease - proper disposal of human wastes - disinfection of potentially contaminated foods - conscientious individual hygiene and handwashing - Protection of Contacts of a Case - provision of clean water supplies - Educational programs should be designed to stress sanitary disposal of feces Nursing care management

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Nursing care management Curative: Hepatitis A - bed rest, optimal food and fluid intake to counteract weight loss & to speed recovery, no specific treatment available only supportive measures Hepatitis B - Supportive only during the acute phase. Recent evidence suggests that interferon is used to treat Hepa-B Hepatitis C - Combination antiviral therapy with interferon Hepatitis D - similar to other forms of hepatitis but use of interferons is still under investigation Hepatitis E - Supportive treatment - Exercise regularly - Drink plenty of fluids -Get enough rest

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Nursing care management Rehabilitation: small frequent meals instruct to abstain from alcohol 6months after recovery Caffeine, including colas, chocolate, coffee, some teas, OTC meds artificial sweeteners and fruit juices to take as much stress and strain off the liver as we can instruct on gradual but progressive activity but to rest after each activity Instruct to avoid strenuous activities

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