first aid

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Blood Circulation System :

Blood Circulation System BY: ENGR. NABEEL PAROYA (PIA-SA)

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The circulatory system is an organ system that moves nutrients, gases, and wastes to and from cells to help fight diseases and help stabilize body temperature and pH to maintain homeostasis . This system may be seen strictly as a blood distribution network. BY: ENGR. NABEEL PAROYA

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The heart is a muscular structure that contracts in a rhythmic pattern to pump blood. The main components of the human circulatory system are the heart , the blood , and the blood vessels BY: ENGR. NABEEL PAROYA

Beating Human Heart:

Beating Human Heart BY: ENGR. NABEEL PAROYA

Circulation Animation:

Circulation Animation BY: ENGR. NABEEL PAROYA

Pressure Points:

Pressure Points BY: ENGR. NABEEL PAROYA

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When a person is severely cut and begins to bleed, it is time for quick action. First aid for severe bleeding involves applying pressure over the wound. Sometimes it is possible to press the artery above the wound against the bone behind it, and stop the bleeding. This place is called a pressure point. A pressure point is also an excellent location to take a person's pulse. BY: ENGR. NABEEL PAROYA

There are 11 principal points on each side of the body where hand or finger pressure can be used to stop hemorrhage. These points are shown in figure…:

There are 11 principal points on each side of the body where hand or finger pressure can be used to stop hemorrhage. These points are shown in figure… BY: ENGR. NABEEL PAROYA

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Bleeding from a cut artery or vein may often be controlled by pressure applied to the appropriate pressure point. A pressure point is a place where the main artery to the injured part lies near the skin surface and over a bone. Pressure at such a point is applied with the fingers (digital pressure) or with the hand; no first aid materials are required. The object of the pressure is to compress the artery against the bone, thus shutting off the flow of blood from the heart to the wound. BY: ENGR. NABEEL PAROYA

You should memorize these pressure points so that you will know immediately which point to use for controlling hemorrhage from a particular part of the body. The correct pressure point is the one that is (1) NEAREST THE WOUND and (2) BETWEEN THE WOUND AND THE MAIN PART OF THE BODY. :

You should memorize these pressure points so that you will know immediately which point to use for controlling hemorrhage from a particular part of the body. The correct pressure point is the one that is (1) NEAREST THE WOUND and (2) BETWEEN THE WOUND AND THE MAIN PART OF THE BODY. Applying finger pressure is very tiring, and it can seldom be maintained for more than 15 minutes. Pressure points are recommended for use while direct pressure is being applied to a serious wound. While pressure is being applied at the appropriate pressure point, an assistant can bandage the wound (or wounds). If available, a battle dressing should be used. Figure shows the battle dressing and its use. If bleeding continues to be severe even after direct pressure and pressure points have been used, you may have to apply a tourniquet. BY: ENGR. NABEEL PAROYA

Use of the Tourniquet:

Use of the Tourniquet A tourniquet is a constricting band that is used to cut off the supply of blood to an injured limb. It cannot be used to control bleeding from the head, neck, or trunk, since its use in these locations would result in greater injury or death. A tourniquet should be used only if the control of hemorrhage by other means proves to be impossible. A tourniquet must always be applied above the wound — that is, toward the body — and it must be applied as close to the wound as practicable. BY: ENGR. NABEEL PAROYA

To apply an emergency tourniquet made from something like a neckerchief, wrap the material once around the limb and tie an overhand knot; place a short stick on the overhand knot and tie a square knot over it. Then twist the stick rapidly to tighten the tourniquet. The stick may be tied in place with another strip of material. Figure shows how to apply a tourniquet…:

To apply an emergency tourniquet made from something like a neckerchief, wrap the material once around the limb and tie an overhand knot; place a short stick on the overhand knot and tie a square knot over it. Then twist the stick rapidly to tighten the tourniquet. The stick may be tied in place with another strip of material. Figure shows how to apply a tourniquet… To be effective, a tourniquet must be tight enough to stop the blood flowing to the limb. If the pressure from the tourniquet is less than the arterial pressure, arterial bleeding will continue. Also, insufficient tourniquet pressure may actually increase the amount of bleeding from the veins. So be sure to draw the tourniquet tight enough to stop the bleeding. However, do not make it any tighter than necessary. BY: ENGR. NABEEL PAROYA

CAUTION :

CAUTION NEVER apply a tourniquet unless the hemorrhage is so severe that it cannot be controlled in any other way. By the time the tourniquet is required, the victim will have lost a considerable amount of blood; therefore, once a tourniquet has been applied, it should be released only by medical personnel. Here are the points to remember when you use a tourniquet: Do not use a tourniquet unless you cannot control the bleeding by any other means. Do not use a tourniquet for bleeding from the head, face, neck, or trunk. Use it only on the limbs. · Always apply a tourniquet above the wound and as close to the wound as possible. BY: ENGR. NABEEL PAROYA

Emergency Rescue And Short Distance Transfer:

Emergency Rescue And Short Distance Transfer BY: ENGR. NABEEL PAROYA

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Sprained Ankle:

Sprained Ankle BY: ENGR. NABEEL PAROYA

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A sprained ankle, also known as an ankle sprain, twisted ankle, rolled ankle, ankle injury or ankle ligament injury, is a common medical condition where one or more of the ligaments of the ankle is torn or partially torn. BY: ENGR. NABEEL PAROYA

Causes::

Causes: A lateral ankle sprain occurs when the ankle is inverted beyond the elastic limits of its supporting structures causing acute ankle pathology. Mildly sprained ankle two days after the injury BY: ENGR. NABEEL PAROYA

Conservative Treatment::

Conservative Treatment: Acutely the PRICE protocol is usually all that is needed. This stands for protection, rest, ice, compression and elevation. An ankle brace can be very helpful for the treatment and prevention of a sprained ankle injury. Walking is inadvisable , as it may cause the ankle sprain to become worse - with increased pain, and possible further damage to the compromised tissues. Ice can help reducing swelling . Cycles of 10-15 minutes on and 10-15 minutes off are recommended. Icing an ankle too long may cause cold injuries. Compression bandages provide support and compression for sprained ankles BY: ENGR. NABEEL PAROYA

BURNED:

BURNED BY: ENGR. NABEEL PAROYA

Burns Overview::

Burns Overview: Heat or chemical injury to the skin, nerves, blood vessels, and internal organs can cause burns. Burns that involve the hands, face, feet, genitals, or cover an extremity (arm or leg ) or the chest are particularly dangerous BY: ENGR. NABEEL PAROYA

Scalds (Burnt by Hot water)::

Scalds (Burnt by Hot water): Remove rings, bracelets, watches, etc, from the affected area. These may cause tightness or constriction if any swelling occurs. After cooling, remove clothing from the burnt area. However, do not try to pull off clothing that has stuck to the skin. This may cause damage. A cold compress such as a tea towel soaked in cold water may be soothing over the burnt area. You can apply this after the initial cooling under cool water. Before going to hospital or to a doctors surgery, cover the burn with a clean plastic bag and leave it on until seen by a doctor or nurse. Paracetamol or ibuprofen may help to ease pain for small burns. BY: ENGR. NABEEL PAROYA

Flame burns::

Flame burns: Put out the flames by rolling the person on the ground and/or covering with a non-flammable blanket or coat. "Stop, Drop and Roll" on the floor or ground. Flame burns and smoke can burn the person's airways and lungs as well as the skin. The person may be breathing normally at first, but breathing can become worse even after the person is away from the fire and smoke. If the person's breathing is affected in any way (cough, wheeze or shortness of breath) - seek help urgently - call an ambulance. BY: ENGR. NABEEL PAROYA

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BY: ENGR. NABEEL PAROYA

Burn Symptoms::

Burn Symptoms: The severity of a burn determines the symptoms a person who is burned experiences. First-degree burns cause red skin and local pain only. Sunburn is an example of a first-degree burn. Second-degree burns cause blisters and have more pronounced swelling. The skin may slough (peel). Third-degree burns cause white or black charred skin and loss of pain sensitivity (insensate) because of nerve damage in the deeper tissues BY: ENGR. NABEEL PAROYA

Burns Treatment::

Burns Treatment: Treat burns in the following ways: Cool the burned area with moist, clean, cool cloths. Rinse with tap water , and clean with soap and water. Apply a layer of Silvadene cream (silver sulfadiazine) morning and evening.(Do not use Silvadene near the eyes.) Cover with gauze dressings. Clean off all Silvadene cream with soap and water with each dressing change. Flush Chemical Burns with water until all burning pain has stopped. Remove all contaminated clothes. BY: ENGR. NABEEL PAROYA

Insect Bites:

Insect Bites BY: ENGR. NABEEL PAROYA

Insect Bites Overview::

Insect Bites Overview: Stings and bites from insects are common. They often result in redness and swelling in the injured area. Sometimes a sting can cause a life-threatening allergic reaction. BY: ENGR. NABEEL PAROYA

Process of Biting::

Process of Biting: Bees, wasps, hornets, yellow jackets, Fire ants are members of the Hymenoptera family. Bites or stings from these species may cause serious reactions in people who are allergic to them. Death from bee stings is 3-4 times more common than death from snake bites. When a bee stings, it loses the entire injection apparatus (stinger) and actually dies in the process. Fire ants inject their venom by using their mandibles (the biting parts of their jaw) and rotating their bodies. They may inject venom many times . BY: ENGR. NABEEL PAROYA

Insect Bites Symptoms::

Insect Bites Symptoms : The response to a sting or bite from insects is variable and depends on a variety of factors. Most bites and stings result in pain , swelling, redness, and itching to the affected area. The skin may be broken and become infected if the bite area is scratched. You may experience a severe reaction beyond the immediate area of the sting if you are allergic to the bite or sting. Symptoms of a severe reaction include hives, wheezing , shortness of breath, unconsciousness, and even death within 30 minutes. A sting on the tongue may cause throat swelling and death because of airway obstruction . Stings from large hornets or multiple (hundreds or thousands) bee stings have been rarely reported to cause muscle breakdown and kidney failure. Bites from a fire ant typically produce a pustule , or a pimple-like sore , that is extremely itchy and painful. BY: ENGR. NABEEL PAROYA

First Aid For Insect Bite::

First Aid For Insect Bite: Move to a safe area to avoid more stings. Scrape or brush off the stinger with a straight-edged object, such as a credit card or the back of a knife. Wash the affected area with soap and water. Don't try to pull out the stinger. Doing so may release more venom. Apply a cold pack or cloth filled with ice to reduce pain and swelling. Apply hydrocortisone cream (0.5 percent or 1 percent), calamine lotion or a baking soda paste — with a ratio of 3 teaspoons baking soda to 1 teaspoon water — to the bite or sting several times a day until your symptoms subside. Take an antihistamine containing diphenhydramine (Benadryl, Tylenol Severe Allergy) or chlorpheniramine maleate (Chlor-Trimeton, Actifed). BY: ENGR. NABEEL PAROYA

THANKS FOR YOUR PATIENCE:

THANKS FOR YOUR PATIENCE Prepared by: Engr. NABEEL PAROYA PIA SCOUTS ASSOCIATION BY: ENGR. NABEEL PAROYA

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