the plant kingdom


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kingdom plantae


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Slide 1:

The P lant Kingdom


the term “plants” implies an association with certain traits, such as multicellularity , cellulose, and photosynthesis. A plant is defined as a eukaryotic, multicellular , photosynthetic, organisms whose cells are surrounded with cell wall. when the plants is applied to a specific taxon , it is usually referring to one of three concepts. From smallest to largest in inclusiveness.

Two major groups::

Two major groups: Non-vascular plants They do not have vascular tissues 2. Vascular plants Also called trcheophytes means plants have trachieds They develop a vascular system that helps them absorb water from the ground and transport it all to parts of the plants

Non-vascular plants:

Non-vascular plants Bryophytes (mosses)- plants that thrive in moist places They live on trunk of trees and shallow rocks where they will not be exposed to sunlight to avoid dessication The mosses become a layer of topsoil for higher plants to take root

Slide 6:

Hepatophyta (liverworts)- they have bodies which are divided into lobes giving in appearance of an animal liver Two classes of liverworts are: jungermanniida which are leafy like mosses marchiantiopsida which are leaf-like similar to those foliose lichens.

Slide 8:

Anthocerophyta (hornworts) - resemle the liverworts The distinguishing figure is the elongated sporanguim that grows like a horn

Vascular plants:

Vascular plants Without seed Division Plants( whiskferns )- these are the simplest tracheophytes they lack true roots and leaves. They have simple scale-like leaves instead of true leaves that play only a minor part in photosynthesis. They have stem with dichotonomous branch

Division Lycophyta(clubmosses)- the lycopods have true roots and leaves. :

Division Lycophyta ( clubmosses ) - the lycopods have true roots and leaves. Their leaves are known to have originated from the scale-like leaves of their ancestors, the psilotum They have also modified leaves known as sporophylls which are specialized for their production.

Division Sphenophyta- it has only one genus, the genus equisetum:

Division Sphenophyta - it has only one genus, the genus equisetum The well known member of this is the horsetail which thrives in moist places They have true roots and only one stem. Their leaves are arranged in whorl. Their stem is hallow and jointed and contains chlorophyll for photosynthesis The presence of silicon in this plant makes it unique among the seedless plants

Slide 16:

Division Pteridophyta (fern)- it has compound leaves. Each leaf structure that we can see is actually a leaflet The leaves of ferns are called fronds

With seeds:

With seeds Gymnosperms- “ gymnos ” means naked and “ sperma ” means seed. Their leaves are needle-shaped The name gymnosperm is given to all plants that produce seeds not enclosed within a reproductive structure called cones

Slide 19:

Division coniferophyta (conifers)- also known as division pinophyta Their stem is erect and grows to several meters in height. Their stem is made up of wood that has large amount of xylem and some phloem They are cone-bearing plants They are dominant plants over huge areas of land, most notably the boreal forest of northern hemisphere

Division Cycadophyta(cycads)- comprise a small extant phylum:

Division Cycadophyta (cycads)- comprise a small extant phylum Cycads are heterosporous and produce hig h ly specialized, complex reproductive and dispersal structure called seeds cycads seeds are to be “naked” since they lacked a particular sort of protective covering characteristic.

Division Gingkophyta(gingko)- known as “maidenhair tree”:

Division Gingkophyta (gingko)- known as “maidenhair tree” Bears a fleshy seeds the size of large cherries, which are noted for their foul smell when ripe. The seed’s characteristics of gingko is the same as cycads.

Division Gnetophyta(gnetophytes):

Division Gnetophyta ( gnetophytes ) Comprises about three families, one of which occurs in central texas Ephedra (Mormon Tea) is common West Texas, but occurs on limestone on hill country This genus is a source of ephedrine

Angiosperms :

Angiosperms the term “ angion ” is a Greek word which means container, reffering to the ovary

Division Anthophyta:

Division Anthophyta The term “ Anthos ” is a Greek word which means flower and “ phyton ” means plants. Thus it reffered to flowering plants Two Groups: M onocotyledon- only one seed leaf, and are called monocot. Dicotyledon - two seed leaves, and are called dicots .

Difference between the Monocot and Dicot:

Difference between the Monocot and Dicot Basic of comparison Monocot Dicot Number of cotyledon One Two Leaf venation Parallel netted Flower parts Typically grouped in three’s Typically grouped in 4’s of 5’s Vascular bundles Usually scattered through out the tissue Usually arranged in cylindrical forms Vascular cambium Usually absent Usually present

Slide 31:

The gametes are produced within the flowers and the ovule are enclosed in a carpel The angoisperms are the dominant plant forms of the present day

Slide 33:

Assignment Give atleast 2 examples of each groups Pass tommorow before 7:00

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