camera pill endoscopy

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endoscopy made easy

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Y. Naga Raj Maheshwara College Of Pharmacy. Presented by Camera Pill Endoscopy

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“Camera Pill” or Capsule endoscopy, is a new diagnostic tool that permits a direct visual examination of the small intestine. It is used in an area of the body which not previously accessible using upper endoscopy from above or colonoscopy from below. It is about the size of a multivitamin and is swallowed with a sip of water. The pill is made of specially sealed biocompatible material. It takes over 50,000 pictures of the inside layer of small intestine Introduction :

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What is Endoscopy It means looking inside and typically refers to looking inside the body for medical reasons using an endoscope. An endoscope is a flexible camera that travels into the body's cavities to directly investigate the digestive tract, colon or throat. These tools are long, flexible cords about 9 mm wide, about the width of a human fingernail. Because the cord is so wide the patients must be sedated.

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An Endoscope Can Consist Of A rigid or flexible tube. A light delivery system to illuminate the organ or object under inspection, directed via an optical fiber system. A lens system transmitting the image to the viewer from the fiberscope.

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Capsule Endoscopy: It has proven to be effective in aiding diagnosis of previously undetectable abnormalities in the small intestine. By this doctor examines middle part of your GIT, which includes the Duodenum, Jejunum, Ileum. Wireless capsule enteroscopy may have further indications in the future as it is safe, easy to perform, non-invasive and doesn't require sedation.

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Components of capsule endoscopy: The capsule(Camera pill) A portable image receiver/recorder unit Battery pack Specially modified computer workstation.

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Camera pill The camera pill is 11 mm by 26 mm size, 32 megapixel and contains a battery, a lens, four light-emitting diodes, and antenna/transmitter. The capsule record images at a rate of 2 per second and transmit them to the belt-pack receiver, It continuous to record images for 7-8 hours yielding a total of approximately 50,000 images per examination. The capsule is disposable and doesn’t need to be recovered by the patient or medical personnel.

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Camera pill

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Receiver/recorder unit: Patients undergoing capsule endoscopy wear an antenna array consisting of 8 leads that are connected by wires to the recording unit. The antenna array is very similar to that the patients undergoing standard 12-lead electrocardiography. It capable of recording the thousands of images transmitted by the capsule and received by the antenna array.

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Procedure Wearing the recorder unit. Swallowing the camera pill. Capturing of the images. Sending the images to recorder unit. Examining the images by the doctor.

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ADVANTAGES: It costs a few hundred dollars compared to more than $5,000 for the standard scope. Also, unlike traditional endoscopy, the procedure requires no sedation , so more acceptance by the patients. Patients can resume normal activity immediately marketed for esophageal cancer screening. Maneuvering human body without disturbing it much is an effective way of treatment or diagnosis.

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DISADVANTAGES: The pill isn’t 100 percent successful because, due to its small size, the camera can capture an image of only about 70 percent of the digestive tract at any one point. It allow only a single fly-by view. It is just a diagnostic tool..no any therapeutic use. Its movement cannot be controlled by the physician, the pill blindly follows the gastric transit time.

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Drugs used in the treatment of this symptom: Docusate sodium; Sennosides A and B Sennosides A and B Sodium picosulfate Citric acid; Magnesium oxide; Sodium picosulfate Capsule Retention The main risk is retention of the capsule, which occurs in about 1 in a hundred people, capsule becomes impeded by a stricture (narrowing) secondary to a tumor.

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Diseases which use this investigation: Colonic polyps and hereditary polyposis syndromes Crohn's disease (Inflammatory Bowel Disease) Peptic Ulcer Disease (PUD)

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THE ADVANCED VERSIONS: " SPIDER PILL":

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” MAGNET-CONTROLLED PILL”

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Conclusions: The camera pill endoscopy was superior in patients who had a negative gastroscopy and colonoscopy. It was safe and well tolerated. The capsule endoscopy seems best suited to patients with gastrointestinal bleeding of unclear etiology.

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References: "Capsule endoscopy turning up undiagnosed cases of Crohn's disease" . Physorg.com Pink Tentacle. " Sayaka : Next-generation capsule endoscope" . Chong A, Taylor A, Miller A, Desmond P. Initial experience with capsule endoscopy at a major referral hospital. Mylonaki , M., et al. "Wireless capsule endoscopy: a comparison with push enteroscopy in patients with gastroscopy and colonoscopy negative gastrointestinal bleeding". Gut, news.bbc.co.uk.[homepage on the internet] . "Spider pill " used for scans. updated on oct 11th 2009. Available from: http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/science/nature/8301232.stm . medlineplus [homepage io the internet].Endoscopy. Updated on 2/23/2009.Available from http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/003338.htm .

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