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Some dismiss him as liar or even a madman. Millions hail him as Savior and Lord. Whatever people think of him, nobody deny that he stands at the very crux of human historySlide 3: Dogmatic Approach Critico-Dogmatic Approach Christological Approaches Genetic Approach Philosophico-Anthropological Approach Liberational Approach Historico-critical approachSlide 4: Soteriology and Christology - Study of Salvation (Grk. Soteria) 1. Christology must be salvific Any understanding of who Jesus was affirmed what he offered As salvation, in words and deeds, effecting on people’s lives 2. Soteriology must be rooted in experience To understand Jesus’ offer of salvation is to recognize it in Concrete historical experience of well-being and wholeness . Soteriology is an experience of genuinely human. Salvation is an experience in context especially in our pain of contrast.Slide 5: 3. Soteriology precedes Cristology It is the experience of well-being (or Kingdom of God) which Gives full significance to the question “Who Do you say I am?” 4. Christology informs Soteriology What we experience as Salvation must be affirmed and Connected as well by who Jesus was. Christ Experience Principle 3 Principle 4Slide 6: Historical Jesus Christ of faith The Jesus who lived, flesh And blood in particular time- Space. The risen Jesus of the NT: doctrinal formulations Of the Church, popular Devotions. Ex. Sto. Nino Nazareno. (Experience of The people ofChrist) Pre-Easter Jesus (4-30 B.C,) Figure of the past Corporeal Finite-mortal Post-Easter Jesus (30 B.C- Today) Figure of the present Spiritual Infinite-eternalSlide 7: Our sources of knowledge about Jesus of Nazareth… Matthew Luke Mark John Mark Matthew Luke 90% 65% Q- source (Quelle)Slide 8: One Of Us If God had a name, what would it be and would you call it to His face If you were faced with Him in all His glory What would you ask if you had just one question Yeah, yeah, God is great Yeah, yeah, God is good Yeah, yeah, yeah, yeah, yeah What if God was one of us Just a slob like one of us Just a stranger on the bus Trying to make His way home If God had a face, what would it look like And would you want to see If seeing meant that you would have to believe In things like Heaven and in Jesus and the Saints and all the Prophets and... Yeah, yeah, God is great Yeah, yeah, God is good Yeah, yeah, yeah, yeah, yeah What if God was one of us Just a slob like one of us Just a stranger on the bus Trying to make His way home Tryin' to make His way home Back up to Heaven all alone Nobody callin' on the phone 'Cept for the Pope maybe in Rome Yeah, yeah, God is great Yeah, yeah, God is good Yeah, yeah, yeah, yeah, yeah What if God was one of us Just a slob like one of us Just a stranger on the bus Trying to make His way home Just tryin' to make his way home Like a holy rolling stone Back up to Heaven all alone Just tryin' to make his way home Nobody callin' on the phone 'Cept for the Pope maybe in RomeSlide 9: THOR ZEUS JUPITER JESUS BRAHMA ODIN BUDDHA HORUS If God had a name, what would it be?Slide 10: What would you ask if you had one just question?Slide 12: Matthew 25:31-46 “ It is the poor who Teaches us to be Holy” Mother TeresaSlide 13: The Gospel of Jesus Christ is a message of freedom and a force for liberation. In recent years, this essential truth has become the object of reflection for theologians, with a new kind of attention which is itself full of promise. Liberation is first and foremost liberation from the radical slavery of sin. Its end and its goal is the freedom of the children of God, which is the gift of grace. As a logical consequence, it calls for freedom from many different kinds of slavery in the cultural, economic, social, and political spheres, all of which derive ultimately from sin, and so often prevent people from living in a manner befitting their dignity. To discern clearly what is fundamental to this issue and what is a by-product of it, is an indispensable condition for any theological reflection on liberation. Sacred Congregation for the Doctrine of faithSlide 14: Faced with the urgency of certain problems, some are tempted to emphasize, unilaterally, the liberation from servitude of an earthly and temporal kind. They do so in such a way that they seem to put liberation from sin in second place, and so fail to give it the primary importance it is due. Thus, their very presentation of the problems is confused and ambiguous. Others, in an effort to learn more precisely what are the causes of the slavery which they want to end, make use of different concepts without sufficient critical caution. It is difficult, and perhaps impossible, to purify these borrowed concepts of an ideological inspiration which is compatible with Christian faith and the ethical requirements which flow from it. The present Instruction has a much more limited and precise purpose: to draw the attention of pastors, theologians, and all the faithful to the deviations, and risks of deviation, damaging to the faith and to Christian living, that are brought about by certain forms of liberation theology which use, in an insufficiently critical manner, concepts borrowed from various currents of Marxist thought.Slide 15: This warning should in no way be interpreted as a disavowal of all those who want to respond generously and with an authentic evangelical spirit to the "preferential option for the poor." It should not at all serve as an excuse for those who maintain the attitude of neutrality and indifference in the face of the tragic and pressing problems of human misery and injustice. It is, on the contrary, dictated by the certitude that the serious ideological deviations which it points out tends inevitably to betray the cause of the poor. More than ever, it is important that numerous Christians, whose faith is clear and who are committed to live the Christian life in its fullness, become involved in the struggle for justice, freedom, and human dignity because of their love for their disinherited, oppressed, and persecuted brothers and sisters. More than ever, the Church intends to condemn abuses, injustices, and attacks against freedom, wherever they occur and whoever commits them. She intends to struggle, by her own means, for the defense and advancement of the rights of mankind, especially of the poor.Slide 16: The message of Jesus was A proclamation that God’s Kingdom has come and as A result we should change The way we live…Slide 17: Who do you say I am? Pre- Easter Jesus Post-Easter Jesus New Testament Christology Patristic and early Church ChristologySlide 18: Name: Jesus Occupation: Carpenter Birth place: Bethlehem Birth date: 8 – 4 BC during the reign of Herod the great Mother’s Name: Mary ( The Virgin Mother) Father’s name: Joseph the carpenter Home Address: Nazareth Died: 29 AD Wanted: for sedition, criminal anarchy, vagrancy and conspiring to overthrow the established government Verdict: Death on the CrossSlide 19: The Jewish World Palestine under the Romans Herod the Great ( 37 – 4 B.C.) Appointed by Octavian as king of the Jew in 30 B.C. In relation to Rome his Status was that of Rex socius, or Allied king, enjoying autonomy and freedom from Tribute, but subject to Rome in matters of foreign policy and obliged to furnish troops to the imperial army in time of war. Married to Hasmonaean princess Mariamne. His reign was marked by great constructions…He built temples to Augustus in Hellenistic cities, he restored Samaria and renamed it Sebaste; he rebuilt Strato’s tower and renamed it Caesarea. He built the palace of Herod, the tower of Antonia, Amphitheater, gymnasia, theaters, And stadia throughout the land. Died at Jericho in March/April, 4 B.C. and was buried on the Herodium near Bethlehem .Slide 20: The Sons of Herod In his will Herod had divided his kingdom among his sons Archelaus ( whom he named King), Antipas , and Philip ( Both named Tetrarchs) But the will was subject to the approval of Augustus. Eventually it was not approved, Archelaus was named ethnarch, not King, and all three sons were vassals of Rome and subject to the legate Of Syria. Archelaus (4 B.C. – 6 A.D.) Etnarch of Judea, Idumea, and Samaria. In 6 A.D. he was summoned to Rome to answer charges of misgovernment. He was deposed and exiled to Vienne in Gaul, and his former territory Was placed under a Roman procurator. Philip (4 B.C. – 34 A.D.) Tetrarch of Gaulanitis, Ituraea, Batanaea, Trachonitis, and Auranitis. His reign was peaceful. He restored Panias, Renaming it Caesarea Philippi. He married his niece Salome, daughter Of Herodias. At his death his territory was annexed to the province of SyriaSlide 21: Antipas (4 B.C. – 39 A.D.) Tetrarch of Galilee and Peraea. He restored Sepphoris in Galilee and by the southeast corner of the Lake of Galilee Built the new town of Tiberias. He married the daughter of Aretas IV, The king of the Nabataeans, but repudiated her in order to marry Herodias (Formerly the wife of his brother Herod Philip) a union Condemned by John the Baptist ( Mt. 14:3) Herod the Great Doris Mariamne (Hasmonean) Mariamne II Malthace Cleopatra Antipater Alexander Aristobulus Herod Philip Archelaus Antipas Philip (H. of Herodias) (Etnarch) (Tetrarch) (Tetrarch) Agripa I Herod Herodias Salome ( daughter of Herodias wife of Philip) (king of (Wife of Chalsis) Herod Philip) ( Movie )Slide 22: They are legalistic to the law, they had turned the observance of the Torah into an insupportable burden and since,faithfulness to God was Expressed through faithfulness to the whole Torah, they had effectively “Shut the Kingdom of Heaven” against men. (Mt. 23”13) Pride in their knowledge and observance of the Law led to self- Righteousness. Saducess. Their name probably means “Zadokites” descendants or partisan Of Zadok, Solomom’s priest (1 Kng. 2:35) They were chiefly concerned with temple administration and ritual And kept themselves aloof from the masses. They believed to doctrines such as personal immortality, judgement After death, resurrection, and the existence of angels, and more Progressive in terms of accepting new ideas.Slide 23: Conservative type, they took their stand on the torah alone and Rejected the oral tradition. They accepted Roman rule because the preservation of the status Quo was to their advantage. They don’t believe in the resurrection , personal immortality And recompense beyond the grave, as well as the existence of the Angels and devils. Scribes They first appear in the reign of Solomon as educated civil servant They are the originators and authors of the wisdom literature. In the First century A.D. they are the lawyers, moralists, and Theologians. They are the guides and teachers of the Jewish Community. Mt 2:1-6 ( MOVIE ) Although in the Gospels, the scribes are most often associated With the Pharisees, it remains true that the great majority of scribes Inclined to Pharisaism.Slide 24: Sanhedrin It was a senate of priest and laymen with 70 members They had considerable power. It could handle all cases involving Infringement of the Torah. This include the civil as well as the Religious sphere since Judaism knew one Law only. Mt. 26:57-68 They have their own police force and could arrest male factors and Punish them when convicted. Essence. Monastic movement of priestly ascetics. They based on the desert near the Dead sea, Qumran Zealots Ardent patriots who regarded themselves as the agents of God’s Wrath and the instruments of the deliverance of his people. They used a short dagger called a sica, to stub their enemies. They Were known as sicarii by the Romans. Samaritans (origins of the Samaritans 2Kngs 17: 24-41)Slide 25: The Ministry of JesusSlide 27: Meta de to paradoqhnai ton Ioannhn hlqen o Ihsouz Meta de to paradotheynai ton Ioannen elthen o Ieysous eiz thn galilaian khrusswn to euaggelion tou qeou eis teyn galilaian keyrusson to euaggelion ton theou Kai legon oti peplhrwtai o kairos hggiken h basileia Kai legon oti pepleyrotai o kairos eyggiken ey Basileia tou qeou me tanoite kai pisteuete en tw euaggeliw. ton Theou me tanoite kai pisteute en to euaggelio Mark 1:14-15Slide 29: Jesus as a Social Prophet Task: to utter God’s condemnation of those who exploited And despised the poor. Ex. Amos: The prophet of justice Denouncing the social injustice during his time. ( 2:6; cf. 8:4-8 Bribes 5:12 Jeremiah (22:3)Slide 30: The prophets were: Voices of religious social protest against the royal theology. God-intoxicated spirit persons. Bearers of the dream of God – a world of justice and compassion. Concerned with: The immediate present of their people. The immediate future flowing out of the present.Slide 31: EVIDENCE THAT JESUS WAS A SOCIAL PROPHET. CONFLICTS WITH PHARISEES COMMITTED TO THE PURITY SYSTEM. ANTI-TEMPLE SAYINGS AND ACTIONS. ANTI-PURITY SAYINGS AND ACTIONS. FORGIVENESS OF SINS APART FROM THE TEMPLE AND PURITY SYSTEMS. Jesus indicts and challenges the peasants, purity, and patriarchal domination systemsSlide 32: INDICTMENT AND CHALLENGE Purity sayings Mark 7:15 To say purity is what’s on the inside is a profoundly politically subversive statement. Mark 5:8 To say purity is a matter of the heart is to deny that purity is a matter of observing the purity system. Healings Luke 4:40 Jesus violated the purity system in his healings by touching Those the purity system considered unclean. Luke 5:17-25 He subverted the boundaries, healed and forgave sins outside the purity system.Slide 33: Relationships with women Jesus subverts some of the sacred taboos of his time by: Speaking with women Affirming Mary’s role as a disciple when questioned by Martha. Defending the woman who entered an all-male banquet And washed Jesus’ feet. Welcoming women as member of his itinerant groupSlide 34: Temple sayings and actions Mark 11:15-16 Jesus’ action in the temple is an anti-purity act. Money changers and sellers were serving the ruling elites, facilitating payment of taxes. -Jesus’ action protested against the temple as the center of an economically and politically oppressive domination system .Slide 35: Common table fellowship Jesus was accused of eating with “tax collectors and sinners”. In purity society, eating was a political act, who you ate with mattered. Jesus’ open table fellowship was subversive and illustrated an alternative wisdom. Jesus challenged social/political understandings of his society system and advocated an alternative social vision.Slide 36: Politics of Compassion Jesus taught a politics of compassion “ Be compassionate in the way your Father is compassionate” Lk 6:36 The Good Samaritan parable illustrates the politics of compassion. The priest and the Levite passed by the wounded man because Of purity boundaries - death was unclean. The practice of purity interfered with practice of compassion. The Samaritan, considered impure by the purity system, was the one who acted with compassion. The politics of purity creates radical sharp social boundaries. A politics of compassion dissolves sharp boundaries, is egalitarian and inclusive.Did Jesus found the Church?: Did Jesus found the Church? “Jesus” – the historical Jesus or Jesus of history “Church” – the institution or organization as we have it today “found” – to establish, create, set up, bring into being, institute Did the Jesus during his lifetime established the Church as we know or have today?“Jesus preached the kingdom of God and what came out was the Church” (Alfred Loisy): “Jesus preached the kingdom of God and what came out was the Church” (Alfred Loisy)In the praxis for the reign of God...: In the praxis for the reign of God... Jesus gathered disciples around him and gave them a mission to preach, heal, cast out demons… as he did. “Last supper” must be seen in view of all the meals (life-giving) he had His violent execution by execution was the ultimate consequence of what he did… for the sake of God’s kingdomInstead of “Jesus founding the Church”… Jesus is the total foundation of the Church or the founder of Christian way of life: Instead of “Jesus founding the Church”… Jesus is the total foundation of the Church or the founder of Christian way of lifeSlide 41: The Miracle Worker JESUSSlide 42: Many people have claimed to be God, but only one man in history demonstrated through his actions that he had a supernatural power source. The power Jesus displayed shook the nation of Israel to its core. He healed the lame and the blind, controlled the movement of fish, and calmed storms. Not only did Jesus heal hundreds of people from sickness and disease, but on several occasions he raised people from physical death!Slide 43: Did Jesus really do real miracles? Healing the Blind Walking on Water Feeding 5000 Raising the Dead Healing Fever Water Made Wine Curing ParalyticsSlide 44: Changing water into wine (John 2:1-11) The first miracle of Jesus took place in the village of Cana, in Galilee. Jesus, His Mother Mary, and His disciples were quests at a wedding. The wine supply ran out, and through the urging of His Mother, Jesus had six water pots filled to the brim with water. He then had the master of ceremonies taste the water that was now wine. The master of ceremonies then called the bridegroom over and said to him, "Everyone serves the good wine first, and then the inferior wine after the quests have become drunk. But you have kept the good wine until now".Slide 45: Healing a paralytic (Matthew 9:1-8, Mark 2:1-12, Luke 5:18-26) There was a large crowd around the house Jesus was staying, in Capernaum. With no room left in or outside the house, four men dug through the roof and lowered a paralyzed man on a mat, right in front of Jesus. When Jesus saw how strongly they believed that He would help, Jesus said to the sick man "Son your sins are forgiven!" Some of the Jewish leaders thought this was blasphemy, for only God can forgive sins. Jesus let them know that the Son of Man has authority on earth to forgive sins, and said to the paralytic "I say to you stand up, take your mat and go home". The man stood up took the mat and went out before all of them, so that they were all amazed and Glorified god, saying, "We have never seen anything like this".Slide 46: Walking on water (Matthew 14:22-33, Mark 6:45-52, John 6:16-21) After feeding the 5000, Jesus made His disciples get into a boat and go ahead to the other side of the Sea of Galilee. He then dismissed the crowds and went up the mountain by Himself to pray. By this time the boat was far from land, and was being battered by wind and waves. Early in the morning He came walking towards His disciples on the sea. When His disciples saw Him walking on the sea, they were terrified, saying "Its a ghost." But Jesus spoke to them "Take heart, it is I, do not be afraid." Peter answered Him "Lord if its You, command me to come to You on the water." Jesus told Him to come, and Peter got out of the boat and started walking on the water. But when he noticed the strong wind, he became frightened and beginning to sink he cried out to Jesus to save him. Jesus immediately reached out His hand and caught him, saying to him "You of little faith, why did you doubt?" When they got into the boat the wind ceased. And those in the boat worshiped Him, saying "Truly You are the Son of God."Slide 47: Healing a deaf man with a speech impediment (Mark 7:31-37) Jesus left Tyre, and in the region of Decapolis, a deaf man who had a speech impediment was brought to Him. He took the man aside away from the crowd, put His fingers into the mans ears, and He spat and touched his tongue. Then looking up to Heaven, He sighed and said to him "Ephphatha", that is, "Be opened." Immediately his ears were opened, his tongue was released, and he spoke plainly. Then Jesus ordered them to tell no one, but they were astounded beyond measure, saying, "He has done everything well, He even makes the deaf to hear and the mute to speak."Slide 48: Feeding the 4000 men and their families (Matthew 15:29-39, Mark 8:1-10) Jesus passed along the Sea of Galilee, and went up into the mountain, where He sat down. Great crowds came to Him, bringing their sick, and He cured them. The crowd was with Jesus for three days and had nothing to eat. Feeling compassion for the crowd, He asked His disciples if they had any loaves. They came up with seven loaves and a few small fish. Then ordering the crowd to sit down, He took the seven loaves and the fish, and after giving thanks, He broke them and gave them to His disciples, and the disciples gave them to the crowds. And all of them ate and were filled, and the scraps were picked up, filling seven baskets. Those who had eaten were 4000 men, besides women and children.Slide 49: Healing a man born blind (John 9:1-41) Jesus saw a man who was blind from birth. He then spat on the ground and made mud with the saliva and spread the mud on the mans eyes, saying to him "Go wash in the pool of Siloam." When the man done this he came back able to see. The people who had known the man were so astounded, they brought the Pharisee's to him. After many questions, which also included the mans parents, the Pharisee's could not accept the fact that Jesus cured a man who was born blind. Jesus made the statement "I came into this world for judgement so that those who do not see may see, and those who do see may become blind."Slide 50: Raising of Lazarus (John 11:1-44) Mary and Martha, the sisters of Lazarus of Bethany, sent Jesus a message that His friend Lazarus was ill. Jesus stayed two days longer in the place He was, before setting out for Bethany. When Jesus arrived, he found that Lazarus had already been in the tomb four days. Martha told Jesus that if He had been here, her brother would not have died, but Jesus said to her "Your brother will rise again." Jesus asked where Lazarus was laid out. Jesus began to weep as they walked to the tomb. The tomb was a cave with a stone laying against it. He asked to have the stone removed. Martha said to Him "Lord already there is a stench because he has been dead four days." Jesus answered "Did I not tell you that if you believed, you would see the Glory of God?" When the stone was removed, Jesus looked upward and prayed to the Father. He then cried out in a loud voice "Lazarus come out." The dead man came out with his hands feet and face wrapped in a cloth. Jesus said to them "Unbind him, and let him go."Slide 51: Healing 10 lepers (Luke 17:11-19) On the way to Jerusalem, Jesus entered a village and was approached by 10 lepers. Keeping their distance, they called out to Jesus for mercy. When He saw them, He said to them "Go and show yourselves to the Priests." And as they went they were made clean. Then one of them, when he saw he was healed, turned back, praising God with a loud voice. He prostrated himself and thanked Jesus. And he was a Samaritan. Then Jesus asked "Were not 10 made clean? But where are the other 9. Was none of them found to return and give praise to God except for this foreigner?" Then He said to him "Get up and go on your way, your faith has made you well."Slide 52: The Bible , with a credibility of its own , is replete with reports of miracles. All four Gospel accounts refer to Jesus as a miracle-worker. Specific details in those accounts ( Matthew 11 , John 11 ) and the fact that first-century Jewish authorities acknowledged Jesus' miracles ( John 3:2 ), adds weight to the case. Even so-called antagonistic sources, such as the Talmud and certain Islamic writings , allude to the miracles of Jesus ..Slide 53: Attraction of Followers Jesus attracted a large following during his ministry. This is testified to by the New Testament source material and Josephus. These sources indicate that part of the reason that Jesus attracted large numbers of followers was his miracle working. Certainly it is true that Jesus' miracle working would provide strong explanatory power as to his importance as a first century religious figure. "An ability to work cures, further, coheres with another datum from Jesus' mission: He had a popular following, which such an ability helps to account for."Slide 54: The movement did not die out after his death. Most others did. Though plausible, a more likely explanation for the endurance of Jesus' followers is the reason stated by his followers themselves: the resurrection of Jesus. Our best evidence tells us that many of Jesus' followers experienced resurrection appearances after his death. Whether or not the empty tomb reaches as far back (I think it does), it seems clear that many of Jesus' followers attributed their continuing mission and fortitude to Jesus' resurrection appearances. The centrality of the resurrection to early Christian proclamation (in Paul's letters and in the early preaching discourses in Acts) adds weight to this explanation. Accordingly, while Jesus' ability to gather large followings or crowds during his ministry coheres with the miracle accounts, the endurance of such followers after his death is more likely explained by their resurrection experiences. Much more...Slide 55: Jesus' miracles are depicted differently than those of the early Church. "In the Synoptics Jesus does not follow biblical or later Christian precedent in performing his cures; he does not pray nor does he invoke the sacred name. For example, when Jesus performs miracles in Luke, he does not invoke the divine name, he does not rely on any incantation or vessel. He generally just commands. ("Then he came and touched the open coffin, and those who carried him stood still. And he said, 'Young man, I say to you, arise.'" Luke 7:14.) Uniqueness of his miracleSlide 56: Conclusion The miracle stories of Jesus originated very early, contained reports not likely to have been created by early Christians, and cohere well with the rest of what we know about Jesus and his ministry. The best explanation for this evidence is that Jesus was known during his life as a miracle worker. The uniqueness of such miracle working adds significant weight to this conclusion and leads us to the further conclusion that the feats of Jesus must have been impressive. Though, as Carrier points out, Jesus lived in a time of superstition and religiosity, his miracles are uniquely attested. No other person of that time period has anything close to the attestation Jesus receives as a miracle worker. Accordingly, even if your philosophical predispositions preclude you from believing that Jesus actually performed miracles that violated the laws of nature, it should be admitted that he performed feats that convinced his contemporaries that he did such deeds.Slide 57: The Faith of JesusSlide 58: To speak of the faith of Jesus might strike some Christians as strange or surprising. How can we speak of Jesus’ faith if, as the second Person of the Holy Trinity, he knows the Father fully? According to some medieval scholastics, Jesus was enjoying the Beatific vision, the happy and heavenly vision of God, already from the first moment of his conception. In this case, throughout his public ministry and during his trial and execution, were his physical and psychological struggles real or were they only instances of playing- acting? What is Faith? Hbr 11:1-3 Hbr 12:2 A post-easter reflection which scholars believed was based on the Remembrance of the historical Jesus. In this letter Jesus is called “ the Pioneer and perfecter of our faith.”Slide 59: The Perfect faith of Jesus Hbr.5:7-8 Jesus cannot be described as the pioneer of our faith if he himself did not practice great faith. The faith of Jesus was a process of learning to trust. Just as Jesus developed physically, his faith also was a process of development. His faith developed through a process Of interaction with various persons from whom he would learn new Things. The Faith of the people Mark 9:16-29 Healing of the boy with a deaf-mute spirit. Mt 8:5-13 Centurion's servant Mark 5: 21-34 Jairus daughter and the hemorrhage woman Mt. 9:1-2 Healing a paralytic man Mark 7:24-30 Syrophoenician womanSlide 60: Lack of Faith Mt. 14:29-32 The Faith of Peter Mark 4:35-41 Calming of a storm at sea, Mt 13:54-58 Rejection at Nazareth Another testimony to the faith of Jesus Mark 15”37 The cry for help of Jesus to the Father The death of Jesus as a Godforsaken man does not mean that He died in despair or that his faith collapsed in his final moment. Jesus Died with terrible feeling of being abandoned by God, and yet he held On in his trust without the conclusion of feeling the presence of the Merciful Father who was hidden and silent. Jesus was able to hold on Because his faith had grown so much throughout his life. His faith was Already tried and tested in the temptations and challenges he encountered . Thus, After the compassionate Father vindicated and glorified him, Christ can Be in solidarity with godforsaken men and women, those who are abandoned by family and friends, Those who are abandoned by society and those who feel abandoned by God.Slide 61: History of Faith healing in the Church In the time of Jesus, illness is regarded as the sign of the presence of evil spirits. And Jesus’ power to heal is proclaimed as evidence that God’s kingdom has come in his person. Jesus conferred the power over disease on his disciples, and healing ministry has been claimed and exercised by the Church. Corinthians 12:4-11 special gifts of the Spirit. 3 rd century belief in the curative powers of holy relics Became widespread.Slide 62: Role of Faith Faith regarded as the channel of cure. Faith must be in the sense of trust and expectancy- Rather than in the sense of subscription to orthodox Doctrine-is the prerequisite to healing. Pentecostal Movement Christian revivalist movement, originated in USA, 1906. Spiritual renewal is sought through baptism by the Holy Spirit. As experience by the apostles on the first Pentecost. (Acts 2)Slide 63: Pentecostal Movement The movement represented a reaction against the theology and formal worship of the traditional churches. Glossolalia, or speaking in tongues, often occurs. They believe in the literal word of the Bible and faith Healing. They disapprove different vices. They have a sense of a missionary faith. Pentecostal Churches is the world’s fastest growing Sector of Christianity. The movement has influenced other Areas of Christian Church. ( Charismatic group)Slide 64: Pentecostal Movement It appeals particularly to the poor and those alienated By the formalism and modernist theology of established Denominations. It combined a highly emotional, informal approach to Worship with an ethical emphasis on sobriety and hard Work, and it became a way for poor and marginal groups To improve their economic and social status while retaining Their religious faith.Slide 65: The ParablesSlide 66: Parables Hbr. “Mashal” is basically comparison. It is a story drawn from ordinary life or nature which draws the reader to look at reality with a new set of glasses. Is a story which gives lesson to change visions and renew hearts. Jesus parables are “world-events” Generally convey one general meaning. (Lk. 8:4-8, the Sower. 8:11-18, the parable explained) The focus in this section is on how one should hear the word of God and act on it.Slide 67: Why parables? Mt 13:10-15 INTERPRETING PARABLES Delimit the text Where does the parable begins or ends? To delimit is to determine the boundaries of a certain Jesus tradition (place and time indicators, character and literary form and content together determine these boundaries.) Parable of the Good Samaritan (Lk. 10:30-35), although the Greater context of Lk 10:25-37 is needed to understand the meaning. 2. Get one principal truth This simplifies matters The main point of the parable Jesus intended meaning. The parable of the rich fool Lk. 12:16-21 The Parable of the lost coin Lk 15:8-9 The parable of the lost sheep Mt.. 18:10-14Slide 68: 3. Palestinian Context Daily life, values and customs in Palestine at the time of Jesus is the single most helpful resource to draw meaning from his parables. Salt and light Mt. 5:13 4. Determine the audience To whom Jesus is speaking? Parables of two sons (Mt.21:28-30) The wicked tenant (33-34) Wedding feast (22:1-14) Are obviously addressed to the chief priest and scribes and elders . 5. Read the text in context Context determines the interpretation of the parable of the lost sheep in Mt. 18:12-14 and in Luke 15:3-7Slide 69: The Twelve Peter Andrew James John Philip Bartholomew Sons of Zebedee Thomas Matthew James Thaddeus Simon Judas Son of Alpeheus The Cananean Mark 3:13-19Slide 70: The Twelve Symbolism : Twelve tribes of Israel. Eschatological Significance: a renewed community of community or an eschatological Israel. During the time of Jesus there was no more 12 tribes but there remained 2 or 3 tribes. Meaning: When we speak of the twelve it means the restoration of the Covenant of YHWH, the restoration of all people as God’s people. The calling of the twelve is the calling of the people in unity.Twelve Tribes of Israel: Twelve Tribes of Israel INDEX Twelve Tribes of Israel Manasseh Asher Naphtali Zebulun Issachar Gad Ephraim Dan Benjamin Reuben Simeon Judah A s h e r Simeon Naphtali Zebulun Issachar Ephraim M a n a s s e h G a d Dan Reuben J u d a h Benjamin Jerusalem Dead Sea Galilee Jordan River Jericho Mt.Nebo © 12 Tribes of Israel MediterraneanSlide 72: The Commissioning of the Twelve: Mt. 28:16-20 Basileia tou Qeou Jesus: Politico-Religious Figure Politics and Religion go hand in hand Jesus as a Witness to a more humane and liberated human life. Preference for Gospel preaching: Historical Jesus Hermenuetical key: Beatitudes (Mt. 5) Poor: Primary beneficiaries of God’s kingdom.Slide 73: “DO THIS IN MEMORY OF ME” The Eucharist as Presence, Empowerment and Mission for the Laity in the WorldSlide 74: Ano ba ang kaugnayan ng sacramento Sa tumataas na presyo ng kangkong ? Sacraments are outward signs Instituted by Christ to give us Grace.Slide 76: Common table fellowship Jesus was accused of eating with “tax collectors and sinners”. In purity society, eating was a political act, who you ate with mattered. Jesus’ open table fellowship was subversive and illustrated an alternative wisdom. Jesus challenged social/political understandings of his society system and advocated an alternative social vision.The Golden Rules: The Golden Rules Love God with all your heart, soul, mind Love your neighbour as yourselfAng buhay ni Hesus: isang hapag-kainan the privileged space of encounter between God and humanity: Ang buhay ni Hesus: isang hapag-kainan the privileged space of encounter between God and humanity< great banquet at the house of Levi > < dinner at house of Simon the Pharisee > < breaking of bread in Bethsaida > < hospitality at the home of Martha > < noon-meal at the home of a Pharisee > < hospitality at the house of Zacchaeus preparing the Passover > < the Passover (“last supper”) > <breaking bread with 2 disciples at Emmaus> < with the community in Jerusalem > : < great banquet at the house of Levi > < dinner at house of Simon the Pharisee > < breaking of bread in Bethsaida > < hospitality at the home of Martha > < noon-meal at the home of a Pharisee > < hospitality at the house of Zacchaeus preparing the Passover > < the Passover (“last supper”) > <breaking bread with 2 disciples at Emmaus > < with the community in Jerusalem >“Last Supper”: “Last Supper” to share meal or break bread with someone is a pledge of friendship and solidarity bread and wine as signs of joy and plenty of the promised land “last supper” in context of all the meals Jesus shared in his public ministry: life broken and shared “last supper” summarizes all the decisions and actions Jesus made in life“Do this in memory of me” PRESENCE Jesus made people feel that the gracious and compassionate God is always with them ... unconditionally self-giving and faithfully loving : “ Do this in memory of me ” PRESENCE Jesus made people feel that the gracious and compassionate God is always with them ... unconditionally self-giving and faithfully lovingKingdom or Reign of God Ang pamamayani ng kagandahang-loob ng Diyos: Kingdom or Reign of God Ang pamamayani ng kagandahang-loob ng Diyos Presence of God Justice of God Love of God Holiness of God Compassion of God Goodness of God Mercy of God Creativeness of God Forgiveness of God Grace of God Power of God Relatedness of GodEucharist as presence… celebrating our response as a community to the presence and activity of God, in Christ, in our midst we also experience and acknowledge the life-giving presence of God in our world and in our histories : Eucharist as presence… celebrating our response as a community to the presence and activity of God, in Christ, in our midst we also experience and acknowledge the life-giving presence of God in our world and in our histories“Do this in memory of me” EMPOWERMENT Jesus’ proclamation of the reign of God takes a subversive character because it was the socially undervalued people (the poor, the sick, the sinners and outcasts) who experienced his power as a restoration of dignity and a sense of recognition: “ Do this in memory of me ” EMPOWERMENT Jesus’ proclamation of the reign of God takes a subversive character because it was the socially undervalued people (the poor, the sick, the sinners and outcasts) who experienced his power as a restoration of dignity and a sense of recognitiondangal pagkilala ang pagkilala sa kapwa ay pagbibigay ng halaga sa kanyang dangal ang pagwawalang-bahala sa dangal ng kapwa ay di-pagkilala sa sariling dangal : dangal pagkilala ang pagkilala sa kapwa ay pagbibigay ng halaga sa kanyang dangal ang pagwawalang-bahala sa dangal ng kapwa ay di-pagkilala sa sariling dangalThe divine presence that Jesus embodied is empowering because it effectively brings healing, reconciliation, happiness, peace, justice, liberation (= salvation) ang pananahan ng Diyos ay nagdudulot ng kaginhawaan, kahit na pira-pirasong pa lamang ito sa ating buhay. : The divine presence that Jesus embodied is empowering because it effectively brings healing, reconciliation, happiness, peace, justice, liberation (= salvation) ang pananahan ng Diyos ay nagdudulot ng kaginhawaan, kahit na pira-pirasong pa lamang ito sa ating buhay.Eucharist as empowerment The sense of dignity and recognition finds expression in the community of faith which excludes no one and desires only the wholeness of life for all: Eucharist as empowerment The sense of dignity and recognition finds expression in the community of faith which excludes no one and desires only the wholeness of life for allAt the Lord’s table, everyone shares the one bread, making us, Christ’s the disciples, one body, one community of love and salvation: At the Lord’s table, everyone shares the one bread, making us, Christ’s the disciples, one body, one community of love and salvationUnless our fundamental options or basic orientations, as well as our value systems and ways of relating change, we fall short of celebrating the Eucharist as God’s power over death : Unless our fundamental options or basic orientations, as well as our value systems and ways of relating change, we fall short of celebrating the Eucharist as God’s power over death“Do this in memory of me” MISSION Those who experience God’s presence in Jesus are not only converted and transformed; they are also missioned to break bread and share it with others: a life of service: “ Do this in memory of me ” MISSION Those who experience God’s presence in Jesus are not only converted and transformed; they are also missioned to break bread and share it with others: a life of serviceSlide 92: “For I was hungry and you gave me food…”Slide 93: “ I was thirsty and you gave me drink ”Slide 94: “ I was a stranger and you made me welcome.”Slide 95: “ I was naked and you clothed me ”Slide 96: “ I was sick and you visited me ”Eucharist as mission… eucharist is not a thing that we receive to make us “supernatural” or to bring us to world outside of here-and-now The sacraments, in general, are meant to unfold our genuine humanness, the way Jesus was truly human, selfless and compassionate : Eucharist as mission… eucharist is not a thing that we receive to make us “supernatural” or to bring us to world outside of here-and-now The sacraments, in general, are meant to unfold our genuine humanness, the way Jesus was truly human, selfless and compassionateThe signs of presence of Christ in the Eucharist go beyond the bread and wine Ang buong Misa ay bakas ng kagandahang-loob ng Diyos bilang pagtanaw ng utang na loob, may tungkulin tayo ipamakas ang buhay ni Kristo sa ating sariling buhay at sa lipunan : The signs of presence of Christ in the Eucharist go beyond the bread and wine Ang buong Misa ay bakas ng kagandahang-loob ng Diyos bilang pagtanaw ng utang na loob, may tungkulin tayo ipamakas ang buhay ni Kristo sa ating sariling buhay at sa lipunanSlide 99: We are called in obedience to His command… Transforming us to live the faith that we profess. “ Do this in memory of me”Slide 100: KRISTIYANO?Slide 103: Lord, make me an instrument of your peace. Where there is hatred, let me sow love. Where there is injury, pardon. Where there is doubt, faith. Where there is despair, hope. Where there is darkness, light. And where there is sadness, joy. O Divine Master, grant that I may not so much seek to be consoled, as to console; To be understood, as to understand; To be loved, as to love; For it is in giving that we receive, It is in pardoning that we are pardoned; And it is in dying that we are born To eternal life.Slide 104: The Paschal Mystery of Jesus The Passion… The Death… And Resurrection.Slide 105: “ Father, if you are willing, take away this cup away from me. Nevertheles, let your will be done, not mine” Lk 22:42Slide 106: What led Jesus to his death? Who's to blame for Jesus' death?Slide 107: Entry to Jerusalem: Mark 11:1-10 “Hosanna! Blessed is he who comes in the name of the Lord”Slide 108: Jerusalem and the Temple The Center of Economics and Political Power Destruction of the Temple foretold (Mk. 13:1-2) The Cleansing of the Temple (Mt. 21:12-13) Conflict with the Pharisees committed to the purity systemSlide 110: The Resurrection of JesusSlide 111: Resurrection is concerned with two-fold question: What happened to Jesus? (Objective dimension) What happened to the disciples who testified to his resurrection? (Subjective dimension) We cannot and must not separate the two. Jesus’ “personal transformation” or God’s action on Jesus preceded the disciples’experience, yet it is through the articulation of the disciples that we know what happened to Jesus. (Mt. 28:1-10)HUMILIATION AND EXALTATION: HUMILIATION AND EXALTATION The Creedal CycleSlide 113: What's in the name? יהושועSlide 114: It originates from the Hebrew יהושוע [yehoshua`] A theophoric name first mentioned within the Biblical tradition in Exodus 17:8 as one of Moses ' companions. Breaking the name down, we see that there are two parts: יהו [yahu], the theophoric reference to the deity Yahweh , and the three letter root שוע . Other meaning… "Yahweh saves" "Yahweh is salvation" "Yahweh is [my] help" "Yahweh (is) a saving-cry" This perhaps makes sense of the angel's discussion with Joseph, in the narrative of Matthew, to name Mary's son "Jesus" because " He will save his people from their sins."Slide 115: Christ Christ is not a name but a title, and comes into English from the Greek Χριστός ( Christos ), via the Latin Christus . It means " anointed one ".  The Greek is a translation of the Hebrew mashiyakh ( משיח ) or Aramaic m'shikha ( משיחא ), from which we derive the English word Messiah . The title occurs in the Old Testament and there it signifies a "prophet," "high priest" or " king " — a man, chosen by God or descended from a man chosen by God, to serve as a religious, civil, and/or military authority .Slide 116: Prophet According to the New Testament, many Jews of the time thought of Jesus as a prophet. The New Testament also indicates that Jesus considered himself to be a prophet. In the Hebrew Bible, prophets were generally men who spoke for God, proclaiming God's words to the people, and often predicting future events.Slide 117: Lord The Gospels and Acts frequently use "Lord" as a title for Jesus. According to the Gospel of John, Jesus accepted this title as his own. Many Christians interpret the term as a reference to divinity. Scholars explain the use of this title in various ways: some believe that Jesus' disciples called him "Lord", but not because he was divine rather it suggests that most people addressed Jesus as lord as a sign of respect for a miracle-worker (especially in Mark and Matthew) or as a teacher (especially in Luke). New Testament uses the term lord to mean divine , but that it was only after Jesus' death and resurrection that his followers ascribed to him divinity. The Hebrew Bible distinguishes between "lord" ( adon ) and "God"; the word "lord" does not necessarily imply divinity, although God is often described as "the Lord". There is little evidence that term was used specifically to mean "teacherIn one passage in the New Testament "lord" and "teacher" are distinguished by two different Greek wordsSlide 118: Son of Man Son of man ( בר נשא bar nasha ,) The Synoptic Gospels this title is used in several speeches by Jesus, in a way that is near universally considered to have been intended as a self-reference. Historically, the title is a Semitic idiom that originated in Ancient Mesopotamia , used to denote humanity or self in a humble manner. The phrase alludes to Daniel 7:13, which associates "one like a son of man" with a messianic vision, and six Gospel uses of the title directly refer to, and many others allude to, Daniel. Since Daniel is an apocalyptic work, some scholars link Jesus' use of the term "son of man" with the short apocalypse of chapter 13 of the Gospel of Mark ; such a view paints Jesus as preacher of apocalyptic Judaism. Geza Vermes, observing that other Aramaic texts reveal that the phrase was used frequently to mean simply "man.Slide 119: Son of God The New Testament frequently refers to Jesus as the son of God; Jesus seldom does, but often refers to God as his father. Christians universally understand this to mean that Jesus was literally God's son — according to the Nicene Creed , God's only-begotten (or unique) son, one with the Father (cf. John 3:16). The phrase itself is thus taken by many to be synonymous with divinity. The Hebrew Bible uses the phrase "son of God" in other senses: to refer to heavenly or angelic beings; to refer to the Children of Israel , and to refer to kings. In post-Biblical Judaism, the title was often applied to righteous men: Sirach 4:10 and Wisdom of Solomon 2:17-18 use the term to refer to just men. It suggests that "son of God" was a title used in the vicinity of Galilee by miracle-workers. It was suggested that the belief that Jesus was in fact "the son of God", and the association of his divine paternity with his being "messiah", were added after Christianity broke with Judaism.Slide 120: Lamb of God A title of Jesus used exclusively by John the Apostle though "lamb" is used by other New Testament writers. Paul specifically identifies Jesus with the Paschal lamb He points out that in Galilean Aramaic the word talya , literally "lamb", had the common meaning of "male child".Slide 121: Rabboni/Rabbi Mary Magdalene calls Jesus Rabboni , which means "my rabbi " [lit. "my teacher"], which is also used for Jesus in other passages. A rabbi is a Jewish teacher, usually referring to a religious teacher.Slide 122: New Testament ChristologySlide 123: Christology begins with the Easter experience of the disciples. Acts 2 The Easter experience convinced them beyond doubt that God had acted, vindicated Jesus and his message, delivered Him from the bonds of death. This was astonishing news to be Shared with others They could only express their experience in the language and symbols of their inherited tradition.Slide 124: Experience Connection PROJECTIONSlide 125: Long before Jesus was born the Old Testament predicted his life and death… The Birth (Bethlehem) Micah 5:2 -------------Mt. 2:1 Virgin birth Is. 7:14-----------------Mt. 1:18 Ministry in Galilee Is. 9:1-2----------------Mt. 4:12-16 Rejected by the People Is. 53:3-----------------Jn 1:11 Entrance to Jerusalem Zechariah 9:9---------Jn 12:13-14 Betrayal of Judas Zechariah 11:12------Mt. 26:15 Trial Is. 53:7------------------------Mt. 26:62-63 Is. 53:12----------------------Mt. 27:38 Mock and Insult Ps. 22:8-----------------------Mt. 27:39-40 Cast lots for his garments Ps. 22:18---------------------Mk. 15:24 Resurrection Ps. 22:18---------------------Mt. 28:9 Ascention Ps. 68:18---------------------Lk. 24:50-51Slide 126: The New Testament offers a multiplicity of Christologies and witnesses to an obvious development in the Church’s understanding of Jesus. The disciples didn’t immediately confess Jesus as the Preexistent Son of God.Slide 127: Paousia Christology Maranatha Christology The apocalyptic perspective of those communities was adopted to portray Jesus as soon to come, bringing God’s salvation, but also as judge. A fragment of early kerygma in Acts 3:19-21 suggests that Jesus will be Messiah only at his future coming. Thus, Parousia Christology looks to future completion Of the Kingdom of God at Christ’s second coming.Slide 128: Exaltation Christology Resurrection Christology This Christology sees Jesus as made Messiah, Lord And Son of God after his exaltation from the dead. In this confession, Jesus is designated as God’s Son by his Resurrection. It was the occasion for his messianic appointment as God’s Son. (Acts 2:32-36)Slide 129: Two-stage Christology The man Jesus has been exalted by God, made Lord and Messiah from the moment of his resurrection. Act. 5:30-31 Points that should be noted in these early Easter Christology Resurrection is something that happens to Jesus, the agency is God’s. Christological titles such as Messiah, Son of man, Son of God, and Lord are predicated of Jesus after his exaltation There is no explicit expression of his divinity. LORD – was significant ( Pre-Christian Jew were already referring to God.) Using this title for Jesus in reference to the 2 nd coming, doesn’t assert is divinity. The fact that the term was used also for YHWH puts him on the level with YHWH and implies his transcendent status.Slide 130: Two-stage Christology The man Jesus has been exalted by God, made Lord and Messiah from the moment of his resurrection. Act. 5:30-31 Points that should be noted in these early Easter Christology Resurrection is something that happens to Jesus, the agency is God’s. Christological titles such as Messiah, Son of man, Son of God, and Lord are predicated of Jesus after his exaltation There is no explicit expression of his divinity. LORD – was significant ( Pre-Christian Jew were already referring to God.) Using this title for Jesus in reference to the 2 nd coming, doesn’t assert is divinity. The fact that the term was used also for YHWH puts him on the level with YHWH and implies his transcendent status.Slide 131: Son of God Christology If the early Easter Christology recognize Jesus as the messiah, Son of man and Son of God only after his death. The Gospels See these titles as applying to Jesus during his public ministry. In this section, the synoptic gospels will consider the Christologies Under the general typology, son of God. Wisdom Christology The Gospel of JohnSlide 132: Synoptic GospelsThe Gospel of Matthew: The Gospel of MatthewAuthorship: Authorship Anonymous 2 nd Century Tradition of Matthew Papias ~ 140 Eusebius Ecclesiastical History 3.39.6 third hand information (323) Matthew in NT Levi (Mk 2:14; Mt 9:9) Tax Collector or customs official Capernaum (Jesus 2 nd home) One of the 12Source: Source Probably Mark a source Supplements Mark Birth of Jesus Resurrection appearances Large sections of Jesus’ teachings Synoptic “same viewpoint” Matthew, Mark, LukeDistinctive Features of Matthew: Distinctive Features of Matthew Jewishness Quotes OT and Jesus fulfillment 1:22-23- birth- Is 7:14 2:5-6- Beth- Micah 6:2 2:17-18- children- Jer. 2:15- Egypt- Hos 11:1 Fulfilled- Sees Jesus as the True Realization of Scripture Trace linage back to Abraham & David (1:1,17) Why 14? David = 14 Son of David 9:27; 12:23; 15:22; 21:9; 21:15 Memories of OT persons and events Moses and Jesus Stress Jesus respect for Jewish law & Tradition Prefers Kingdom of Heaven instead of Kingdom of God Developed “Wisdom” ChristologyFeatures of Matthew: Features of Matthew Emphasis on Jesus as the Master Teacher Harshly critical of Jews despite being sensitive to Jewish concerns Woes to scribes and Pharisees (Mt 23) Hypocrisy in synagogues (4:23; 9:35 10:27; +) Universal interest despite special sensitivity to Jews (28:19-20; 4:14; 12:21; 21:43) Concerns with the church more explicit than other Gospels. Only Gospel to use word church (16:18; 18:17) Church’s mission (10) Binding and loosing authority (16:19; 18:18) Church’s worship and discipline (16:18; 18:15-18)The Christ: The Christ Promised Messianic King Kingdom of Heaven (32X) Fulfills the qualifications of the Messiah OT- 130 quotes and allusions “that what was spoken of through the prophets might be fulfilled” (9X) “the Son of Man” “Servant” of the Lord “Son of David” (9X)The Gospel of Luke: The Gospel of LukeSlide 140: The Disciples do not confess Jesus as Son of God “Lord” the title given to Jesus in this gospel He presented Jesus as God’s… > Prophet (7:16, 39; 9:8; 13:33) > Servant (4:23-31) > Messiah (2:11; 9:20) > Savior (13:23) Who is Jesus?Slide 141: Jesus was called Son of God… Baptism (3:21-22) Transfiguration (9:28-36) Gerasene demoniac (8:28) Testimonies of his SonshipSlide 142: Luke presents Jesus as the Messiah, the savior but his saving Act is not only for the Jews but for every body. Universality Of Salvation: In his genealogy the Author shows to us that Jesus rooted from the line of David but sighted also that he was not of a pure Jewish blood.Gospel of Mark: Gospel of MarkSlide 147: The “executive summary” of Mark is Mark 10:45, which states the dual mission of Christ: to serve man and then to die for man. Reduced to a theme: Jesus, the Servant of God. In Mark’s account, chapter 10 seems to be the turning point. At that time, Jesus begins, it seems both geographically and mentally, to “head toward the cross” in Jerusalem. He continues to serve, but is now in a solemn march toward His death. So: Chapters 1-9: To minister Chapters 10-16: To give His lifeSlide 148: Patristic Christology Father of the ChurchSlide 149: Patristic age Creation of Christological Dogmas The intention is to show the continuity in sense and context Between the Christology of the New Testament and the Church’s Christological dogma. Development: Jesus Christ, through his death and resurrection humans have been saved. “ Being God, he became man to divinize us, he became man that we might be divinized.” St. AthanasiusSlide 150: From one form to the other, the marvelous exchange that Takes place in Jesus Christ undergoes a shift of accent, from a Sharing of sonship between sons, it becomes a share in the nature Of God on the part of humanity. Start: Christological Dogma Developed in the early centuries in the context of the encounter Between the Christian mystery and the surrounding Hellenistic Philososhy. Challenge: To preserve intact the meaning and to convey the integrity of The revealed mystery, while transpositing it from the linguistic Register of the New Testament to that of Hellenistic philosophy.Slide 151: Problem: All possible forms of reductionism by which the mystery of Jesus Christ would be so cut to size as to fit into the existing framework of Hellenistic speculation must be stopped. Dogma were made to reject the errors. It is the principle and belief, divinely revealed truth, by the Church in the form of human speech or proposition.COUNCILS: COUNCILS Nicea , A.D. 325, condemned Arianism as heresy (homoousios) Constantinople , A.D. 381, condemned Apollinarianism as heresy Ephesus , A.D. 431, condemned Nestorianism as heresy Chalcedon , A.D. 451, condemned Eutychianism as heresySlide 153: HERESIESSlide 154: An opinion or doctrine not in line with the accepted teaching of the church; the opposite of orthodoxy HERESIESSlide 155: ADOPTIONISM Reaction against the Christology of the Logos They wanted to preserve monotheism – suspected that the Logos was being turned into another supreme God – Triadic Formula, leading to tritheism To avoid this they taught that Jesus was first a man, who, at his baptism , was adopted by the Father.Slide 156: Affirmed monotheism but opposed adoptionism Adoptionism seems to separate Jesus-Christ. The spirit was already present in Jesus before His ministry and from the very moment of his conception. For Irenaeus, the spirit’s descent was the Father’s anointing of Jdesus to begin his public ministry. IrenaeusSlide 157: A presbyter in Alexandria named Arius (c. 250 - 336 A.D.) Centered on exactly who Christ was, and what manner of being he was. The debate: to what the relationship was between Christ and God the Father. He argued that Jesus was divine, but on a lower level then the Father. "One God, alone unbegotten, alone everlasting, alone unbegun, alone true, alone having immortality, alone wise, alone good, alone sovereign." From this starting point, Arius ended up with the view that Christ was an intermediary distinct from the Father (or that there was a difference of substance ( homoiousia ), or essential being between the Father and the Son.) ArianismSlide 158: Arianism was perhaps the greatest threat to the Early Church out of all the schisms and heresies. Arius, reject Trinitarianism. By some estimates, almost half of all Christians were Arians at its peak in the 4th century. Condemned by the Council of Nicea in 325 A.D., it didn’t die out completely until the 8th century. Jesus: half man and God not fully human, for he did not have a soul. Jesus was a combination of the Logos and human flesh.Slide 159: Athanasius, (c. 296-373 A.D.) Bishop of Alexandria, who argued that the Word (John 1:1-18) became man - the Word did not come into a man. Thus, Christ is fully God and fully man.Slide 160: “We believe in one God, the Father Almighty, maker of all things both visible and invisible; and in one Lord, Jesus Christ, the Son of God , Only begotten of the Father, that is to say, of the substance of the Father , God of God and Light of Light, very God of very God , begotten, not made, being of one substance with the Father, by whom all things were made, both things in heaven and things on earth ; who, for us men and for our salvation, came down and was made flesh, was made man, suffered, and rose again on the third day, went up into the heavens, and is to come again to judge both the quick and the dead; and in the Holy Ghost.” Out of the Council came the Nicene CreedSlide 161: The term comes from the Greek word gnosis , meaning knowledge. Gnosticism was vigorously refuted in the New Testament, as well as by many of the Early Church Fathers. They believed that human existed in ignorance and illusion. Through a special and secret knowledge, one could be enlightened and liberated towards union with the Divine. GnosticismSlide 162: General characteristics of Gnosticism include: They believed in salvation through gnosis , or knowledge, not through faith. They often believed that Christ was a revealer of the hidden knowledge necessary for salvation. Some Gnostics viewed Christ as a great prophet, but not as being divine. Many Gnostics believed in Dualism , or the view that there are two Gods of equal power in the Universe - one evil (who created the world and all material things), and one good (who created all spiritual and heavenly things). The "evil" God was often associated with the Old Testament God.Slide 163: Some Gnostics believed that the soul (created by the "good god") was lured (by the "evil god") into the transitory physical body. Since the “evil” god created everything worldly or material, the Gnostics believed that all material things are evil. Antinomianism: the body is inherently evil, but the soul is pure, it doesn’t matter what you do with your body Some Gnostics believed in Docetism ( from Gr. dokesis , or semblance), which viewed that Christ was a pure spirit, not a flesh and blood human being. General characteristics of Gnosticism include:Slide 164: Gnostic movements of the first several centuries A.D., and it survived well into the Middle Ages in one form or another. Its Persian founder Mani (216? - 276 A.D.) created a religion that was a curious blend of Gnosticism, Christianity, and the teachings of Persian Magi. The characteristics of Manichaeism: All religions are equally valid Dualist - two cosmic kingdoms, which included a Kingdom of Light (the Primal God) and the Kingdom of Darkness (Satan) Docetic - Christ was "a divine being clothed in the semblance of man” Believed in cycles of life (reincarnation) Preached strict asceticism ManichaeismSlide 165: The most famous convert to Manichaeism was St. Augustine, who repudiated Manichaeism in 384 A.D. Docetists – they believed that Jesus was a spirit, not a flesh and blood human being. Thus, they rejected the doctrine of the death of Jesus on the cross, and His subsequent resurrection. They also seem to have adopted the views of the 4th century Presbyter of Alexandria Arius (see upcoming section) that stated that Jesus, while an exalted being, is not on the same level as the Father. PROBLEMSlide 166: MONOPHYSITISM Grk: “Mono”- one “phusis”- nature Belief: Jesus had only one, divine nature. Eutyches In the union of the human and the Divine nature of Christ, the final result would be one nature (phusis) in him, for the human Nature would have been absorbed by the much superior divine natureSlide 167: MODALISM Known also as Sabellianism: Sabellius Uphold monotheism against Tritheism Triaetic expression leading to creation of another superior god. The Trinity in modes The Father in the mode of the Son The one who suffered and died on the cross was the Father in the mode of the Son. For Sabellius, God appears in different faces, masks, roles. Analogy: The saame actor can perform different roles. Thus, the one God took on the role of the Father in the work of the creation and giving of the torah.Slide 168: Nestorianism Founded by two men - Theodoren (d. 428 A.D.; Bishop of Mopsuesta, 392 A.D.) and its namesake Nestorius (d. 440? A.D.; Patriarch of Constantinople, 428 A.D.).Slide 169: The arguments of Nestorianism: There were two separate natures in Christ. Christ was a "Man who became God" rather than "God who became Man". As such, Jesus of Nazareth and the Word were united. Therefore, Mary was not the "Mother of God" Tended to view Christ as a prophet and teacher, inspired by an indwelling logos. Christ was the first "perfect man" These viewpoints were declared heretical at Council of Ephesus (431 A.D.) and Council of Chalcedon (451 A.D.).Slide 170: He believed in the Hyposthatic union, but he was Against their casual combination. He described the combination of humanity and Divinity as a conjunction (sunapheia) He described this union as a moral union or a union of wills in which the will of the human Jesus was fully united with the will of the Divine Son. As an implication, Nestorius asserted that only the Human Jesus died on the cross and was resurrected While the Divine Son did not die.Slide 171: Christological Councils Context and PurposeSlide 172: Nicea (325) The Problem: Is Jesus Christ truly the Son of God?” The context of the council of Nicea is Alexandrian school of Christology. Arius: Denial of the equality in divinity of the Son of God with the Father. The Son is begotten by the Father. (created in time) Becoming in turn the instrument in God’s action of creating the world. Intermidiary between God-world but not the mediator between God –manSlide 173: Purpose/Meaning To affirm the Sonship of God, the denial of Arius of the equal divinity of the Son with the Father. To assert that the Son of God is a Truly divine, as the Father equal in divinity. In order ro counteract the arian reductionism, the symbol of Nicea affirmed that in Jesus Christ he Son of God not only”became flesh” (sarkotheis), but added by way of explanation “was made man” (Enanthropesas)Slide 174: St. Athanasius: Champion of the Nicea. The SALVATION of humankind in JESUS CHRIST. If Jesus was neither truly God nor truly man, as the Logos-sarx. Christology of Arius claimed, neither was he capable of saving, nor could humankind have been saved in him. Axiom: “He became man that we might be divinized” Nicea thus showed the close bound that exists between soteriology and Christology; that is between what Jesus is for us and who he is in himself.Slide 175: Importance of Nicea The aunthentic inculturaltion of the faith must account. The use of philosophical terms that result in imposing on the object of faith an outward garment of abstract concept. Reinterpretation of the unchanging content in a new context. Nicea interpreted it in keeping with the biblical meaning but bu making use of Hellenistic ontological terminology. Implication for the Christian concept of God.Slide 176: The Council of Ephesus Problem : In what sense and in what manner has the Son of God becomes human in Jesus? The scandal of the incarnation of the Son of God which is at stake. Could it be thought that the eternal Son of God himself was subjected to becoming a human, subjected to humiliation and a human death? Nestorius: Questioned the true divine-human unity in Jesus Christ starting according to the antiochian tradition from the man Jesus, he asked how he was united with the son of God Christology of the Homo Assumptus_ from below. Opponent: Cyril of Alexandria. How God had assumed true humanity in Jesus Christ. - Logos-sarx Christology – from above.Slide 177: Meaning / Purpose Cyril- To explain the true meaning of the incarnation of the Son of God affirms that the word of God has united to himself. The humanity of Jesus” according to the hypostasis” Hypostasis- opposition to Nestorius’ union by conjunction/ according to which Jesus was made to personify. Importance of the Council It explained the mystery of the hypostatic union in Jesus Christ,it is clear that there exists but one ontological personhood, that of the Son of God who personally has become human. In this sense, the mystery of the hypostatic union is therefore that of humanization of God, God has taken a human face. Jesus is God humanized, not man divinized.Slide 178: Council of Chalcedon Underlining the unity, it had left the distinction between divinity and humanity unexplained (Ephesus). This is where Chalcedon completes Ephesus. Chalcedon represents progress with regard to the terminology in which the mystery of Jesus is expressedSlide 179: Chalcedon will correct the language of Cyril. Humanity of Jesus was put in question: if the word of God has taken on human nature, what happens to that nature in the process of union? Is it maintained in its human reality? Or is it absorbed in the divinity of the Son of God? Euthyches admitting that Christ is from two nature, but refused to affirm that he remains in two natures aafter the process of union (Monophysitism)Slide 180: Meaning of Chalcedon It is in this council that the unity of two natures affirmed the same (ousious) is consubstantial with the Father as to the divinity and with us to the humanity. Jesus Christ acts both as God and as man. Importance: HYPOSTATHIC UNION The being of Jesus in himself is the necessary foundation of his salvific function toward us. He can be what he is for us because of who he is in himself.DEFINITION OF CHALCEDON: DEFINITION OF CHALCEDON Inconfusedly Unchangeably Indivisibly Inseparably TWO NATURES/ONE CHRIST Deity HumanityKEY TERMS: KEY TERMS One Divine Substance (Ousia) Father-Hypostasis, Persona Son- Hypostasis, Persona Holy Spirit- Hypostasis, Persona Divine Ousia, Nature Human Ousia, NatureSlide 183: Council of Constantinople III Problem The unity in distinction between the persons in God from the level of natures- divine and human. Meaning. Reaffirm the Chalcedonian doctrine of two natures and apply it by way of additional elucidation Symbol: Two natural wills in Christ. Importance: It shows us fully that Jesus Christ is fully human and divine.Slide 184: “Who do you say that I am?”Slide 185: THE END Thank you very much… You do not have the permission to view this presentation. In order to view it, please contact the author of the presentation.