Fundamentals of Speech Communication : Fundamentals of Speech Communication Chapter 2
Language Development Language Development : Language Development What are some of the questions researchers have about language development? Language Development : Language Development Age by which children have acquired the major elements of the language spoken around them:
3-4 Years Old
>>>Development process continues throughout our life cycle. Language Development : Language Development The Course of Language Development:
Infancy – Old Age
Biological Foundations for Language
What makes language development possible for humans?
Major linguistic systems
Framework for research on language acquisition
Study of Language Development The Course of Language Development : The Course of Language Development Infancy
We hear language in utero
Infants acquire communication skills within first months of life.
By six months – babies categorize sounds of their own language
By 11 months – understand 50 common words http://images-cdn01.associatedcontent.com/image/A1255/125579/300_125579.jpg Course of Language Development : Course of Language Development Infancy
Phonological Development –
Learning sounds and sound patterns
Words – one-word at a time http://www.columbia.k12.mo.us/pat/infant%20massage2.jpg Course of Language Development : Course of Language Development Toddlers
Characteristics of communication:
Two-word utterances w/o articles, prepositions or inflections
Ex: Mommy juice
They think in the here and now http://shop.advanceweb.com/images/products/2006/SP/SP_apparel/baby_kids/01605_CollegiateToddler_SP/01605_CollegiateToddler_med.jpg Course of Language Development : Course of Language Development Toddlers
Begin to recognize patterns of word formations within a language:
Begin to understand the rules whereby words or other elements of sentence structure are combined to form grammatical sentences.
Syntax Slide 9: Morphology:
The understanding of word formation
Morpheme – the smallest unit of meaning in a language
Bound vs. derivational Slide 10: Syntax:
They synactic system includes the rules for how to combine words into acceptable phrases and sentences and how to transform sentences into other sentences
Includes grammatical rules, verb tenses, ability to identify positive vs. negative Course of Language Development : Course of Language Development Throughout Childhood
Semantic Development –
the ways in which speakers relate words to their referents and their meanings
First words refer to objects in daily lives http://www.hhs.oregonstate.edu/familypolicy/occrp/assets/research.jpg Course of Language Development : Course of Language Development Throughout Childhood
Metalinguistic awareness –
A kind of knowledge that makes it possible for people to think about their language, understand what words are, and define them.
Increases as children enter school. Why?
>>>Social context increases http://sitemaker.umich.edu/pan.356/files/s_group_kids.jpg Slide 13: Semantics:
Our mental dictionary or lexicon
Knowing exactly what a word means http://www.westchesterlibraries.org/files/u5/dictionary1.jpg Course of Language Development : Course of Language Development Language in Social Contexts
Children absorb the system of rules that dictates the way language is used to reach social ends:
When children have acquired the phonology, morphology, syntax, and semantics of a language, they are considered to have achieved what?
When they acquire the ability to use language appropriately in a variety of situations, they are considered to have achieved what?
Communicative competence Slide 15: Phonology:
Includes all of the important sounds, the rules for combining them to make words, and such things as the stress and intonation patterns that accompany words.
Varies by language
Phonemes – a group of similar sounds that are regarded as all the same by the speakers of a language (see pg. 45) Slide 16: Pragmatics:
Term first used by Dell Hymes (1972)
the use of language to express one’s intentions and to get things done in the world
Conversational principles (Grice, 1975)
Quantity – say as much as you need to, no more
Quality – truthfulness
Relevance – should relate to prompt
Manner – timely and logical Course of Language Development : Course of Language Development School Years
Children increasingly interact with peers and adults outside of the home
Children must learn to use decontextualized langauge:
Language that is not tied to the here and now
Learning to read and write increases metalinguistic awareness and relies on the ability to use decontextualized language. http://www.fpg.unc.edu/main/support_fpg.cfm Course of Language Development : Course of Language Development Teen Years
We increase our vocabulary
Develop our own style of speaking http://origin.theonion.com/content/node/40766 Course of Language Development : Course of Language Development Adult Years
Our work environments shape the way we think and the type of communication we use
Differences in education levels might effect the way we are able to communicate http://www.provena.org/stjoes/body.cfm?id=353&action=detail&ref=250 Course of Language Development : Course of Language Development Adult Years
Developing intimate relationships requires a certain communication competence Course of Language Development : Course of Language Development Later Adult Years
Some language deterioration may occur –
word-finding difficulty – “it’s on the tip of my tongue”
Hearing loss Course of Language Development : Course of Language Development Later Adult Years
Fluidity of language may increase –
>>>Some of the best story tellers have always been older people http://www.stagebridge.org/JimMcWilliams.jpg Theoretical Approaches to Language Development : Theoretical Approaches to Language Development Theoretical Approaches to Language Acquisition : Theoretical Approaches to Language Acquisition Interactionist perspectives
Language is just one facet of human cognition
Learning language is pairing words with concepts we already know
View human cognition from the neural architecture that supports it
Children are processors of information and neural connections strengthened through exposure to adult speech
Focus on a child’s motivation to communicate with others around them The Brain and Language : The Brain and Language Aphasia –
A generalized communication disorder with varying characteristics depending on the site of the lesion in the brain.
Wernicke’s aphasia Atypical Language Development : Atypical Language Development What are some conditions that may lead to atypical language development?
Other examples: stuttering, specific language impairment