Chapter 2: Language Development

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Fundamentals of Speech Communication : 

Fundamentals of Speech Communication Chapter 2 Language Development

Language Development : 

Language Development What are some of the questions researchers have about language development?

Language Development : 

Language Development Age by which children have acquired the major elements of the language spoken around them: 3-4 Years Old >>>Development process continues throughout our life cycle.

Language Development : 

Language Development The Course of Language Development: Infancy – Old Age Biological Foundations for Language What makes language development possible for humans? Major linguistic systems Framework for research on language acquisition Study of Language Development

The Course of Language Development : 

The Course of Language Development Infancy We hear language in utero Infants acquire communication skills within first months of life. By six months – babies categorize sounds of their own language By 11 months – understand 50 common words http://images-cdn01.associatedcontent.com/image/A1255/125579/300_125579.jpg

Course of Language Development : 

Course of Language Development Infancy Developments: Phonological Development – Learning sounds and sound patterns Babbling Words – one-word at a time http://www.columbia.k12.mo.us/pat/infant%20massage2.jpg

Course of Language Development : 

Course of Language Development Toddlers Characteristics of communication: Two-word utterances w/o articles, prepositions or inflections Ex: Mommy juice They think in the here and now http://shop.advanceweb.com/images/products/2006/SP/SP_apparel/baby_kids/01605_CollegiateToddler_SP/01605_CollegiateToddler_med.jpg

Course of Language Development : 

Course of Language Development Toddlers Developments: Begin to recognize patterns of word formations within a language: Morphology Begin to understand the rules whereby words or other elements of sentence structure are combined to form grammatical sentences. Syntax

Slide 9: 

Morphology: The understanding of word formation Morpheme – the smallest unit of meaning in a language Bound vs. derivational

Slide 10: 

Syntax: They synactic system includes the rules for how to combine words into acceptable phrases and sentences and how to transform sentences into other sentences Includes grammatical rules, verb tenses, ability to identify positive vs. negative

Course of Language Development : 

Course of Language Development Throughout Childhood Semantic Development – the ways in which speakers relate words to their referents and their meanings First words refer to objects in daily lives http://www.hhs.oregonstate.edu/familypolicy/occrp/assets/research.jpg

Course of Language Development : 

Course of Language Development Throughout Childhood Metalinguistic awareness – A kind of knowledge that makes it possible for people to think about their language, understand what words are, and define them. Increases as children enter school. Why? >>>Social context increases http://sitemaker.umich.edu/pan.356/files/s_group_kids.jpg

Slide 13: 

Semantics: Our mental dictionary or lexicon Knowing exactly what a word means http://www.westchesterlibraries.org/files/u5/dictionary1.jpg

Course of Language Development : 

Course of Language Development Language in Social Contexts Children absorb the system of rules that dictates the way language is used to reach social ends: Pragmatics When children have acquired the phonology, morphology, syntax, and semantics of a language, they are considered to have achieved what? Linguistic competence When they acquire the ability to use language appropriately in a variety of situations, they are considered to have achieved what? Communicative competence

Slide 15: 

Phonology: Includes all of the important sounds, the rules for combining them to make words, and such things as the stress and intonation patterns that accompany words. Varies by language Phonemes – a group of similar sounds that are regarded as all the same by the speakers of a language (see pg. 45)

Slide 16: 

Pragmatics: Term first used by Dell Hymes (1972) Definition: the use of language to express one’s intentions and to get things done in the world Conversational principles (Grice, 1975) Quantity – say as much as you need to, no more Quality – truthfulness Relevance – should relate to prompt Manner – timely and logical

Course of Language Development : 

Course of Language Development School Years Children increasingly interact with peers and adults outside of the home Children must learn to use decontextualized langauge: Language that is not tied to the here and now Learning to read and write increases metalinguistic awareness and relies on the ability to use decontextualized language. http://www.fpg.unc.edu/main/support_fpg.cfm

Course of Language Development : 

Course of Language Development Teen Years We increase our vocabulary Develop our own style of speaking http://origin.theonion.com/content/node/40766

Course of Language Development : 

Course of Language Development Adult Years Our work environments shape the way we think and the type of communication we use Differences in education levels might effect the way we are able to communicate http://www.provena.org/stjoes/body.cfm?id=353&action=detail&ref=250

Course of Language Development : 

Course of Language Development Adult Years Developing intimate relationships requires a certain communication competence

Course of Language Development : 

Course of Language Development Later Adult Years Some language deterioration may occur – word-finding difficulty – “it’s on the tip of my tongue” Hearing loss

Course of Language Development : 

Course of Language Development Later Adult Years Fluidity of language may increase – >>>Some of the best story tellers have always been older people http://www.stagebridge.org/JimMcWilliams.jpg

Theoretical Approaches to Language Development : 

Theoretical Approaches to Language Development

Theoretical Approaches to Language Acquisition : 

Theoretical Approaches to Language Acquisition Interactionist perspectives Cognitive developmentalists: Language is just one facet of human cognition Learning language is pairing words with concepts we already know Information theorists: View human cognition from the neural architecture that supports it Children are processors of information and neural connections strengthened through exposure to adult speech Social interactionists: Focus on a child’s motivation to communicate with others around them

The Brain and Language : 

The Brain and Language Aphasia – A generalized communication disorder with varying characteristics depending on the site of the lesion in the brain. Examples: Broca’s aphasia Wernicke’s aphasia

Atypical Language Development : 

Atypical Language Development What are some conditions that may lead to atypical language development? Deafness Down Syndrome Autism Other examples: stuttering, specific language impairment

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