Classification of Matter

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15

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Table of Contents 15 Chapter 15: Classification of Matter 15.1: Composition of Matter 15.2: Properties of Matter Unit 4: The Nature of Matter

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Materials are made of a pure substance or a mixture of substances. A pure substance, or simply a substance, is a type of matter with a fixed composition. A substance can be either an element or a compound. Pure Substances 15.1 Composition of Matter

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All substances are built from atoms. If all the atoms in a substance have the same identity, that substance is an element. The graphite in your pencil point and the copper coating of most pennies are examples of elements. Elements 15.1 Composition of Matter

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About 90 elements are found on Earth. More than 20 others have been made in laboratories, but most of these are unstable and exist only for short periods of time. Elements 15.1 Composition of Matter

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Can you imagine yourself putting something made from a slivery metal and a greenish-yellow, poisonous gas on your food? Compounds 15.1 Composition of Matter

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Table salt is a chemical compound that fits this description. Even though it looks like white crystals and adds flavor to food, its components—sodium and chlorine—are neither white nor salty. Compounds 15.1 Composition of Matter

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A mixture, such as the pizza or soft drink shown, is a material made up of two or more substances that can be easily separated by physical means. Mixtures 15.1 Composition of Matter

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Unlike compounds, mixtures do not always contain the same proportions of the substances that make them up. Heterogeneous Mixtures 15.1 Composition of Matter A mixture in which different materials can be distinguished easily is called a heterogeneous (he tuh ruh JEE nee us) mixture.

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Most of the substances you come in contact with every day are heterogeneous mixtures. Some components are easy to see, like the ingredients in pizza, but others are not. Heterogeneous Mixtures 15.1 Composition of Matter For example, the cheese in pizza is also a mixture, but you cannot see the individual components.

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Soft drinks contain water, sugar, flavoring, coloring, and carbon dioxide gas. Homogeneous Mixtures 15.1 Composition of Matter Soft drinks in sealed bottles are examples of homogeneous mixtures.

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Homogeneous Mixtures 15.1 Composition of Matter A homogeneous (hoh muh JEE nee us) mixture contains two or more gaseous, liquid, or solid substances blended evenly throughout.

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Another name for homogeneous mixtures like a cold soft drink is solution. Homogeneous Mixtures 15.1 Composition of Matter A solution is a homogeneous mixture of particles so small that they cannot be seen with a microscope and will never settle to the bottom of their container.

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Homogeneous Mixtures 15.1 Composition of Matter Solutions remain constantly and uniformly mixed.

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Milk is an example of a specific kind of mixture called a colloid. Colloids 15.1 Composition of Matter A colloid (KAH loyd) is a type of mixture with particles that are larger than those in solutions but not heavy enough to settle out.

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One way to distinguish a colloid from a solution is by its appearance. Detecting Colloids 15.1 Composition of Matter Fog appears white because its particles are large enough to scatter light. Sometimes it is not so obvious that a liquid is a colloid. You can tell for certain if a liquid is a colloid by passing a beam of light through it.

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A light beam is invisible as it passes through a solution, but can be seen readily as it passes through a colloid. This occurs because the particles in the colloid are large enough to scatter light, but those in the solution are not. Detecting Colloids 15.1 Composition of Matter This scattering of light by colloidal particles is called the Tyndall effect.

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Some mixtures are neither solutions nor colloids. One example is muddy pond water. Suspensions 15.1 Composition of Matter Pond water is a suspension, which is a heterogeneous mixture containing a liquid in which visible particles settle.

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Suspensions 15.1 Composition of Matter The table summarizes the properties of different types of mixtures.

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15.1 Section Check Question 1 A. colloid B. mixture C. substance D. solution A _______ is a type of matter with a fixed composition.

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15.1 Section Check Answer The answer is C. A substance can be either an element or a compound.

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15.1 Section Check Question 2 A. 5 B. 10 C. 30 D. 90 How many elements are found on Earth?

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15.1 Section Check Answer The answer is D. About 90 elements are found on Earth, and more than 20 have been made in laboratories.

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15.1 Section Check Question 3 How are compounds different from mixtures?

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15.1 Section Check Answer The atoms in compounds are combined in fixed proportions and cannot be separated by physical means. A mixture is made of two or more substances that can be easily separated by physical means.