Pertemuan r 3_alat-alat laboratorium

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ALat2 lab dan media praktikum mikrobiologi

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Foundations in Microbiology: 

Foundations in Microbiology Chapter 3 PowerPoint to accompany Fifth Edition Talaro Copyright The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.

Tools of the Laboratory:: 

Tools of the Laboratory: The Methods for Studying Microorganisms Chapter 3

The 5 I’s of culturing microbes: 

3 The 5 I’s of culturing microbes I noculation – introduction of a sample into a container of media I ncubation – under conditions that allow growth I solation –separating one species from another I nspection I dentification

Isolation: 

4 Isolation If an individual bacterial cell is separated from other cells & has space on a nutrient surface, it will grow into a mound of cells- a colony A colony consists of one species

Isolation technique: 

5 Isolation technique

Media – providing nutrients in the laboratory: 

6 Media – providing nutrients in the laboratory Most commonly used: nutrient broth – liquid medium containing beef extract & peptone nutrient agar – solid media containing beef extract, peptone & agar agar is a complex polysaccharide isolated from red algae solid at room temp, liquefies at boiling (100 o C), does not resolidify until it cools to 42 o C provides framework to hold moisture & nutrients not digestible for most microbes

Types of media: 

7 Types of media synthetic – contains pure organic & inorganic compounds in an exact chemical formula complex or nonsynthetic – contains at least one ingredient that is not chemically definable general purpose media - grows a broad range of microbes, usually nonsynthetic enriched media - contains complex organic substances such as blood, serum, hemoglobin or special growth factors required by fastidious microbes

Enriched media: 

8 Enriched media

PowerPoint Presentation: 

9 selective media - contains one or more agents that inhibit growth of some microbes and encourage growth of the desired microbes differential media – allows growth of several types of microbes and displays visible differences among desired and undesired microbes

selective & differential media: 

10 selective & differential media

Selective media: 

11 Selective media

Differential media: 

12 Differential media

Miscellaneous media: 

13 Miscellaneous media reducing medium – contains a substance that absorbs oxygen or slows penetration of oxygen into medium; used for growing anaerobic bacteria carbohydrate fermentation medium - contains sugars that can be fermented, converted to acids, and a pH indicator to show the reaction; basis for identifying bacteria and fungi

Carbohydrate fermentation media: 

14 Carbohydrate fermentation media

PowerPoint Presentation: 

15 magnification – ability to enlarge objects resolving power – ability to show detail

compound light microscope: 

16 compound light microscope

Pathway of light: 

17 Pathway of light

Effect of wavelength on resolution: 

18 Effect of wavelength on resolution

Oil immersion lens: 

19 Oil immersion lens

Effect of magnification: 

20 Effect of magnification

Types of light microscopes: 

21 Types of light microscopes Bright-field – most widely used, specimen is darker than surrounding field Dark-field – brightly illuminated specimens surrounded by dark field Phase-contrast – transforms subtle changes in light waves passing through the specimen into differences in light intensity, best for observing intracellular structures

3 views of a cell: 

22 3 views of a cell

Fluorescence Microscope: 

23 Fluorescence Microscope Modified compound microscope with an ultraviolet radiation source and a filter that protects the viewer’s eye Uses dyes that emit visible light when bombarded with shorter uv rays. Useful in diagnosing infections

PowerPoint Presentation: 

24

Electron microscopy: 

25 Electron microscopy Forms an image with a beam of electrons that can be made to travel in wavelike patterns when accelerated to high speeds. Electron waves are 100,000X shorter than the waves of visible light. Electrons have tremendous power to resolve minute structures because resolving power is a function of wavelength. Magnification between 5,000X and 1,000,000X

PowerPoint Presentation: 

26

2 types of electron microscopes: 

27 2 types of electron microscopes Transmission electron microscopes (TEM) – transmits electrons through the specimen; darker areas represent thicker, denser parts and lighter areas indicate more transparent, less dense parts Scanning electron microscopes (SEM)– provides detailed three-dimensional view. SEM bombards surface of a whole, metal-coated specimen with electrons while scanning back and forth over it.

Transmission Electron Micrograph: 

28 Transmission Electron Micrograph

Scanning Electron Micrograph: 

29 Scanning Electron Micrograph

Specimen preparation: 

30 Specimen preparation wet mounts & hanging drop mounts – allow examination of characteristics of live cells: motility, shape, & arrangement fixed mounts are made by drying & heating a film of specimen. This smear is stained using dyes to permit visualization of cells or cell parts.

Staining: 

31 Staining cationic dyes - basic, with positive charges on the chromophore anionic dyes - acidic, with negative charges on the chromophore surfaces of microbes are negatively charged and attract basic dyes – positive staining . negative staining – microbe repels dye & it stains the background

Staining: 

32 Staining simple stains –one dye is used differential stains – use a primary stain and a counterstain to distinguish cell types or parts. examples: Gram stain, acid-fast stain and endospore stain special stains : capsule and flagellar stains

Types of stains: 

33 Types of stains