Slide 1: Muhammad Musaddiq GAMMA CAMERA : GAMMA CAMERA Dual Head Gamma Camera
Department: Nuclear Medicine.
Specific feature is
Scan whole body anterior and posterior view simultaneously. GAMMA CAMERA : GAMMA CAMERA Developed by Hal Anger at Berkeley in 1957 therefore also called Anger camera
An electronic device that detects gamma rays emitted by radio pharmaceautical (e.g technetium 99m (Tc-99m) that have been introduced into the body as tracers. The position of the source of the radioactivity can be plotted and displayed on a TV monitor or photographic film. COMPONENTS OF GAMMA CAMERA : COMPONENTS OF GAMMA CAMERA Collimator
Position logic circuits
Pulse height analyzer
Data Analysis Computer
Display (Cathode Ray Tube etc).
Gantry FLOW DIAGRAM OF GAMMA CAMERA : FLOW DIAGRAM OF GAMMA CAMERA COLLIMATOR : COLLIMATOR Collimator is made from lead.
Maintains the quality of image
Spaces between holes known as septa
Collimator consisting of a series of holes in a lead plate can be used to select the direction of the rays falling on the crystal. There are 4 types of collimator.
Most collimators in use are parallel hole collimators. A parallel hole collimator is shown schematically in Figure. COLLIMATOR(cont) : COLLIMATOR(cont) SCINTILLATOR (CRYSTAL) : SCINTILLATOR (CRYSTAL) Sodium iodide with thallium NaI( Tl )
The main function of crystal is convert gamma ray to photons of visible light process called scintillation.
Amount of light proportional to deposited energy. CRYSTAL (cont) : CRYSTAL (cont) PHOTOMULTIPLIER TUBE(PMT) : PHOTOMULTIPLIER TUBE(PMT) The photomultiplier tube (PMT) is an instrument that converts light to electrical signals.
Gamma Camera contains 37 -91 PMT.
It detects and amplifies the electrons that are produced by the photocathode. The photocathode, when stimulated by light photons, ejects electrons. The PMT is attached to the back of the crystal. PHOTOMULTIPLIER TUBE(PMT) : PHOTOMULTIPLIER TUBE(PMT) Only a very small amount of light is given off from the scintillation detector. Only one electron is generated for every 7 to 10 photons incident on the photocathode.This electron is focused on a dynode that absorbs it and re-emits many more electrons (usually 6 to 10).These new electrons are focused on the next dynode and the process is repeated over and over in an array of dynodes.
At the base of the PMT is an anode that attracts the final large cluster of electrons and converts them into an electrical pulse. PRE AMPLIFIER AND AMPLIFIER : PRE AMPLIFIER AND AMPLIFIER Preamps attach above the PMT.
The amount of charge given by PMT is very small. Even though we have used a sophisticated photodetector like a PMT we still end up with quite a small electrical signal.
A very sensitive amplifier is therefore needed to amplify this signal. This type of amplifier is generally called a pre-amplifier.
Afte that use amlifier to amlify the signal as need. POSITION CIRCUITARY & PULSE HEIGHT ANALYSER : POSITION CIRCUITARY & PULSE HEIGHT ANALYSER Position circuitary receive the electrical impulses from the tubes in the summing matrix circuit (SMC).
This allows the position circuits to determine where each scintillation event occurred in the detector crystal.
The amplitude of each electrical pulse from the amplifiers is measured in the electrical circuits of the pulse-height analyzer
Peak height analyzer and a computer convert the light into a useful anatomical image DATA ANALYSIS COMPUTER : DATA ANALYSIS COMPUTER Finally, a processing computer is used to deal with the incoming projection data and processes it into a readable image of the 3D spatial distribution of activity within the patient.
The computer may use various methods to reconstruct an image, such as filtered back projection or iterative reconstruction. GANTRY : GANTRY A gamma camera system attached with gantry.
All circuits and motors related to movement ( longitudnal,rotational,up & down)of gamma camera placed in gantry.
gantry GAMMA CAMERA SCAN : GAMMA CAMERA SCAN The scan of whole body. APPLICATION OF GAMMA CAMERA : APPLICATION OF GAMMA CAMERA GAMMA CAMERA used to locate cancerous tumours,minor bone fractures,abnormal functioning of organs and other medical problems .
Iodine-131 is used to detect thyroid (a gland that absorbs Iodine) problems.
Technetium-99 is used to find tumours in the body.
Gamma camera give structural and functional image of body organs.
Whole body scan. THANKS : THANKS