logging in or signing up Transcription and Translation murali79 Download Post to : URL : Related Presentations : Share Add to Flag Embed Email Send to Blogs and Networks Add to Channel Uploaded from authorPOINT lite Insert YouTube videos in PowerPont slides with aS Desktop Copy embed code: Embed: Flash iPad Dynamic Copy Does not support media & animations Automatically changes to Flash or non-Flash embed WordPress Embed Customize Embed URL: Copy Thumbnail: Copy The presentation is successfully added In Your Favorites. Views: 238 Category: Education License: Some Rights Reserved Like it (0) Dislike it (0) Added: October 28, 2011 This Presentation is Public Favorites: 0 Presentation Description No description available. Comments Posting comment... Premium member Presentation Transcript Slide 1: Molecular Genetics - From DNA to TraitSlide 2: How Are Different Types of Cells Created and Maintained? By differential gene expression. The same genetic information is in all 100 trillion cells of any one person. Different cells use the same blueprint in different ways. How? In essence, the control of gene expression occurs by regulating the flow of information from DNA to protein.Slide 3: DNA Transcription Translation Trait RNA Protein The “Central Dogma” of Molecular Genetics RNA processingSlide 4: Transcription makes an RNA copy of DNA. Transcription is a Key Step in Gene ExpressionSlide 5: RNA RNA is a nucleic acid polymer that uses a slightly different sugar than DNA and the base uracil (U) in place of thymine (T).Slide 6: RNA Is Largely Single-StrandedSlide 7: There are Different RNAs with Distinct Functions Recently, a new class of RNA, microRNA, has been shown to regulate gene expression.Slide 8: Transcription The enzyme RNA polymerase opens the DNA strands and synthesizes an RNA complementary to only one of the DNA strands. RNA polymerase acts hereSlide 9: Transcription The decision to transcribe a gene is the most important step in the control of gene expression. Transcription starts and stops at distinct sites at the ends of a gene. A gene AnimationSlide 10: Eukaryotic Genes are Segmented Genes are made of parts represented in the mRNA (exons) and parts that are transcribed but not present in the mRNA (introns). In some genes more than 90% of the pre-mRNA is destroyed, never to appear in the mRNA. Introns are removed from the primary transcript and exons are spliced together to make mRNA. AnimationSlide 11: Alternative Splicing – More Bang for the Buck This has the consequence that the count of our genes (~20,000) seriously underestimates the count of our different proteins.Slide 12: The Genetic Language Uses 4 Letters Written Into 3-Letter WordsSlide 13: Amino Acids – What the Genetic Code Specifies Two examples There are 20 different amino acidsSlide 14: What Translation Accomplishes In translation, information present in the mRNA is read by the ribosome to synthesize a polypeptide. The sequence of amino acids determines the structure, and therefore the function, of a protein.Slide 15: Translation Is Complicated Translation requires: ribosomes mRNA tRNA amino acids Many antibiotics block steps in translation within bacterial cells.Slide 16: tRNA Is An Adpator That Couples Codons and Amino AcidsSlide 17: The Genetic Code is Biology’s Rosetta Stone These are the words of the genetic language.Slide 18: Ribosomes are Complicated Protein Synthesizing MachinesSlide 19: Translation Is a Cyclic, Multistep Process Translation AnimationSlide 20: Basic Genetic Mechanisms are Universal The storage of genetic information in DNA, the use of an RNA intermediate that is read in three letter words, and the mechanism of protein synthesis are essentially the same in all organisms. Among other things, this means cancer can be studied productively in flies or yeast. It also means that human genes can be expressed in a plant or mouse genes in a yeast. A tobacco plant expressing the firefly luciferase gene. You do not have the permission to view this presentation. In order to view it, please contact the author of the presentation.