Public Policy Tools by Muqeem ulIslam NSPP

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Tools Public Policy Making by Muqeem ul Islam Additional Director National Institute of Management NIM NSPP


By: asmatspatial (41 month(s) ago)

Hope, you would share your knowledge and experience especially in the local context of Pakistan. Thanks & Best Regards Asmat

By: asmatspatial (41 month(s) ago)

Am also working on the bit similar concept but exploring a new instrument for effective policymaking.

By: asmatspatial (41 month(s) ago)

Sir, excellent and very useful presentation.

Presentation Transcript

PowerPoint Presentation:

Anlytical Tools Muqeem ul Islam Additional Directing Staff, NIM National School of Public Policy for Effecitive Public Policy Decision and Its Evaluation

Policy Making Process ?:

Policy Making Process ?

PowerPoint Presentation:

Vision Policy formulation process Policies/ Intervention Tools Programmes Projects Use of Humanity’s Knowledge base Alternative Schools of thoughts Analysis Research/Technical Analysis Cost Benefit Analysis Expert Opinion Technocrats’ views Choices between alternate options Consensus making process Policy formulation process Wisdom Information / Data Knowledge Theories Analytical Framework

PowerPoint Presentation:

Policy making Rules framing and ensuring/monitoring fulfillment of Goals/ objectives/aim overall performance in the light of objectives of the org , 360 evaluation of the Org/ Annual Eva. Report Making Policies /rules implementation plan Ensuring/monitoring Effective implementation of policy and rules Effective Team Management 360 evaluation of the Department Implementation of Policies /rules Ensuring equity, justice, effectiveness and timeliness Customer satisfaction Programmed Decision Non-Programmed Decision BS (16-18) BS (18-20) BS (20-22) Minister Cabinet Public Policy Decisions’ and Implementation Hierarchy

Knowledge to be used for Effective wisdom How to convert Knowledge into wisdom? Techniques and Methods ?:

Knowledge to be used for Effective wisdom How to convert Knowledge into wisdom? Techniques and Methods ?

Proactive Decisions ? Reactive Decisions ?:

Proactive Decisions ? Reactive Decisions ?

Public Policy Decisions’ Evaluation Tools :

Public Policy Decisions’ Evaluation Tools Customer /Client Response Survey and Analysis Gap Analysis Econometrics/Statistical/Regression Analysis Demand-Supply Analysis Benefit-Cost Analysis Cost Effectiveness Analysis Financial Analysis/Feasibility Fiscal Impact Analysis Economic Impact Analysis (Macro & Macro) Social/Environmental Impact Analysis SWOT-EETH Analysis

Why we learn these techniques ?:

Why we learn these techniques ?

Demand Supply and Elasticity: Responsiveness:

Demand Supply and Elasticity: Responsiveness Demand and Supply analysis allows us to see the direction of changes in the equilibrium price and quantity How responsive demand and supply: due to change in their determinants Price & Quantity sensitivity relationship is elasticity

Nature of Goods & Services:

Nature of Goods & Services Public Goods & Services Private Goods & Services A Public Good has 2 properties: (1) If it has been provided to one consumer it is difficult/impossible to stop another from enjoying it too. “ Non-Excludable ” (2) The amount of the good I enjoy has no affect on the amount you enjoy. “Non-rival”


CONSEQUENCES Non-excludable: Very difficult for the private sector to provide it and make a profit. (Basic Research, Information, R&D) Non-rivalry: Do not want to exclude people as it is inefficient (The marginal cost of them getting the good is zero and they get positive benefit.)

Example: TV Signals:

Example: TV Signals NON-RIVAL RIVAL NON-EXCLUDABLE TERESTRIAL Pure Public Good BASIC CABLE Impure Public Good EXCLUDABLE SATELLITE Impure Public Good Pay-per-View Pure Private Good


TYPES OF ECONOMIC ANALYSIS Market Analysis Economic impact analysis -- What is the contribution of tourism activity to the economy of the region ? Benefit Cost analysis – Which policy will generate the highest net benefit to society over time? Environmental Impact assessment – What are the impacts of an action on the surrounding environment? Fiscal impact analysis – Will government revenues from tourism activity (taxes, direct fees, etc.) cover the added costs for infrastructure and government services Demand analysis – How will the number or types of tourists change due to changes in prices, promotion, competition, quality,etc.? Feasibility study – Can/should this project or policy be undertaken? Financial analysis – Can we make a profit from this activity?

Benefit-Cost Analysis:

Benefit-Cost Analysis Measures economic efficiency as ratio of benefits to costs Used in evaluating alternative actions Measure stream of benefits and costs over time resulting from a project Value these B/C in Rs. Discounting, NPV to handle time Non-market benefits measured

Cost Effectiveness Analysis:

Cost Effectiveness Analysis Used in lieu of B/C when valuation of benefits is difficult; also measures efficiency Best for comparing alternative means of delivering similar benefits Evaluate in terms of Cost per unit of output

Fiscal impact analysis:

Fiscal impact analysis Assess impacts of a project on government revenues and costs Identify added service requirements Estimate costs and revenues received from fees or taxes

Economic Impact Analysis:

Economic Impact Analysis Assesses impacts on sales, income, jobs, in a region Action Activity Spending Jobs Impact = Visits * Spending * Multiplier With vs Without Analysis General Formula for GDP contribution GDP contribution= Domestic Component x Money multiplier x velocity of money Y= Ed x m x V

Questions an EIA Answers (Public Park):

Questions an EIA Answers (Public Park) How much do visitors spend in the area? What portion of sales by local businesses is due to tourism? How much income does tourism generate for households and businesses in the area? How many jobs in the area does tourism support? How much tax revenue is generated from tourism? How are businesses in an area linked

Survey analysis:

Survey analysis Type of survey Obtaining sample Cooperation rate Cost per respondent advantages disadvantages in person difficult medium high interviewer rapport, nonverbal cues respondent apprehension, expensive telephone easy high medium Fast Limited time, nonrandom sample mall intercept easy medium medium fast, in-person Nonrandom sample mail easy low low expensive Nonrandom sample, respondent errors computer-assisted easy high low automatic data entry Requires computer literacy

PowerPoint Presentation:

Your goals drive the make-up of the survey and how it should be analyzed. Exploration can be informative, but with an analysis plan. Put data in spreadsheet format using excel or SPSS

What are economic impacts of Recreation & Tourism?:

What are economic impacts of Recreation & Tourism? Covered in EIA Sales Income Jobs Tax Revenues Direct & Secondary Effects Usually Not Covered Price Changes Changes in QLTY or QNTY of goods & services available in an area Seasonality Fiscal costs Non-market B/C e.g. Congestion

Leadership: Factors and Competencies :

Leadership: Factors and Competencies Thinking skills Analyzing information Solving problems Work management skills Planning and organizing work Being resourceful Interpersonal and communication skills Building networks Relating to others Leadership skills Motivating and inspiring others Coaching and developing others

Five Factor Model of Management : Big Five Personality Dimensions (C A N O E) (Barrick & Mount, ’91:

Five Factor Model of Management : Big Five Personality Dimensions ( C A N O E) (Barrick & Mount, ’91 Conscientiousness persistence, doggedness, hardworking , dependable, thorough, and responsible. Agreeableness being liked, courtesy, good-natured, cooperative, forgiving, soft hearted. Neuroticism an xiety, depression, anger worry, and insecurity . Open to Experience imaginative, creative, broad-minded and intelligent . Extroversion sociability, gregariousness, talkativeness, and activity. .

Quality means pleasing consumers not just protecting them from annoyances:

Quality means pleasing consumers not just protecting them from annoyances

What is Quality:

What is Quality Customer Expectations Meet/exceed Freedom from deficiency Features Doing the right thing Doing the things right


DEFINING QUALITY Perfection Consistency Eliminating waste Speed of delivery Compliance with policies & procedures Providing good, usable products Doing it right the first time Delighting or pleasing customers Total customer service & satisfaction

Basic Quality Function:


PowerPoint Presentation:

Quality is a Habit not an act. Aristotle

Consultancy Secret :

Consultancy Secret Brainstorming/Mind Mapping/Cause-Effect Diagram Interviews/Literature (Past Research) Reviews/Participatory Rapid Appraisal Longitudinal/Vertical/Historical/Trend Analysis Horizontal/Cross-sectional / situational Analysis Technical Analysis (CBA, Financial Sustainability, Administrative Sustainability, EIA, IRR, Poverty Impact Assessment, Regression analysis, Gender IA, Political Impact Analysis, Impact on Economic Classes, GIS etc) which ever suits with the scope of study Best Practices/Benchmarking/Case Studies (success & Failure both) SWOT-EETH analysis ( E nhancement of S trengths, E liminations of W eakness, T ake advantages of O pportunities, H edge against T hreats Highlighting Critical Issues (arranged on the basis of importance /urgency and magnitude of consequences) Conclusions Recommendations (must be corresponding and coinciding with critical issues and chain of arguments bases on all the above analyses)

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