NBP leadership by Muqeem

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Effective leadership Leadership

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Muqeem ul Islam, Training on leadership 1 1

Understanding Leadership and How to Perform as an Effective Leader:

Understanding Leadership and How to Perform as an Effective Leader Who is a leader and how do we know it? Muqeem ul Islam Additional Directing Staff National Institute of Management, Peshawar Constituent Unit of National School of Public Policy muqeemz@gmail.com , 03435090648

Searching for Wisdom:

Searching for Wisdom What? Why? How? Who is wise?

Process of Wisdom:

Process of Wisdom Wisdom Information / Data Knowledge Theories Analytical Framework

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Information: to used to understand knowledge:

Muqeem ul Islam, Training on leadership 6 Information: to used to understand knowledge

Who are they?:

Who are they? Definitions of leadership: Person who motivates others to perform well Directing & coordinating group activities (Fiedler, ‘67) Influencing others to achieve a common goal (Northouse, 2004) Building networked relationships to enhance cooperation (Day, 2001)

Conceptual Distinctions:

Conceptual Distinctions Leadership v. Management Power sources Power source: Power influence: 1. Reward: give rewards 2. Coercive punish 3. Legitimate demand 4. Referent identifies with supervisor 5. Expert knowledge & expertise

Conceptual Distinctions:

Conceptual Distinctions Leadership v. Management Power source: Power: 1. Reward: give rewards 2. Coercive punish 3. Legitimate demand 4. Referent identifies with supervisor 5. Expert knowledge & expertise

Leader vs. Manager (Kotter, ‘90):

Leader vs. Manager (Kotter, ‘90) Establish Direction vision - set strategy Plan / Budget resources – time lines Align People team building - Commitment Organize / Staffing establish rules - hire Motivate & Inspire Inspire - empower Control / Problem Solve Incentives – take action

Difference between Managers and Leaders…:

Muqeem ul Islam, Training on leadership 11 Difference between Managers and Leaders… A manager takes care of the places where you are… a leader takes you to a new place. A manager deals with complexity... a leader deals with uncertainty. A manager makes decisions... a leader makes judgments. A manager is concerned with doing things right... a leader is concerned with doing the right things. A manager’s critical concern is efficiency... a leader is focused on effectiveness. A manager sees and hears what is going on... a leader hears when there is no sound and sees when there is no light.

Classical management:

Muqeem ul Islam, Training on leadership 12 Classical management Managers plan, organise, direct, control resources to achieve objectives. follow formal policies, rules &procedural regulations of their employing organisation (administration > management?) handle and physically direct resources: money, materials, machinery, equipment, space, facilities, information and technology use of time people Telling people what to do and how to do it more than vision and giving a sense of direction?

Leadership 'messages':

Muqeem ul Islam, Training on leadership 13 Leadership 'messages' Managers have 'subordinates' and communicate enable others to understand information, instructions or ideas seek order and control Leaders have followers. They envision, influence, inspire. tolerate, promote creativity and imagination Bring order from chaos influence people towards objectives and desire to achieve gain voluntary commitment over compliance win hearts and minds

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Muqeem ul Islam, Training on leadership 14 Managers Administer and copy Maintain Focus on systems & structure Rely on control Short-range view - bottom line Ask how and when Accept the status quo Classic good soldier Do things right Leaders Innovation and originality Develop Focus on people Inspire trust Long-range view - the horizon Ask what and why Challenge the status quo Own person Do the right things 'the liberation of talent rather than restraint by rule’ Leaders aim at 'winning hearts and minds'. Mere managers aim at optimising the use of 'resources'. (Peters & Austin, 1985).

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Can I be an Effective Leader? :

Muqeem ul Islam, Training on leadership 17 Can I be an Effective Leader?

Leadership: Factors and Competencies :

Muqeem ul Islam, Training on leadership 18 Leadership: Factors and Competencies Thinking skills Analyzing information Solving problems Work management skills Planning and organizing work Being resourceful Interpersonal and communication skills Building networks Relating to others Leadership skills Motivating and inspiring others Coaching and developing others

Factors and Competencies :

Muqeem ul Islam, Training on leadership 19 Factors and Competencies Motivation skills Adapting to change Showing drive and taking action Personal factors Demonstrating integrity and trust Modeling cultural values Organizational skills Focusing on customers Committing to quality Technical skills Demonstrating functional expertise Knowing the business

Transformational Leadership :

Muqeem ul Islam, Training on leadership 20 Transformational Leadership Transformational Leadership Transactional Leadership Passive/Avoidant

Personal traits: Transformational Leadership:

Muqeem ul Islam, Training on leadership 21 Personal traits: Transformational Leadership Transactional leaders Social exchange Transformational leaders Stimulate and Inspire Grow and develop Empower followers Passive/Avoidant MBE / Lassiez Faire

Transformational Leader Characteristics:

Muqeem ul Islam, Training on leadership 22 Transformational Leader Characteristics Idealized Influence Role model / emulation Inspirational Motivation Vision / challenging Intellectual Stimulation Encourages creativity Individualized Consideration Coaching / mentoring

Assessing Leadership:

Muqeem ul Islam, Training on leadership 23 Assessing Leadership Who they are (now we know) How do we know? Why do we need to know? Identifying and Assessing Leaders (assessment strategies)

Assessment: Principal Traits :

Muqeem ul Islam, Training on leadership 24 Assessment: Principal Traits Intelligence Self-confidence Determination Integrity Sociability

Assessment: Methods :

Muqeem ul Islam, Training on leadership 25 Assessment: Methods Personal History Assessment center Behavioral interview / Oral board handout “Candidate Leadership Ratings” Written tests / inventories

Assessment: Personal History :

Muqeem ul Islam, Training on leadership 26 Assessment: Personal History Supplemental application blank References Past performance reviews Past accomplishments Peer assessments

Assessment: Written tests/ inventories:

Muqeem ul Islam, Training on leadership 27 Assessment: Written tests/ inventories Cognitive ability Integrity inventories Personality inventories Leadership ability tests Biodata

Assessment: Cognitive Ability:

Muqeem ul Islam, Training on leadership 28 Assessment: Cognitive Ability -> Measures: Inference Recognition of Assumptions Deduction Interpretation (generalizing, conclusions) Evaluation of Arguments

Assessment: Integrity :

Muqeem ul Islam, Training on leadership 29 Assessment: Integrity Integrity tests Overt Personality Hogan Personnel Selection Scale (organizational delinquency) Polygraph (?)

Assessment: Personality Inventories:

Muqeem ul Islam, Training on leadership 30 Assessment: Personality Inventories NEO-PI (Five factor model) (Costa & McRae, ’92) HPI (Hogan Personality Inventory-Seven Traits) (R. & J. Hogan)

Five Factor Model: Big Five Personality Dimensions (C A N O E) (Barrick & Mount, ’91:

Muqeem ul Islam, Training on leadership 31 Five Factor Model: Big Five Personality Dimensions ( C A N O E) (Barrick & Mount, ’91 Conscientiousness persistence, doggedness, hardworking , dependable, thorough, and responsible. Agreeableness being liked, courtesy, good-natured, cooperative, forgiving, soft hearted. Neuroticism an xiety, depression, anger worry, and insecurity . Open to Experience imaginative, creative, broad-minded and intelligent . Extroversion sociability, gregariousness, talkativeness, and activity. .

7 Traits Personality Inventory: (HPI):

Muqeem ul Islam, Training on leadership 32 7 Traits Personality Inventory: (HPI) 7 traits: BIG Five Adjustment (Neuroticism) Ambition / Sociability (Extraversion) Likeability (Agreeableness) Prudence (Conscientiousness) Intellectance & (Openness) school success

Knowledge to be used for Effective wisdom :

Muqeem ul Islam, Training on leadership 33 Knowledge to be used for Effective wisdom

Situational Leadership Model:

Situational Leadership Model

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S3 S1 S4 S2 Low Supportive and Low Directive Behavior High Directive and Low Supportive Behavior High Directive and High Supportive Behavior High Supportive and Low Directive Behavior DEVELOPMENT LEVEL OF FOLLOWER(S) DEVELOPED DEVELOPING HIGH LOW MODERATE D4 D1 D2 D3 THE FOUR LEADERSHIP STYLES DIRECTIVE BEHAVIOR (High) (High) (Low) S U P P O R T I V E B E H A V I O R

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Development Level is Task Specific!

Subordinate’s Development Level:

9 Subordinate’s Development Level Competence: Task, Knowledge and Skills Commitment: Motivation and Confidence

Levels of Development:

15 Levels of Development D1 - “Enthusiastic Beginner” D2 - “Disillusioned Learner” D3 - “Reluctant Contributor” D4 - “Peak Performer”

Levels of Development D1 Low Competence, High Commitment :

Levels of Development D1 Low Competence, High Commitment “Enthusiastic Beginner”

Levels of Development D2 Some Competence, Low Commitment :

Levels of Development D2 Some Competence, Low Commitment “Disillusioned Learner”

Levels of Development D3 Moderate to High Competence, Variable Commitment:

Levels of Development D3 Moderate to High Competence, Variable Commitment “Reluctant Contributor”

Levels of Development D4 High Competence, High Commitment :

Levels of Development D4 High Competence, High Commitment “Peak Performer”

Levels of Development:

15 Levels of Development D1 - Low Competence, High Commitment “Enthusiastic Beginner” D2 - Some Competence, Low Commitment “Disillusioned Learner” D3 - Moderate to High Competence, Variable Commitment “Reluctant Contributor” D4 - High Competence, High Commitment “Peak Performer”

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S3 S1 S4 S2 Low Supportive and Low Directive Behavior High Directive and Low Supportive Behavior High Directive and High Supportive Behavior High Supportive and Low Directive Behavior DEVELOPMENT LEVEL OF FOLLOWER(S) DEVELOPED DEVELOPING HIGH LOW MODERATE D4 D1 D2 D3 THE FOUR LEADERSHIP STYLES DIRECTIVE BEHAVIOR (High) (High) (Low) S U P P O R T I V E B E H A V I O R

Directing:

19 Directing High Directive, Low Supportive Leader Defines Roles of Followers Problem Solving and Decision Making Initiated by the Leader One-way Communication

Coaching:

21 Coaching High Directive, High Supportive Leader Now Attempts to Hear Followers Suggestions, Ideas, and Opinions Two-way Communication Control Over Decision Making Remains With the Leader

Supporting:

23 Supporting High Supportive, Low Directive Focus of Control Shifts to Follower Leader Actively Listens Follower Has Ability and Knowledge to Do the Task

Delegating:

25 Delegating Low Supportive, Low Directive Leader Discusses Problems With Followers Seeks Joint Agreement on Problem Definitions Decision Making Is Handled by the Subordinate They “Run Their Own Show”

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Muqeem ul Islam, Training on leadership 49 S3 S1 S4 S2 Low Supportive and Low Directive Behavior High Directive and Low Supportive Behavior High Directive and High Supportive Behavior High Supportive and Low Directive Behavior DEVELOPMENT LEVEL OF FOLLOWER(S) DEVELOPED DEVELOPING HIGH LOW MODERATE D4 D1 D2 D3 THE FOUR LEADERSHIP STYLES DIRECTIVE BEHAVIOR (High) (High) (Low) S U P P O R T I V E B E H A V I O R

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The Leadership Grid High 1,9 9,9 Country Club Management Team Management 8 Thoughtful attention to the needs Work accomplishment is from of the people for satisfying committed people; 7 relationships leads to a interdependence through a comfortable, friendly organization “common stake” in organization 6 atmosphere and work tempo purpose leads to relationships of trust and respect Middle-of-the-road Management 5 5,5 Adequate organization performance is possible through 4 balancing the necessity to get work out while maintaining morale of people at a satisfactory level. 3 Impoverished Management Authority-Compliance Management Exertion of minimum effort to get required Efficiency in operations results from arranging 2 work done is appropriate to sustain conditions of work in such a way that human organization membership. elements interfere to a minimum degree 1 1,1 9,1 Low 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Low Concern for Results High Concern for People

Managerial Grid :

Managerial Grid 1.1 Impoverished management or focussed on personal objectives–Minimum effort to get the work done. A basically lazy approach that avoids as much work as possible. 9.1 Authority-compliance or focussed on task–Strong focus on task, but with little concern for people. Focus on efficiency, including the elimination of people wherever possible. 1.9 Country Club management or focussed on relations–Care and concern for the people, with a comfortable and friendly environment and collegial style. But a low focus on task may give questionable results.

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5.5 Middle of the road management– A weak balance of focus on both people and the work. Doing enough to get things done, but not pushing the boundaries of what may be possible. 9.9 Team management or– Firing on all cylinders: people are committed to task and leader is committed to people (as well as task).

Gaining Wisdom through Application of Knowledge:

Muqeem ul Islam, Training on leadership 53 Gaining Wisdom through Application of Knowledge

Situational Analysis :

Situational Analysis 54 Inefficiency, Corruption Ineffectiveness Damaged Service delivery system Ailing or Dysfunctional Systems of Public Service Delivery Postal Services? Electricity?

World View about Pakistan:

Muqeem ul Islam, Training on leadership 55 55 In Corruption : amongst Top In bureaucratic hurdle : amongst Top In Law and Order : Amongst lowest In service delivery mechanism: Amongst weakest etc etc etc Is this our fate? No World View about Pakistan

Claims?:

Muqeem ul Islam, Training on leadership 56 Claims? 56 we have best & vibrant human resources? Best “Individual” When our Pakistanis go abroad they outperform? Our civil servants are intelligent and smart? We can communicate with the world effectively and efficiently ..Thanks to “English Language” I am very good and love my country but ” System is not Good” We are biggest philanthropist in the world as% of GDP? We are nuclear Power?

Individuals attitude versus System: Diseases Why Systems fail to delivers in Bureaucratic setup? :

Muqeem ul Islam, Training on leadership 57 Individuals attitude versus System: Diseases Why Systems fail to delivers in Bureaucratic setup? 57 I am boss, you are my subordinate I am “ Aql-e- Kul” because I am your boss I am Government “ My words are Rules” I serve boss because he writes my ACR ? I need Promotion… Why I serve client?.. I am from “this Cadre “ he is from “ …..-Cadre ” Organizations are serving individuals’ wishes not clients Colonial mind set “ writ of the Government” .. Officer look/ style Rule on” Poor, hungry, unemployed, uneducated masses” LDC/UDC/Clerks/lower staff are considered as subordinates not human being with “ brain” BOSS is important …

Million Dollar Question::

Muqeem ul Islam, Training on leadership 58 Million Dollar Question: 58 Lack of “ Collective Manifestation to accomplish goals at operational level” which hampers performance of public sector organizations in Pakistan How we can achieve “ Collective manifestation ” ?

Was Malaysia Different?:

Muqeem ul Islam, Training on leadership 59 59 Was Malaysia Different?

Situation of Organizational operation capacity and Service in Malaysia before 1975:

Muqeem ul Islam, Training on leadership 60 Situation of Organizational operation capacity and Service in Malaysia before 1975 60 Similar Colonial background Rigid bureaucratic structure Bad governance Ethnic In fights and differences Economy weaker than Pakistan Institutions operational capacity and service delivery was weaker than Pakistan BUT THEY DECIDED TO CHANGE

Change in Malaysia :

Muqeem ul Islam, Training on leadership 61 ? 61 Change in Malaysia From where they Started

Single Goal..Single Target.. Single Mission…:

Muqeem ul Islam, Training on leadership 62 Better Service Delivery through Improved Operational Capacity of CIVIL SERVICE ORGNISATIONS (NOT INDIVIDUALS….) To seek Collective manifestation 62 Single Goal..Single Target.. Single Mission…

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Muqeem ul Islam, Training on leadership 63 63 HOW ? They achieved Through Highlighting the problems? NO Through analyzing the solution in isolation? NO Through individual capacity building? NO Through blaming the Circumstances? NO Through changed wearing/walking styles? NO Through adopting “ Snobbish Public Speaking” skills? NO Through Reading History/literature? NO Through teaching Philosophy? NO Through organizing focus-less trainings? Definitely NO

BUT THROUGH ADOPTING AN OPEN SECRET:

BUT THROUGH ADOPTING AN OPEN SECRET 64 Adopting Proven System Approach for Quality Service Delivery …. Choice and Gift of Dr Mahater for Malaysian people …. A flower of thousands color with unlimited aroma .. T otal Q uality M anagement TQM A collective approach to decision making in an organization for Client satisfaction with Bottom up decision making mechanism Using QCC

LOOK EAST …….. What TQM has done so far :

Muqeem ul Islam, Training on leadership 65 LOOK EAST …….. What TQM has done so far 65 JAPAN’s progress due to TQM …introduced by Dr Deming in 1964 Taiwan progressed through adoption of TQM in public and private sector Singapore used TQM in Public sector. Now it was turn of MALAYSIA to benefit from TQM When Pakistan will ?

Factors of Enhanced Organizational Performance in Malaysian Public Sector:

Muqeem ul Islam, Training on leadership 66 Factors of Enhanced Organizational Performance in Malaysian Public Sector 66

LOOK …………..:

Muqeem ul Islam, Training on leadership 67 LOOK ………….. 67 TQM is not a tool to change macro economy but it changes micro economy through increase in productivity, service delivery of individual organizations attacks on root causes of poor governance But have greater impact on MACROECONOMIC INDICATORS of a country within few years

Results of TQM in few years:

Muqeem ul Islam, Training on leadership 68 Results of TQM in few years 68 Source: IMF data 2009

Results of TQM in few years Composition of Malaysian Economy (share as % of GDP):

Muqeem ul Islam, Training on leadership 69 Results of TQM in few years Composition of Malaysian Economy (share as % of GDP) 69 Source: IMF data 2009

Change in Operation Capacity of Public Sector Organizations through TQM:

Muqeem ul Islam, Training on leadership 70 Change in Operation Capacity of Public Sector Organizations through TQM 70 Lower cost Enhanced Customer satisfaction Least response time Better processing and recording system Improved quality of construction work with low cost Enhanced Motivation in lower employee since they are problem solver through Quality Control Circles (QCC)and implementer Top management approves decisions not but not decide hence ownership spread increases Organizational Knowledge base became culture Individual performance evaluations/rewards linked with contribution towards TQM/QCC and improvement/innovation in service delivery.

Total Quality Management Approach Client is my Boss:

Muqeem ul Islam, Training on leadership 71 Total Quality Management Approach Client is my Boss 71 Customers Customers Value-adding activities Information flow Satisfaction Resource Management Measurement Analysis and Improvement Requirements Management Responsibility Service Realization Inputs Outputs Continual improvement of the management system Source: TQM handbook, 2006

Method of Quality Control Circles to Involve and Solve minor/major issue in Organization:

Muqeem ul Islam, Training on leadership 72 Method of Quality Control Circles to Involve and Solve minor/major issue in Organization 72 Involve the individuals actually at operation ..make QCC Identification of Problem/Improvement Project using Ishikawa/fish bone diagram/brain storming Explanation of Problem/Improvement Project Use QCC techniques in data collection/analysis using Preto chart, SWOT-EETH/ presentation of the problem/project Implementation of Corrective action Achievement to solve the problem/improvement Standardization of procedures Group Evaluation Presentation

Examples of Improved operational capacity in Public sector in Malaysia:

Muqeem ul Islam, Training on leadership 73 Examples of Improved operational capacity in Public sector in Malaysia 73 Client’s charter at Road transport Department of Perils Implementation of Public complaints response system at Road transport Department of Perils Overcoming the problem of non-uniformity of tariff code classification and valuation of imports Dag circles Royal customs and exercise department Kedah Reducing the food wastage by the CITARASA circle at INTAN eastern region. Reducing the high maintenance cost of Road signs District engineer office, Public Works Department Kaula Terengganu Overcoming of Maintaining Full water level in irrigation canal in Paula Pinang Source: The Civil Service of Malaysia : Towards Efficiency and Effectiveness by Dato Siraj bin Abdul Hamid, Government Of Malaysia, 1995

Examples of Improved operational capacity in Public sector in Malaysia …..contd:

Muqeem ul Islam, Training on leadership 74 Examples of Improved operational capacity in Public sector in Malaysia ….. contd 74 Overcoming the recurring problem of erosion at road edges in Public Works Department, District of Jasin, Malaca Overcoming the problem of Raid by Wild Monkeys, Felda Tebu, Perils Overcoming of Problem of Delays in obtaining information on cooperative accounts Department of Cooperative Development. Overcoming the problem of retrieving of Plans from Records at Town and Country Planning Department , Southern Branch , Source: The Civil Service of Malaysia : Towards Efficiency and Effectiveness by Dato Siraj bin Abdul Hamid, Government Of Malaysia, 1995

TQM & QCC develops organizational knowledge base independent of Who heads the organization:

Muqeem ul Islam, Training on leadership 75 TQM & QCC develops organizational knowledge base independent of Who heads the organization It is employees driven management not Boss driven It seeks fulfillment of client’s charters not Boss’s wishes It develops collective organizational knowledge base, experience and collective solution which are owned by all the employees collectively 75 The dream of Collective Manifestation comes true

Who was mentor of this change in Malaysia ? :

Muqeem ul Islam, Training on leadership 76 ? 76 Who was mentor of this change in Malaysia ?

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Muqeem ul Islam, Training on leadership 77 77 INTAN Institute Tadbiran Awam Negara ( INTAN ) (National Institute of Public Administration , Malaysia)

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Muqeem ul Islam, Training on leadership 78 Training Initiative at INTAN QUALITY AND PRODUCTIVITY MANAGEMENT AND IMPROVEMENT The publication of the ‘Manual on Quality Management and Improvement in the Public Sector’; The publication of supplementary manual on productivity and quality; Training Workshop on Quality Management by INTAN; Production of Training Manual on Quality Management and Improvement; Organise talks on Quality Management by INTAN; The production of video tapes on quality and productivity management; The Prime Minister’s Quality Award for the Public Sector; and The establishment of Quality Control Circles (QCC). 78 Source: The Civil Service of Malaysia : Towards Efficiency and Effectiveness by Dato Siraj bin Abdul Hamid, Government Of Malaysia, 1995

Conclusion:

Muqeem ul Islam, Training on leadership 79 Conclusion 79 Positive Change in public sector delivery system is possible, If the said practices will be implemented Pakistan’s service deliver system and hence is economy can recover within few years TQM/ISO9000/QCC/ICT are well recognized techniques and can be adopted without hesitation To convert Boss oriented organization into Client oriented organization TQM/QCC can effective to capture “ Collective manifestation” Colonial style “ Focus on Writ of the government “ is no longer valid argument. Do not rule over “Poor, uneducated, hungry, diseased, unemployed” fellow citizens . Terrorism is symptom not cause of disease. Focus on service delivery through TQM/QCC is key to national survival and national security.

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Muqeem ul Islam, Training on leadership 80 80 Thank you Q & A

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Muqeem ul Islam, Training on leadership 81 Thank You

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