E-Governance by muqeem NSPP

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E governance Lecture Delivered at NIM NSPP Peshawar by Muqeem ul Islam


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E-governance Muqeem ul Islam Additional Directing Staff NIM, National School of Public Policy

Difference between Government and Governance ?:

Difference between Government and Governance ?

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What is a Public Servant ? Whose Satisfaction? Who is your boss? Why You are here at NIM?

Evolution of NEED in IT:

Evolution of NEED in IT DATA APPLICATION Systems Integration H Int Cable Tele-com Knowledge Wisdom Data Information W Int

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Information/data Analysis/Research/ Statistics/ Econometrics Graph Knowledge/ Generalization/ Theories/ Saying of Wise people (Bookish talk) Application of of Knowledge Wisdom

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E-Governance for Good Governance.....

Background: What is Governance?:

Background: What is Governance? Governance Way govt. works Sharing of information Service delivery

Background: How e-governance helps:

Background: How e-governance helps Governance Bad governance Good governance E-governance

Need for Transformation from Paper Paper-media to E-media ?:

Need for Transformation from Paper Paper-media to E-media ?

E-government: What is at stake?:

E-government: What is at stake? Governments legitimacy and accountability. Participatory governance Governance Social justice Equity and community Constitutional balance between individual liberties and civil order Privacy and security Economic productivity Service effectiveness and efficiency

E-Government: Scope and Definition:

E-Government: Scope and Definition E-Government is about a process of reform in the way Governments work, share information and deliver services to external and internal clients for the benefit of both government and the citizens and businesses that they serve. E-G overnment harnesses information technologies such as Wide Area Networks (WAN), Internet , World Wide Web, and mobile computing by government agencies to reach out to citizens, business, and other arms of the government to: Improve delivery of services to citizens Improve interface with business and industry Empower citizens through access to knowledge and information and Make the working of the government more efficient and effective The resulting benefits could be more transparency, greater convenience, less corruption, revenue growth, and cost reduction

Different Delivery Models:

Different Delivery Models Departments going on-line Greater departmental ownership: significant re-engineering possible Citizen visit many departments, each one may be more efficient Could be a first step in the absence of high band width network Conveniently located Service Centers Counters manned by public/private agencies Multiple services at each location: payment, licenses, certificates Can quickly move traffic from departments to service centers Requires significant coordination Self Service through a Portal one stop shop Back end computerization and Integration needed for data sharing High internet penetration; willingness and ability of citizen to use Security and mutual trust (builds with successful outcome) Usage builds up gradually. Adoption rate has to be driven. Requires strong centralized leadership for extensive co-ordination

Why E-Governance/Digital Government Projects Fail?:

Why E-Governance/Digital Government Projects Fail?

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Commitment of the top level to: Change Management Process Re-engineering Commitment

Business Process Re-engineering:

Business Process Re-engineering Before BPR After BPR

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Understanding Existing Organizational: Productivity, Business Process, Goals/Objective, Culture Redesigning Business Process, To make it compatible with automation Requirement to Achieve organizational goal E-Government Projects Implementation Process Screen Design Data Structure Design Coding Testing Re-testing for difficult options Implementation for probationary period Final implementation

Cultural Change ?:

Cultural Change ?

Reinventing Government:

Reinventing Government “Because they don’t measure results, bureaucratic governments rarely achieve them …. With so little information about results, bureaucratic governments reward their employees based on other things: their longevity, the size of budget and staff they manage, their level of authority. So their employees assiduously protect their jobs and build their empires, pursuing larger budgets, larger staffs, and more authority” (Osborne and Gaebler, 1992 Reinventing Government p.139)


Roadmap “Our present period in history is widely referred to as the Information Age—in contrast to the Agricultural and Industrial Ages that preceded it—because new capabilities for managing information are creating fundamental changes in the structure and functioning of society. How will you and the next administration respond to the challenges that these changes present?”

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Government Department 1 Department 2 Department 3 Service 1 Service 2 Service n Data Elements Data elements Data elements Set of Common Data Elements Service Oriented Approach Services: Citizen centric (G2C) Government Centric (G2G) Business Centric (G2B) Data elements could be: Inputs from System/ Department/ citizen Used for Processing For Output

What is digital government?:

What is digital government? Complex change efforts intended to use new and emerging technologies to support a transformation in the operation and effectiveness of government AND Maintaining a primary focus on the business of government and not on the technologies

Current types of digital government:

Integrated services Self-service government Deliver services electronically Tap into the private sector Create imaginative partnerships Put a new face on government reinvention Offer around-the-clock service Get more feedback Manage in all directions Current types of digital government

Digital government initiatives:

Digital government initiatives Citizen access to government information Facilitating compliance with rules Citizen access to personal benefits Procurement including bidding, purchasing and payment Government to government information and integration Citizen participation (Such as voting) “Online Democracy”

Eight imperatives to Transformate . . .:

Eight imperatives to Transformate . . . For the transition to electronic services: Focus on how IT can reshape work and public sector strategies Use IT for strategic innovation, not simply tactical automation Utilize best practices in implementing IT initiatives Improve budgeting and financing for promising IT initiatives

Eight imperatives to Transformate:

Eight imperatives to Transformate For emerging challenges to governance: Protect privacy and security Form IT-related partnerships to stimulate economic development Use IT to promote equal opportunity and healthy communities Prepare for digital democracy

What citizens want:

What citizens want Crossing the digital divide Renewing car and driver’s licenses as well as other licenses Voter registration General information and reservations Voting on the internet One-stop shopping Ordering and renewing birth, death and marriage certificates Doing taxes

What should e-government be?:

What should e-government be? Easy to use , connecting people with federal, state, regional, local, tribal, and international governments according to their preferences and needs. Available to everyone , at home, at work, in schools, in libraries and other convenient community locations. Private and secure , with the appropriate standards for privacy, security, and authentication—generating trust—required for e-government to grow and serve the public. Innovative and results-oriented , emphasizing speed and harnessing the latest advances in technology.

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Collaborative , with solutions developed collectively and openly among public, private, nonprofit, and research partners, on the basis of their experience and expertise. Cost-effective , through strategic investments that produce significant long-term efficiencies and savings. Transformational , harnessing technology through personal and organizational leadership to change the way government works, rather than merely automate existing practices. What should e-government be?

Seven Goals towards IT Transformation in the Public Service:

Seven Goals towards IT Transformation in the Public Service Develop a personal network of information, advice, and support Use the technology in your personal routines Develop support in a networked world—the advocacy role Identify how information technology can be used to add value the analytic role Build capacity as a learning organization—the managerial role Pursue investments that scale up: infrastructure, standards, and cross-boundary opportunities Reorganize work with fewer and/or remote and/or asynchronous “hand-offs”

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Public Grievances: Telephone, Electricity, Transportation, Railways Rural Services:Land Records Police:FIR registration,Lost and Found Social Services:Death,Domicile,School Certificates Public Information:Employment,Hospitals,Railway Agricultural Sector:Fertilizers ,Seeds Utility Payments: Electricity, Water, Telephone Commercial:Income tax,Custom duty,Excise duty Major Impletion Areas

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E-GOVERNANCE Horizon Income Tax Central Excise Visa & Immigration National ID Pensions Industry Initiative * Banking * Insurance Federal Provincial Local Agriculture Land Records Transport Treasuries FBR Local/Union Councils District Govt Registration Police Emplmt. Exchange e-BIZ CNIC/ Passport Govt Portal Common Service Centers EG Gateway E Courts E-Office E Procurement Central Data Base system

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Across Domains: Healthcare HR / Payroll Fin. Accounting EPABX Lab Equipments PDA Mobile Phone Interface to Third Party Applications Patient Management Reception Registration ADT Support Services CSSD Diet & Nutrition Food & Beverages House Keeping Laundry Marketing Administration Materials Management Materials Mgmt System - Purchase Main Stores Sub Stores Enterprise Mgmt. Services Sec. & Identity Mgmt. Package Deal Designer Contract Management Accounts Receivable Clinical & Support Services Doctor’s Module Specialty Module OP Billing IP Billing Emergency Wards ICU Phlebotomy Laboratory Cardiology Radiology OP Pharmacy IP Pharmacy Operation Theatre Transfusion Medicine Medical Records Discharge Summary Cath Lab Electronic Patient Folder Enterprise-wide Scheduling

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Project Type E-Forms Identity Management Digital Preservation & Information Life Cycle Management Enterprise Architecture E-Mail Services & Architecture Enterprise Portal Design Application Development Strategy Auto-Identification Technologies Meta data and Data Standards Web Services & Localisation Information Security Client Level Security Online Auditing E-Office

e-Government Leadership:

e-Government Leadership Reality is catching up with rhetoric Government online is moving up the maturity curve, but still a long way to travel Portals are emerging as new e-Government single points of access for citizens and businesses The e-Government landscape will be unrecognisable in two to three years time

Efficiency & effectiveness:

Efficiency & effectiveness Performance of a system has two dimensions: 1. Efficiency (doing things right) and; 2. Effectiveness (doing the right things), but These should be taken together because the righter we do the wrong thing, the wronger we become

Systems Thinking:

Systems Thinking Designing a solution Produce an order-of-magnitude improvement in the throughput of the system Create a shared understanding among critical actors Generate ownership and commitment Dissolve conflict and create win/win solutions Convert obstructions into opportunities! (Gharajedaghi, 1999:129)

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Frustrating transformation “Unfortunately, prevailing organizational structures are designed to prevent change. Dominant cultures, by default, keep reproducing the same non-solutions all over again. This is why the experience with corporate transformation is fraught with frustration. The implicitness of the organising assumptions, residing at the core of the organisation's collective memory, is over-powering. Accepted on faith, these assumptions are transformed into unquestioned practices that may obstruct the future. Unless the content and implications of these implicit cultural codes are made explicit and dismantled, the nature of the beast will outlive the temporary effects of the intervention, no matter how well intended". (Gharajedaghi, 1999:9-10)

The future is different:

The problem with the future is not that it is unknowable – the problem is that it is different. Challenge the dogmas. Never stop asking why. Celebrate the stupid – In organisations the premium placed on being “right” is so high, that there is virtually no room for speculation an imagination. Find the big story – search for transcendent themes The real challenge is not long-term thinking , but unconventional thinking The future is different

Start a new conversation:

Start a new conversation Present focus Certainties “Real” Knowledge confirmation Static language Set within a context Implicit assumptions Advocacy Authoritative Reach for closure Need for experts Get a decision Future focus Possibilities “Play” Knowledge development Dynamic language Creating a context Explicit assumptions Dialogue Hypothetical Open new conversations Need for generalists Keep learning Analogue mind-set Digital mind-set

Creating the future:

Creating the future “Where a company is going is more important than where it is coming from. As industry boundaries get erased, corporate birth certificates won't count for much.” Does management have a clear and broadly shared understanding of how the organisation may be different ten years from now? Are its "headlights" shining further out than those of competitors? Is its points of view about the future clearly reflected in the short-term priorities? The crucial strategic questions:

Creating the future:

Creating the future How influential is the organisation in setting the new rules of the game within the industry/ sector? Is it regularly defining new ways of doing business, building new capabilities and setting new standards of customer satisfaction? Is the organisation more a rule-maker than a rule-taker, within its field? Is it more intent on challenging the sector/industry status quo than protecting it? How often does management lift its gaze out of the rut and consider what's out there on the horizon?

Key drivers of e-government:

Client Satisfaction Service Dlivery PRODUCTS Services PHILOSOPHIES Values What beliefs and values guide us? Who is our customers and how do we want e-government to be perceived? What do we offer what is our difference, and why does it matter? WHAT/WHY PROCESSES PEOPLE PARTNERS Who will help us reach our goals - and how do we manage these relationships? What do we do - and how do we do it? Who do we employ and how do we manage them? HOW Key drivers of e-government E-governance

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Voters Roll Conceptual model for e-enablement Citizen Relationships Vehicle system Fleet management Works order management (IDP) Document management Geographic Information System Mobile working Cell phone linkage Management information system Contact management Organization Chart Personnel system Employment history Disciplinary record Pay history Training/Skills Medical Leave Forums & bulletin Boards Ward management Call centre Financial system General ledger Budget control Purchase/ Procurement Assets/ Stores Creditors Invoicing / Debtors Comprehensive reports Banking/ Cash book

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Recommendations Create awareness about positive role the Government can play in economic and social development. Improve connectivity ,increase access,lower cost by encouraging innovative solutions and utilizing all the resources including private sector. Build creative models of: Government Private Sector NGO

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Strengthen the weakest links to create integrated value chain. Encourage policy advice to promote a pro-competitive ,flexible and socially inclusive policy with appropriate regulatory framework. Design suitable technical assistance program to harness intra regional competencies. Recommendations contd..

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Thank you

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