plant borne parasitic diseases

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Plant Borne Parasitic zoonosis:

Plant Borne Parasitic zoonosis Prepared by Syed Munawar Abbas M.PHIL Ua faisalabad Food and water borne Parasitic diseases

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Parasitic plant-borne zoonosis is generally underrecognised, however they are becoming more common. Globalization of the food supply, increased international travel, increase of the population of highly susceptible persons, change in culinary habits, but also improved diagnostic tools and communication are some factors associated with the increased diagnosis of food-borne parasitic diseases worldwide. Also human fasciolosis, of which the importance has only been recognised in the last decades, with total numbers of reported cases increasing from less than 3000 to 17 million, is looked at. Furthermore, fasciolopsiosis, an intestinal trematode of humans and pigs belongs to the waterborne parasites as well.

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There are six plant-borne trematode species known affecting humans. LIVER FLUKES F.hepatica, F.Gigantica, INTESTINAL FLUKES F.Buski, Gastridiscoides hominus, Watsonius watsoni, Fischoederius elongatus ,

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The fasciolids and the gastrodiscid cause important zoonoses distributed throughout many countries, while W. watsoni and F. elongatus have been only accidentally detected in humans. Present climate and global changes appear to increasingly affect snail-borne helminthiases, which are strongly dependent on environmental factors. Fascioliasis is a good example of an emerging/re-emerging parasitic disease in many countries as a consequence of many phenomena related to environmental changes as well as man-made modifications. The ability of F. hepatica to spread is related to its capacity to colonise and adapt to new hosts and environments, even at the extreme inhospitality of very high altitude

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Moreover, the spread of F. hepatica from its original European range to other continents is related to the geographic expansion of its original European lymnaeid intermediate host species Galba truncatula, the American species Pseudosuccinea columella , and its adaptation to other lymnaeid species authochthonous in the newly colonised areas. Although fasciolopsiasis and gastrodiscoidiasis can be controlled along with other food-borne parasitoses , fasciolopsiasis still remains a public health problem in many endemic areas despite sustained WHO control programmes Fasciolopsiasis has become a re-emerging infection in recent years and gastrodiscoidiasis , initially supposed to be restricted to Asian countries, is now being reported in African countries.

Giardia Cysts in Wastewater Treatment Plants in Italy :

Giardia Cysts in Wastewater Treatment Plants in Italy The presence of the parasites was assessed by immunofluorescence with monoclonal antibodies. While Cryptosporidium oocysts were rarely observed, Giardia cysts were detected in all samples throughout the year, with peaks observed in autumn and winter. The overall removal efficiency of cysts in the treatment plants ranged from 87.0 to 98.4%. The removal efficiency in the number of cysts was significantly higher when the secondary treatment consisted of active oxidation with O 2 and sedimentation instead of activated sludge and sedimentation (94.5% versus 72.1 to 88.0%; P = 0.05, analysis of variance).

Plant borne zoonoses :

Plant borne zoonoses Fresh water-raised plants, such as watercress, part of the diet of many cultures, is the route of transmission of Fasciola hepatica. Fascioliasis is now recognized by the World Health Organisation as an emerging zoonosis with an estimated 2.4 million people infected worldwide (WHO, 1995). Most infected people have eaten wild watercress or other water-raised plants but there is increasing evidence that some cases are directly acquired through ingesting metacercariae in water

Fasciolopsiasis :

Fasciolopsiasis Fasciolopsiasis in pigs and humans is caused by Fasciolopsis buski through ingestion of freshwater plants or water containing metacercariae of this trematode. The first national survey between 1988 and 1992 revealed that fasciolopsiasis is distributed across 16 provinces and affects a total of 9531 infected people

Fascioliasis :

Fascioliasis Human and animal Fascioliasis is caused by infection with Fasciola hepatica and Fasciola gigantica through ingestion of freshwater plants or water containing metacercariae of these trematodes. In China, an intermediate Fasciola between F. hepatica and F. gigantica has been identified genetically. A national survey between 1988 and 1992 revealed that 148 people were infected with F. Hepatica and nine people were infected with F. gigantica Animal infection with Fasciola spp. is common and causes significant economic losses. For example, in Tongren, Guizhou Province, the prevalence of cattle with F.hepatica and F.Gigantica 68.9% and 37.6%, respectively. A survey in an abattoir in Nanning, Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region, revealed that 50.5% of examined cattle and 53.9% of examined buffalos are infected withF . gigantica

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The prevention of human fascioliasis may be achieved by strict control of watercress and other metacercariae-carrying aquatic plants for human consumption, especially in endemic zones. Among vegetables incriminated, freshwater plant species differ according to geographic zones and human dietary habits The amphibious characteristics of vector species, such truncatula, are linked to the transmission foci in plantations of non-aquatic vegetables requiring frequent Moreover, recent results suggest that humans consuming raw liver dishes prepared from fresh liver infected with immature flukes may also become infected

Watsonius watsoni:

Watsonius watsoni has been reported only twice in humans. The first finding took place during the autopsy of an emaciated West African who had died of severe diarrhoea in Liberia in 1904. Many worms were recovered from the intestine, some attached to the duodenal and jejunal wall, others free in the lumen of the colon. The second case, also affected by diarrhoea, was detected in Nigeria and shed numerous specimens too. Various species of primates in eastern Asia and Africa are natural hosts of this parasite. Its life cycle is unknown, but infection is probably acquired by ingesting vegetation on which the metacercariae have encysted

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The long survival capacity and resistance to desiccation of metacercariae explain human contamination by consumption of terrestrial plants collected in dry habitats but which were submerged in water a few weeks or months before collection, as for example in Iran Due to transport, plants carrying metacercariae can be sold in non-controlled city markets giving rise to urban infection Local beverages have also been incriminated, as, for example, in Iran and Cape Verde

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The emergence of cercariae is dependent on light, with great variation in daily emergence patterns . Cercariae swim in water until encystment on a substrate, mainly aquatic plants and debris. Its survival in water varies from 64 to 72 days Important are various consumption water plants, such as water caltrop (Trapa natansin China,Trapa bispinosain Taiwan and Trapa bicornisin Bangladesh and Thailand), water chestnut (Eliocharistuberosa), water hyacinth (Eichhorniasp.), water bamboo ( Zizania sp.), water lotus (Nymphaea lotus), water lily (Nymphaeasp.), watercress, gankola (Oteliasp.), and water morning glory (Ipomoea aquatica). Metacercarial cysts on plants are visible to the naked eye (average 3.9/2.1 mm). Upto 200 cysts may be found on the skin of one water caltrop, but the usual number is about 15–20

Gastridiscoides hominis:

Gastridiscoides hominis As metacercariae are able to attach to different substrates, it has been suggested that human contamination may occur when encysted metacercariae are swallowed with tainted vegetation (aquatic plants) or with animal products, such as raw or undercooked crustaceans (crayfish), squid,molluscs , or amphibians (frogs, tadpoles), as is the case in other species of the same family Gastrodiscidae

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Pathology and symptomatology of G. hominis infection are uncertain. In humans, the parasite causes inflammation of the mucosa of the caecum and ascending colon with attendant symptoms of diarrhoea. It causes ill health in a large number of individuals, and deaths among untreated patients, especially children, have been attributed to this infection The specimens can be collected from the caecum, especially near the ileocaecal valva

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