FIRST AID LECTURE

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1 WELCOME Lecture on… “FIRST AID TO THE INJURED” By : Dr. M. MUNAWAR KHAN Junior Brigade Karachi

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2

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3 What is FIRST AID ?

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4 FIRST AID IS…. A matter of Common Sense Application of mind Swift Response

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5 DEFINITION First AID is the help given to a person in case of SUDDEN INJURY or SICKNESS so that the INJURY/SICKNESS does not AGGRAVATE FURTHER and due to swift action further DETERIORATION is checked, same condition is maintained & recovery promoted till the arrival of Medical Help.

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6 SCOPE OF FIRST AID From the definition four things are apparent : PREVENT further deterioration PRESERVE in the same condition PROMOTE recovery To arrange for regular Medical AID

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7 METHOD OF FIRST AID Diagnosis Treatment Disposal

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8 DIAGNOSIS BASED ON Circumstantial Evidence Signs Symptoms (Patient tells) (you observe)

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9 PRIORITIES OF FIRST AID Check Breathing Check Blood loss Treat Shock Treat Fracture Look For Simple Injuries Disposal

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10 BREATHING PROCESS

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11 CHECK BREATHING Can Hear It Can Feel It Can Observe It (Normal Person Breathes 15-18 Times In One Minute)

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12 ARTIFICIAL RESPIRATION Mouth To Mouth Mouth To Nose @ 10 Breaths Per Minute & Check Pulse Give 2 ventilations if there is no breathing

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13 CHEST COMPRESSION (Give 30 Compression if there is no Circulation )

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14 RECOVERY POSITION (In case of unconscious casualty)

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15 BLEEDING (HAMEORRAGE) Blood Contains About 5 Litres in a normal body - Red cells - White cells - Plasma

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16 BLOOD CIRCULATES THROUGH Arteries Carry Blood from Heart to body Capillaries Small Blood Vessels Veins Carry Blood Back to Heart

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17 CIRCULATORY PROCESS

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18 CIRCULATORY PROCESS

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19 CIRCULATORY PROCESS

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20 CIRCULATORY PROCESS

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21 CIRCULATORY PROCESS

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22 CYCLE OF FLOW OF BLOOD L V Body R A R V R V L 1 L 2 L A L V ( LUNGS ) ( HEART ) ( HEART ) ( 72-80 Times in one minute )

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23 HOW TO CHECK BLEEDING ? (HAEMORRHAGE) Direct Pressure Indirect Pressure Press Near the wound Apply dressing Press The Pressure Point Temporal Region – 2 Back of Ear – 2 Jaw – 2 Collar Bone – 2 Armpit – 2 Upper Arm – 2 Wrist – 2 Elbow-2 Sides of Abdomen – 2 Groin – 2 Back of Knee – 2 Ankle - 2 Pressure bandage Use a roller bandage (preferably crepe bandage) b) Give support to the limb

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24 INTERNAL BLEEDING Bleeding from Nose/Ears. Bleeding from Lungs with cough From Stomach with Vomiting Through Urine (Bladder,Unitary track, Kidney) Through Rectum with Stool (injury in intestines) TREATMENT Handle Carefully and transport for Medical AID

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25 Impairment of Normal Functioning of Body, is Shock. SHOCK Two Types Established Shock Nervous Shock Asphyxia Bleeding Sickness Bad/Good News Heat/Cold/Hunger Injury to Brain/Spine

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26 SHOCK : SIGNS & SYMPTOMS Discolourisation of Face Loss of Power Slow/weak Pulse Cold Sweating Irregular Breathing/Shallow breathing Nausea & Giddiness Clammy & Sandy Skin Fall in Temperature

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27 SHOCK TREATMENT Remove Cause From Effect Lay down the Patient & Loose Clothing Let Fresh Air Come Reassure the Patient Try to Maintain Temperature Resort toArtificial Respiration Arrange Medical Aid

SHOCK TREATMENT:

28 SHOCK TREATMENT DO NOT GIVE ANYTHING ORALLY GIVE NORMAL HOT OR COLD WHEN PATIENT IS CONSCIOUS OR REGAINS CONSCIOUSNESS ALWAYS SEEK MEDICAL ADVICE

Skeleton System:

29 Skeleton System

SKELETON:

30 SKELETON HEAD CAVITY : BRAIN/EYES/EARS MOUTH/JAWS. CHEST ACAVITY : LUNGS/HEART/ SPLEEN/LEVER/ KIDNEYS STOMACH : DIGESTIVE SYSTEM/ EXCRETARY SYSTEM SMALL LIMBS : HANDS/ARMS/ FEET/LEGS ETC.

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31 BONES IN BODY 206 – Bones in Human Body Skull (8 + 14) = 22 Collar Bones ( CLAVICLE ) = 2 Chest (7 + 3 + 2) x 2 = 24 Spine ( 7 + 12 + 5 + 5 + 4) = 33 Shoulder Blade ( SCAPULA ) = 2 Upper Arm ( HUME RUS ) = 2 Lower Arm ( RADIUS - ULNA ) = 4 Wrist ( CARPALS ) = 16 Palm ( META CARPALS ) = 10 Fingers ( PHALANGES ) = 28 Pelvis ------- = 2 Thigh ( FEMUR ) = 2 Knee Cap ( PATELLA ) = 2 Lower Leg ( TIBBIA FABULA ) = 4 Ankle ( TARSUS ) = 14 Foot ( META TARSUS ) = 10 Fingers ( PHALANGES ) = 28 ( NECK - BACK - WAIST - HIP - TAIL ) ( CERVICAL / DORSAL / LUMBAR / SACRAL / TAIL / COCCYGIAL ) Breast bone(sternum) = 1

JOINTS:

32 JOINTS MOVEABLE PARTIALLY MOVEABLE IMMOVEABLE

TYPES OF JOINTS:

33 TYPES OF JOINTS HINGE JOINTS PIVOTAL JOINTS BALL & SOCKET JOINTS

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34 FRACTURE Any Breaking , Bending , Dislocation or Cracking of Bone is called Fracture.

TYPES OF FRACTURE:

35 TYPES OF FRACTURE SIMPLE OR CLOSED COMPOUND COMPLICATED COMMINUTED DEPRESSED IMPACTED GREENSTICK

CAUSES OF FRACTURE:

36 CAUSES OF FRACTURE DIRECT INJURY INDIRECT INJURY MUSCULAR CONTRACTION OR EXPANSION

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37 FRACTURE : SIGNS & SYMPTOMS Pain Swelling Tenderness Loss of Power Deformity Unnatural Movement Irregularity Crapitus

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38 FRACTURE TREATMENT Make The Patient Comfortable Prevent Any Movement Check Bleeding Treat for Shock Immobilize the Limb Give Support Transportation.

Muscular System:

39 Muscular System

Muscular System:

40 Muscular System

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41 WOUNDS Any cut in the outer surface of the body is a wound or impairment in the blood vessels. Wounds are of two types: OPEN CLOSED (mostly head injuries)

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42 WOUNDS TYPES / CLASSIFICATIONS INCISED PUNCTURED LACERATED CONTUSED

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43 WOUNDS TREATMENT LAYDOWN THE PATIENT OR ASK HIM TO SIT DOWN LIFT THE LIMB IF POSSIBLE APPLY PRESSURE – ON THE WOUND - ON PRESSURE POINT

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44 WOUNDS TREATMENT In the case of INTERNAL BLEEDING: APPLY COLD FORMULATIONS APPLY TOURNIQUET (All precautions)

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45 BURNS & SCALDS Burn is an injury to the body by excessive heat or excessive cold. Burns : Dry Heat (fire, flame, metal, sun, electricity etc and friction Scalds : Moist Heat (steam, boiling water, milk, tea, oil etc) Chemical Burns : Acids : H 2 SO 4 , Nitric Acid, Hcl Alkalis : Caustic Soda, Potash, Ammonia or quick lime Gases : Liquid O 2 or Nitrogen

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46 BURNS & SCALDS Area and not the degree of burn is important (Rule of – 9) BURN CAUSES Intense Pain Shock Infection Scars after Healing

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47 BURNS & SCALDS MANAGEMENT Reassure the patient Clean wrap the wound Cover the wound Wash with fresh water Keep the patient warm Keep hands above the heart & feet elevated Keep the face prop & observe continuously Cold pack may also be applied (not excessive cold) Do not remove clothing Do not break blisters Treat for shock Move quickly to hospital Remove ring, watch, bangles, belt & boots Can give weak soda & salt solution if patient is conscious and not vomiting.

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48 BURNS & SCALDS FOR MINOR BURNS Clean the Area Submerge in water Give soda & salt solution Cover Dry Warm drinks Wash well for chemical corrosive burns Can also neutralize and dilute Remove contaminated clothing Wash the face/eye sideways No rubbing of eyes

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49 POISON Poison is any such thing which after coming into contact or entering the body is capable of causing harm or leads to death It can be: Accidental or Intentional Can enter the Body: Through mouth (solid or liquid) Through skin (injection or sting etc) Through nose (gases or toxic fumes)

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50 POISON Poison may be: Corrosive or burning (acids, alkalis, insecticides) Non-Corrosive (decomposed food, fungus etc) Depressants (opium, dhatura, sankhiya etc) Signs and Symptoms If through mouth (nausia, vomiting, lose motions, and stomach-ache) Burning of lips, tongue, mouth and throat Affect the brain (can cause asphyxia, deep sleep, fits, unconsciousness and giddiness

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51 POISON TREATMENT Call the doctor immediately Keep samples, if possible, of poison, bottle, box or vomit If Unconscious -Do not induce vomiting -Keep the patient in recovery position -Artificial respiration, if needed If Conscious -Give enough water to drink -Do not induce vomiting if acid, alkali or any other chemical is taken -Induce vomiting in other cases (a) By luke warm salty water (b) By irritating tongue/throat Give antidote if available Keep the patient warm

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52 SIMPLE INJURY Disinfect the wound Wash with water Cover with any clean thing Don’t apply any lotion except diluted mercurochrome Tincture Iodine etc. Use disinfectant sprays if available

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53 Transportation Seek for Ambulance ( local Hospital or Nursing home ) Use Stretcher Handle the spine fracture victim with utmost care and Caution OR Place the patient under proper care 102 : Ambulance 1099 : Cats ( Improvise if not available ) ( Bicycle, coil, shirt or Blanket etc, )

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54 MODES OF CARRYING Single Person ( One First Aiders ) Cradle Human Crutch

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55 MODES OF CARRYING Pick a Back Fire man’s lift

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56 MODES OF CARRYING Hand Seat ( Two First Aiders ) Four Handed Seat Two Arm Seat ( When The Casualty is Co-operating )

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57 MODES OF CARRYING when not conscious or can’t assist Use Hand lock

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58 MODES OF CARRYING When space does not permit two hand seat Improvised ( chair )

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59 MODES OF CARRYING Carrying Stretcher

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60 TRIANGULAR BANDAGE 38” 38” (Preferably Marcin cloth) We get Two Triangular Bandages

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61 TRIANGULAR BANDAGE

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62 FIRST AID BOX Large : 17 ½” x 10” x 6 ½” Medium : 16” x 7 ¾” x 4” Small : 5” x 3 ½” x 2 ½”

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63 FIRST AID BOX Equipment CONTENTS Dressings Medicine for Local Application Medicine for Oral Application

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64 FIRST AID BOX Safety Pins Equipment Scissors Pad & Pen Measuring Cup Torch Splints Bamboo Sticks Cotton Wool Dressings Sterilised Dressings Eye Pad Adhesive Plaster Roller Bandages Triangular Bandages Gauze Band-aids Stretch Bandage

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65 FIRST AID BOX Savlon/Dettol For Local Application Eye drops/ Ointment Tincture Iodine Tincture Benzoin Iodex etc. Salt For Oral Application Sugar Sodamint Aspirin (250-350 mg.) Medicines

EYE:

66 EYE FOREIGN OBJECTS LOCAL INJURY BLEEDINGS Internal External Over exposure Any inflammation or infection

DONT’S :

67 DONT’S DO NOT RUB THE EYES DO NOT PANIC DO NOT USE ANY MEDICINE

DO’S:

68 DO’S KEEP CALM REMOVE FOREIGN OBJECTS IF POSSIBLE GIVE COLD COMPRESS IN CASE OF INTERNAL BLEEDING WASH THE EYE WITH FRESH WATER FOR ANY CHEMICAL BURN SMALL FOREIGN OBJECT

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69 FOREIGN OBJECT IN EYE

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70 FOREIGN OBJECT IN EYE

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71 The End

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