Java Tutorial

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Java Tutorial :

Java Tutorial Java is a high-level programming language originally developed by Sun Microsystems and released in 1995. Java runs on a variety of platforms, such as Windows, Mac OS, and the various versions of UNIX. This tutorial gives a complete understanding on Java. This reference will take you through simple and practical approach while learning Java Programming language.

Prerequisites :

Prerequisites Before you start doing practice with various types of examples given in this reference, I'm making an assumption that you are already aware about what is a computer program and what is a computer programming language.

Where It Is Used:

Where It I s U sed According to Sun, 3 billion devices run Java. There are many devices where Java is currently used. Some of them are as follows: 1. Desktop Applications such as acrobat reader, media player, antivirus etc. 2. Web Applications such as irctc.co.in 3. Enterprise Applications such as banking applications. 4. Mobile 5. Embedded System 6. Smart Card 7. Robotics 8. Games etc.

Types Of Java Applications:

Types Of Java Applications There are mainly 4 type of applications that can be created using Java: 1) Standalone Application It is also known as desktop application or window-based application. An application that we need to install on every machine such as media player, antivirus etc. AWT and Swing are used in Java for creating standalone applications. 2 ) Web Application An application that runs on the server side and creates dynamic page, is called web application. Currently, servlet , jsp , struts, jsf etc. technologies are used for creating web applications in Java.

Cont..:

Cont.. 3) Enterprise Application An application that is distributed in nature, such as banking applications etc. It has the advantage of high level security, load balancing and clustering. In Java, EJB is used for creating enterprise applications. 4) Mobile Application An application that is created for mobile devices. Currently Android and Java ME are used for creating mobile applications.

Java Overview:

Java Overview Java programming language was originally developed by Sun Microsystems, which was initiated by James Gosling and released in 1995 as core component of Sun Microsystems Java platform (Java 1.0 [J2SE ]). As of December 08 the latest release of the Java Standard Edition is 6 (J2SE ). With the advancement of Java and its wide spread popularity, multiple configurations were built to suite various types of platforms.  Ex: J2EE for Enterprise Applications, J2ME for Mobile Applications.

Features of Java :

Features of Java 9.Interpreted 10.High Performance 11. Multithreaded 12.Distributed I. Simple 2. Object-oriented 3. Platform independent 4.Secured 5. Robust 6. Architecture neutral 7. Portable 8. Dynamic

Features Of Java:

Features Of Java Object Oriented :  In java everything is an Object. Java can be easily extended since it is based on the Object model. Platform independent:  Unlike many other programming languages including C and C++ when Java is compiled, it is not compiled into platform specific machine, rather into platform independent byte code. This byte code is distributed over the web and interpreted by virtual Machine (JVM) on whichever platform it is being run.

Features Of Java Cont..:

Features Of Java Cont.. Simple : Java is designed to be easy to learn. If you understand the basic concept of OOP java would be easy to master. Secure :  With Java's secure feature it enables to develop virus-free, tamper-free systems. Authentication techniques are based on public-key encryption. Architectural- neutral : Java compiler generates an architecture-neutral object file format which makes the compiled code to be executable on many processors, with the presence Java runtime system.

Features Of Java Cont..:

Features Of Java Cont.. Portable : being architectural neutral and having no implementation dependent aspects of the specification makes Java portable. Compiler and Java is written in ANSI C with a clean portability boundary means We may carry the Java byte code to any platform . Robust : Robust simply means strong. Java uses strong memory management. There are lack of pointers that avoids security problem. There is automatic garbage collection in Java. There is exception handling and type checking mechanism in Java. All these points makes Java robust . Multi-threaded :  With Java's multi-threaded feature it is possible to write programs that can do many tasks simultaneously. This design feature allows developers to construct smoothly running interactive applications.

Features Of Java Cont..:

Features Of Java Cont.. Interpreted : Java byte code is translated on the fly to native machine instructions and is not stored anywhere. The development process is more rapid and analytical since the linking is an incremental and light weight process. High Performance:  With the use of Just-In-Time compilers Java enables high performance . Distributed : Java is designed for the distributed environment of the internet . Dynamic :  Java is considered to be more dynamic than C or C++ since it is designed to adapt to an evolving environment. Java programs can carry extensive amount of run-time information that can be used to verify and resolve accesses to objects on run-time.

My First Java Programme:

My First Java Programme public class MyFirstJavaProgram { public static void main(String [] args ) { System.out.println ("Hello World "); } }

Understanding first java program :

Understanding first java program class is used to declare a class in Java. public is an access modifier which represents visibility, it means it is visible to all . static is a keyword, if we declare any method as static, it is known as static method. The core advantage of static method is that there is no need to create object to invoke the static method. The main method is executed by the JVM, so it doesn't require to create object to invoke the main method.So it saves memory. void is the return type of the method, it means it doesn't return any value, main represents startup of the program. String[] args is used for command line argument. We will learn it later. System.out.println () is used print statement.

What happens at compile time? :

What happens at compile time? At compile time, Java file is compiled by Java Compiler (It does not interact with OS) and converts the Java code into bytecode .

What happens at runtime? :

What happens at runtime? Classloader : is the subsystem of JVM that is used to load class files. Bytecode Verifier: checks the code fragments for illegal code that can violate accesss right to objects. Interpreter: read bytecode stream then execute the instructions.

Questions:

Questions Can you save a java source file by other name than the class name ? Can you have a empty java file? What if no one class have main function? How to print “Hello World” without main function? Can you have multiple classes in a java source file?

Java is an Object Oriented Language:

Java is an Object Oriented Language As a language that has the Object Oriented feature Java supports the following fundamental concepts : Classes Objects Encapsulation Abstraction Inheritance Polymorphism

Objects :

Objects Let us now look deep into what are objects. If we consider the real-world we can find many objects around us, Cars, Dogs, Humans etc. All these objects have a state and behavior. An object is an instance of a  class . The relationship is such that many objects can be created using one class. Each object has its own data but its underlying structure (i.e., the type of data it stores, its behaviors) are defined by the class.

Classes  :

Classes  A  class --the basic building block of an object-oriented language such as Java A class is a blue print from which individual objects are created. A class specifies the design of an object. It states what data an object can hold and the way it can behave when using the data. Class is a template that describes the data and behavior associated with  instances  of that class.

Classes  :

Classes  The data associated with a class or object is stored in  variables.  The behavior associated with a class or object is implemented with methods. (Methods are similar to the functions or procedures in procedural languages such as C).

Class Example  :

Class Example  public class Book { private String title; private String author; private String publisher; public Book(String bookTitle , String authorName , String publisherName ) { title = bookTitle ; author = authorName ; publisher = publisherName ; } //all getter and setter methods }

Object Example  :

Object Example  An instance of this class will be a book object: Book firstBook = new Book(“Complete Reference",“ABC",“XYZ "); Objects can be created by using new keyword in java. As mentioned previously a class provides the blueprints for objects. So basically an object is created from a class. In java the new key word is used to create new objects. There are three steps when creating an object from a class: Declaration .  A variable declaration with a variable name with an object type. Like Book firstBook Instantiation .  The 'new' key word is used to create the object. Initialization .  The 'new' keyword is followed by a call to a constructor. This call initializes the new object. eg . new Book();

More Details Of Class:

More Details Of Class A class can contain any of the following variable types. Local variables Instance variables Class variables

Local Variable:

Local Variable Local variable are   variables defined inside methods, constructors or blocks. The variable will be declared and initialized within the method and the variable will be destroyed when the method has completed. Eg . Public void setTitle (String title){ this.title =title; }

Rules For Local Variable:

Rules For Local Variable Local variables are declared in methods, constructors, or blocks. Local variables are created when the method, constructor or block is entered and the variable will be destroyed once it exits the method, constructor or block. Access modifiers cannot be used for local variables. Local variables are visible only within the declared method, constructor or block. Local variables are implemented at stack level internally. There is no default value for local variables so local variables should be declared and an initial value should be assigned before the first use.

Example Of Local Variable:

Example Of Local Variable

Problem With Local Variable Following example uses age without initializing it, so it would give an error at the time of compilation.:

Problem With Local Variable Following example uses  age  without initializing it, so it would give an error at the time of compilation.

Instance variables:

Instance variables Instance variables are variables within a class but outside any method. These variables are instantiated when the class is loaded. Instance variables can be accessed from inside any method, constructor or blocks of that particular class. Eg . private String title; private String author; private String publisher;

Rules For Instance Variable:

Rules For Instance Variable Instance variables are declared in a class, but outside a method, constructor or any block. When a space is allocated for an object in the heap a slot for each instance variable value is created. Instance variables are created when an object is created with the use of the key word 'new' and destroyed when the object is destroyed. Instance variables hold values that must be referenced by more than one method, constructor or block, or essential parts of an object.s state that must be present through out the class. Instance variables can be declared in class level before or after use.

Rules For Instance Variable:

Rules For Instance Variable Access modifiers can be given for instance variables. The instance variables are visible for all methods, constructors and block in the class. Normally it is recommended to make these variables private (access level).However visibility for subclasses can be given for these variables with the use of access modifiers. Instance variables have default values. For numbers the default value is 0, for Booleans it is false and for object references it is null. Values can be assigned during the declaration or within the constructor. Instance variables can be accessed directly by calling the variable name inside the class. However within static methods and different class ( when instance variables are given accessibility) the should be called using the fully qualified name . ObjectReference.VariableName .

Example Of Instance Variable:

Example Of Instance Variable

Class variables:

Class variables Class variables are variables declared with in a class, outside any method, with the static keyword. Eg . private static int count=0;

Rules For Class/Static Variable:

Rules For Class/Static Variable Class variables also known as static variables are declared with the  static  keyword in a class, but outside a method, constructor or a block. There would only be one copy of each class variable per class, regardless of how many objects are created from it. Static variables are rarely used other than being declared as constants. Constants are variables that are declared as public/private, final and static. Constant variables never change from their initial value. Static variables are stored in static memory. It is rare to use static variables other than declared final and used as either public or private constants. Static variables are created when the program starts and destroyed when the program stops.

Rules For Class/Static Variable:

Rules For Class/Static Variable Visibility is similar to instance variables. However, most static variables are declared public since they must be available for users of the class. Default values are same as instance variables. For numbers the default value is 0, for Booleans it is false and for object references it is null. Values can be assigned during the declaration or within the constructor. Additionally values can be assigned in special static initializer blocks. Static variables can be accessed by calling with the class name .  ClassName.VariableName . When declaring class variables as public static final, then variables names (constants) are all in upper case. If the static variables are not public and final the naming syntax is the same as instance and local variables.

Example Of Class/Static Variable:

Example Of Class/Static Variable

PowerPoint Presentation:

A class can have any number of methods to access the value of various kind of methods. Like Book Class can have bookIssue () addBook () deleteBook () updateBook ()

Source file declaration rules :

Source file declaration rules There can be only one public class per source file. A source file can have multiple non public classes. The public class name should be the name of the source file as well which should be appended by  .java  at the end. For example : The class name is .  public class Employee{}  Then the source file should be as Employee.java. If the class is defined inside a package, then the package statement should be the first statement in the source file. If import statements are present then they must be written between the package statement and the class declaration. If there are no package statements then the import statement should be the first line in the source file. Import and package statements will imply to all the classes present in the source file. It is not possible to declare different import and/or package statements to different classes in the source file.

A Simple Case Study :

A Simple Case Study For our case study we will be creating two classes. They are Employee and EmployeeTest . First open notepad and add the following code. Remember this is the Employee class and the class is a public class. Now save this source file with the name Employee.java. The Employee class has four instance variables name, age, designation and salary. The class has one explicitly defined constructor which takes a parameter.

A Simple Case Study :

A Simple Case Study

A Simple Case Study :

A Simple Case Study

How To Run:

How To Run

PowerPoint Presentation:

42 Java Keywords

Java Basic Datatypes:

Java Basic Datatypes 43 There are two data types available in Java: Primitive Data Types Reference/Object Data Types

Primitive Datatypes:

Primitive Datatypes Data type Bytes Min Value Max Value Literal Values byte 1 -2 7 2 7 – 1 123 short 2 -2 15 2 15 – 1 1234 int 4 -2 31 2 31 – 1 12345, 086, 0x675 long 8 -2 63 2 63 – 1 123456 float 4 - - 1.0 double 8 - - 123.86 char 2 0 2 16 – 1 ‘a’, ‘\n’ boolean - - - true, false 44

Reference Data Types :

Reference Data Types Reference variables are created using defined constructors of the classes. They are used to access objects. These variables are declared to be of a specific type that cannot be changed. For example, Employee, Puppy etc. Class objects, and various type of array variables come under reference data type. Default value of any reference variable is null. A reference variable can be used to refer to any object of the declared type or any compatible type. Example : Animal animal = new Animal("giraffe");

Java Modifier Types :

Java Modifier Types Modifiers are keywords that you add to those definitions to change their meanings. The Java language has a wide variety of modifiers, including the following: Java Access Modifiers Non Access Modifiers To use a modifier, you include its keyword in the definition of a class, method, or variable. The modifier precedes the rest of the statement, as in the following examples (Italic ones)

Java Modifiers:

Java Modifiers Modifier Class Class Variables Methods Method Variables public private protected default final abstract strictfp transient synchronized native volatile static 47

Modifier Example:

Modifier Example

Access Control Modifiers :

Access Control Modifiers Java provides a number of access modifiers to set access levels for classes, variables, methods and constructors. The four access levels are: Default:-Visible to the package. No modifiers are needed. Private:-Visible to the class only . Public:-Visible to the world. Protected:-Visible to the package and all subclasses.

Non Access Modifiers :

Non Access Modifiers Java provides a number of non-access modifiers to achieve many other functionality. The  static  modifier for creating class methods and variables The  final  modifier for finalizing the implementations of classes, methods, and variables. The  abstract  modifier for creating abstract classes and methods. The  synchronized  and  volatile  modifiers, which are used for threads.

Naming convention :

Naming convention A naming convention is a rule to follow as you decide what to name your identifiers (e.g. class, package,variable , method, etc.), but it is not mandatory to follow that is why it is known as convention not rule. Advantage: By using standard Java naming conventions they make their code easier to read for themselves and for other programmers. Readability of Java code is important because it means less time is spent trying to figure out what the code does.

PowerPoint Presentation:

Class Name should begin with uppercase letter and be a noun e.g.String,System,Thread etc. Interface Name should begin with uppercase letter and be an adjective ( whereever possible), e.g.Runnable,ActionListener etc. Method Name should begin with lowercase letter and be a verb. e.g.main (),print{), println (), actionPerformed () etc. Variable Name should begin with lowercase letter e.g. firstName,orderNumber etc. Package Name should be in lowercase letter, e.g. java.lang.sql.util etc. Constant Name should be in uppercase letter, e.g. RED,YELLOW,MAX_PRIORITY etc.

Method Overloading:

Method Overloading Method overloading means when two or more methods have the same name but a different signature. Signature of a method is nothing but a combination of its name and the sequence of its parameter types. Advantages of method overloading It allows you to use the same name for a group of methods that basically have the same purpose. Method overloading increases the readability of the program.

Method Overloading:

Method Overloading Different ways to overload the method There are two ways to overload the method in Java 1. By changing number of arguments 2. By changing the data type Note: In Java, Methood Overloading is not possible by changing return type of the method.

Questions:

Questions Que ) Why Method Overloaing is not possible by changing the return type of method? Que ) Can we overload main() method?

Method Overloading and TypePromotion :

Method Overloading and TypePromotion

Example:

Example

Example:

Example

Example:

Example

Constructor :

Constructor Constructor is a special type of method that is used to initialize the state of an object/initialize a value to instance variable. Constructor is invoked at the time of object creation. It constructs the values i.e. data for the object that is why it is known as constructor. Constructor is just like the instance method but it does not have any explicit return type.

Characteristics or Rules for Constructor :

Characteristics or Rules for Constructor 1. Constructor name must be same as its class name 2. Constructor must have no explicit return type. 3.Constructor can have arguments 4.Constructor Can be overloaded . 5.Constructor should be public but it can have other access specifier too. 5.Constructor will automatically invoke when you create object of class using new keyword. 6.Constructor cannot be call explicitly. 7.Constructor cannot be inherited.

Types Of Constructor :

Types Of Constructor There are two types of constructors: 1) default constructor (no- arg constructor) 2) parameterized constructor Remember Point:- 1)If you don’t provide any constructor in your class compiler will provide default constructor. 2)moment add any constructor in class u will loose to get default constructor from compiler. 3)Your class should have default constructor in case of Inheritance 4)Same constructor can be call to other constructor using this and derived class constructor using super keyword

Questions:

Questions What If there is no constructor in a class, is compiler automatically creates a default constructor? What default constructor do. What the use of parametrize constructor What the difference between constructor and methods. Does constructor can have void return type? Does copy constructor is available in java. What the alternative of copy constructor in java? Can constructor perform other tasks instead of initialization?

Static:

Static The static keyword is used in Java mainly for memory management. We may apply static keyword with variables, methods and blocks. The static keyword belongs to the class rather than instance of the class. The static can be: 1.variable (also known as class variable) 2.method (also known as class method) 3.block

Static Variable:

Static Variable If you declare any variable as static, it is known static variable It is a variable which belongs to the class and not to object instance. The static variable can be used to refer the common property of all objects (that is not unique for each object) e.g. company name of employees,college name of students etc. The static variable gets memory only once in class area at the time of class loading. It can be initialize at the time of Object creation.

Static Variable:

Static Variable Static variables are initialized only once , at the start of the execution . These variables will be initialized first, before the initialization of any instance variables. A  single copy  to be shared by all instances of the class A static variable can be accessed directly by the class name and doesn’t need any object. Syntax : < class-name>.<variable-name>. Static variable can be final to make constant. Syntax: public static final double RATE_OF_INT=15.5;

Static Variable Memory Diagram:

Static Variable Memory Diagram

Static Method:

Static Method If you apply static keyword with any method, it is known as static method. A static method belongs to the class rather than object of a class. A static method can be invoked without the need for creating an instance of a class. static method can access static data member and can change the value of it. It is a method which  belongs to the class  and  not  to the  object (instance) A static method  can access only static data . It can not access non-static data (instance variables)

Static Method:

Static Method A static method  can call   only  other  static methods  and can’t call a non-static method from it. A static method can be  accessed directly  by the  class name  and doesn’t need any object but can be call by object. Syntax : < class-name>.<method-name> A static method cannot refer to “this” or “super” keywords in anyway. main method is static , since it must be accessible for an application to run , before any instantiation takes place.

Static Block:

Static Block The static block, is a block of statement inside a Java class that will be executed when a class is first loaded in to the JVM class Test{ static {   //Code goes here   } } A  static block helps to initialize the static data members , just like constructors help to initialize instance members

Questions:

Questions Que )Can we execute a program without main() method?

This reference in java :

This reference in java this keyword in Java  is a special keyword which can be used to represent current object or instance of any  class in Java .  “this”  can also call constructor of same class in Java and used to call overloaded constructor. if used than it must be first statement in constructor this() will call no argument constructor. and this(parameter) will call one argument constructor with appropriate parameter.  Example continue in next slide

example:

example

If member variable and local variable name conflict than this can be used to refer member variable. here is an example of this with member variable: :

If member variable and local variable name conflict than  this  can be used to refer member variable. here is an example of this with member variable: Here local variable interest and member variable interest conflict which is easily resolve by referring member variable as  this.interest

this is a final variable in Java and you can not assign value to this. this will result in compilation :

this  is a  final variable in Java  and you can not assign value to this. this will result in compilation you can call methods of class by using  this keyword  as shown in below example.

this can be used to return object. this is a valid return value.here is an example of using as return value.:

this can be used to return object. this is a valid return value.here is an example of using as return value. "this" keyword can not be used in static context i.e. inside static methods or static initializer block. if use this inside static context you will get compilation error as shown in below example:

PowerPoint Presentation:

this  can also be passed as method parameters since it represent current object of class. Java This can be used to get the handle of the current class Class className = this.getClass (); Though this can also be done by, Class className = ABC.class ; // here ABC refers to the class name and you need to know that!

Java - String Class :

Java - String Class Strings, which are widely used in Java programming, are a sequence of characters. In the Java programming language, strings are objects. The Java platform provides the String class to create and manipulate strings. Creating Strings: The most direct way to create a string is to write: String greeting = "Hello world!";

PowerPoint Presentation:

String greeting = "Hello world!"; Whenever it encounters a string literal in your code, the compiler creates a String object with its value in this case, "Hello world!'. As like any other object, you can create String objects by using the new keyword and a constructor. The String class has eleven constructors that allow you to provide the initial value of the string using different sources

Note: The String class is immutable, so that once it is created a String object cannot be changed. If there is a necessity to make a lot of modifications to Strings of characters then you should use String Buffer & String Builder Classes. Cont…. :

Note: The String class is immutable, so that once it is created a String object cannot be changed. If there is a necessity to make a lot of modifications to Strings of characters then you should use  String Buffer & String Builder  Classes. Cont….

PowerPoint Presentation:

String Length: Methods used to obtain information about an object are known as accessor methods. One accessor method that you can use with strings is the length() method, which returns the number of characters contained in the string object. String palindrome = "Dot saw I was Tod "; int len = palindrome.length (); System.out.println ( "String Length is : " + len ); o/p:- String Length is : 17

PowerPoint Presentation:

Concatenating Strings: The String class includes a method for concatenating two strings: 1) method concat 2)  + operator 1) string1.concat(string2); "My name is ". concat ("Zara"); "Hello," + " world" + "!"

PowerPoint Presentation:

char charAt ( int index)   Returns the character at the specified index. int compareTo (Object o)  Compares this String to another Object. int compareTo (String anotherString ) Compares two strings lexicographically. int compareToIgnoreCase (String str )   Compares two strings lexicographically, ignoring case differences. String concat (String str ) Concatenates the specified string to the end of this string. boolean contentEquals ( StringBuffer sb )  Returns true if and only if this String represents the same sequence of characters as the specified StringBuffer .

PowerPoint Presentation:

static String copyValueOf (char[] data)  Returns a String that represents the character sequence in the array specified. static String copyValueOf (char[] data, int offset, int count) Returns a String that represents the character sequence in the array specified. boolean endsWith (String suffix)   Tests if this string ends with the specified suffix. boolean equals(Object anObject ) Compares this string to the specified object. boolean equalsIgnoreCase (String anotherString ) Compares this String to another String, ignoring case considerations.

PowerPoint Presentation:

byte getBytes ()   Encodes this String into a sequence of bytes using the platform's default charset , storing the result into a new byte array. byte[] getBytes (String charsetName Encodes this String into a sequence of bytes using the named charset , storing the result into a new byte array. int hashCode () Returns a hash code for this string. int indexOf ( int ch )  Returns the index within this string of the first occurrence of the specified character.

PowerPoint Presentation:

int indexOf ( int ch , int fromIndex )   Returns the index within this string of the first occurrence of the specified character, starting the search at the specified index. int indexOf (String str ) Returns the index within this string of the first occurrence of the specified substring. int indexOf (String str , int fromIndex ) Returns the index within this string of the first occurrence of the specified substring, starting at the specified index. int lastIndexOf ( int ch , int fromIndex )   Returns the index within this string of the last occurrence of the specified character, searching backward starting at the specified index.

PowerPoint Presentation:

int lastIndexOf ( int ch , int fromIndex )   Returns the index within this string of the last occurrence of the specified character, searching backward starting at the specified index. int lastIndexOf (String str ) Returns the index within this string of the rightmost occurrence of the specified substring. int lastIndexOf (String str , int fromIndex )   Returns the index within this string of the last occurrence of the specified substring, searching backward starting at the specified index. int length()   Returns the length of this string.

PowerPoint Presentation:

boolean matches(String regex ) :- Tells whether or not this string matches the given regular expression. String replace(char oldChar , char newChar ) :- Returns a new string resulting from replacing all occurrences of oldChar in this string with newChar . String replaceAll (String regex , String replacement Replaces each substring of this string that matches the given regular expression with the given replacement. String replaceFirst (String regex , String replacement)   Replaces the first substring of this string that matches the given regular expression with the given replacement. String[] split(String regex )  :-Splits this string around matches of the given regular expression.

PowerPoint Presentation:

boolean startsWith (String prefix) :- Tests if this string starts with the specified prefix. boolean startsWith (String prefix, int toffset ) :- Tests if this string starts with the specified prefix beginning a specified index. String substring( int beginIndex ) :- Returns a new string that is a substring of this string. String substring( int beginIndex , int endIndex ) :- Returns a new string that is a substring of this string. char[] toCharArray ()   :-Converts this string to a new character array.

PowerPoint Presentation:

String toLowerCase () :- Converts all of the characters in this String to lower case using the rules of the default locale. String toString () :- This object (which is already a string!) is itself returned. String toUpperCase ()  :-Converts all of the characters in this String to upper case using the rules of the default locale. String trim()   :-Returns a copy of the string, with leading and trailing whitespace omitted. static String valueOf ([ int ][float][…….] x)  :-Returns the string representation of the passed data type argument. Continue with more details about String later

Inheritance :

Inheritance Inheritance can be defined as the process where one object acquires the properties of another. Inheritance is a mechanism in which one object acquires all the properties and behaviours of parent object. The idea behind inheritance is that you can create new classes that are built upon existing classes. When you inherit from an existing class, you reuse (or inherit) methods and fields. Inheritance represents the IS-A relationship. extends  keyword is used to achieve inheritance.

Inheritance Example:

Inheritance Example Animal is the superclass of Mammal class. Animal is the superclass of Reptile class. Mammal and Reptile are subclasses of Animal class. Dog is the subclass of both Mammal and Animal classes.

IS-A Relationship:

IS-A Relationship Mammal IS-A Animal Reptile IS-A Animal Dog IS-A Mammal Hence : Dog IS-A Animal as well

Instanceof Operator:

Instanceof Operator The  instanceof  operator compares an object to a specified type. You can use it to test if an object is an instance of a class, an instance of a subclass, or an instance of a class that implements a particular interface. The instanceof operator is also known as type comparison operator because it compares the instance with type. It returns either true or false. If we apply the instanceof operator with any variable that have null value, it returns false.

Instanceof Operator Example:

Instanceof Operator Example

Types of Inheritance:

Types of Inheritance There exists basically three types of  inheritance . Single Inheritance Multilevel inheritance Multiple inheritance Hierarchical inheritance In  single inheritance , one class extends one class only. In  multilevel inheritance , the ladder of single inheritance increases.  In  multiple inheritance , one class directly extends more than one class. In  hierarchical inheritance  one class is extended by more than one class.

Single Inheritance:

Single Inheritance

Multilevel Inheritance:

Multilevel Inheritance

Multilevel Inheritance:

Multilevel Inheritance

Multiple Inheritance:

Multiple Inheritance In multiple inheritance,  one class extends multiple classes . Java  does not support multiple inheritance  but C++ supports. The above program can be modified to illustrate multiple inheritance. The following program does not work. class Aves { } class Bird { } class Parrot extends Aves, Bird { } Note:-Java supports multiple inheritance partially through interfaces.

Hierarchical Inheritance:

Hierarchical Inheritance

Disadvantages of Inheritance:

Disadvantages of Inheritance Both classes (super and subclasses) are tightly-coupled. As they are tightly coupled ( binded each other strongly with extends keyword), they cannot work independently of each other. Changing the code in super class method also affects the subclass functionality. If super class method is deleted, the code may not work as subclass may call the super class method with super keyword. Now subclass method behaves independently.-

Aggregation In Java:

Aggregation In Java If a class have an entity reference, it is known as Aggregation. Aggregation represents HAS-A relationship Consider a situation, Employee object contains many informations such as id, name, emailld etc. It contains one more object named address, which contains its own informations such as city, state, country, zipcode etc. as given below.

Aggregation In Java:

Aggregation In Java class Employee{ int id; String name; Address address ;//Address is a class } In such case, Employee has an entity reference address, so relationship is Employee HAS-A address. Why use Aggregation? Ans :-For Code Reusability.

When use Aggregation?:

When use Aggregation? ♦ Code reuse is also best achieved by aggregation when there is no is-a relationship. ♦ Inheritance should be used only if the relationship is-a is maintained throughout the lifetime of the objects involved; otherwise, aggregation is the best choice.

Overriding:

Overriding In the previous chapter, we talked about super classes and sub classes. If a class inherits a method from its super class, then there is a chance to override the method provided that it is not marked final. The benefit of overriding is: ability to define a behavior that's specific to the subclass type which means a subclass can implement a parent class method based on its requirement. In object-oriented terms, overriding means to override the functionality of an existing method.

Rules for method overriding: :

Rules for method overriding: The argument list should be exactly the same as that of the overridden method. The return type should be the same or a subtype of the return type declared in the original overridden method in the superclass . The access level cannot be more restrictive than the overridden method's access level. For example: if the superclass method is declared public then the overridding method in the sub class cannot be either private or protected. Instance methods can be overridden only if they are inherited by the subclass.

Rules for method overriding: :

Rules for method overriding: A method declared final cannot be overridden. A method declared static cannot be overridden but can be re-declared. If a method cannot be inherited, then it cannot be overridden. A subclass within the same package as the instance's superclass can override any superclass method that is not declared private or final. A subclass in a different package can only override the non-final methods declared public or protected.

Rules for method overriding: :

Rules for method overriding: An overriding method can throw any uncheck exceptions, regardless of whether the overridden method throws exceptions or not. However the overriding method should not throw checked exceptions that are new or broader than the ones declared by the overridden method. The overriding method can throw narrower or fewer exceptions than the overridden method. Constructors cannot be overridden.

Questions:

Questions 1) Can we override static method? No, static method cannot be overridden. It can be proved by runtime polymorphism so we will learn it later. 2) Why we cannot override static method? because static method is bound with class whereas instance method is bound with object. Static belongs to class area and instance belongs to heap area.

Compare Overloading and Overriding:

Compare Overloading and Overriding Method Overloading Method Overriding Method overloading is used to increase the readability of the program. Method overriding is used to provide the specific implementation of the method that is already provided by its super class. method overlaoding is performed within a class. Method overriding occurs in two classes that have IS-A relationship. In case of method overloading parameter must be different. In case of method overriding parameter must be same.

Applying access modifier with method overriding:

Applying access modifier with method overriding If you are overriding any method, overriden method (i.e. declared in subclass) must not be more restrictive. Access Levels are in sequence of 1)Private 2)Default 3)Protected 4)Public Example Cont.. Next page

Covariant Return Type:

Covariant Return Type The covariant return type specifies that the return type may vary in the same direction as the subclass. Before Java5, it was not possible to override any method by changing the return type. But now, since Java5,it is possible to override method by changing the return type if subclass overrides any method whose return type is Non-Primitive but it changes its return type to subclass type. Let's take a simple example:

super keyword:

super keyword The super is a reference variable that is used to refer immediate parent class object. Whenever you create the instance of subclass, an instance of parent class is created implicitely because it is referred by super reference variable. Usage of super Keyword:- 1. super is used to refer immediate parent class instance variable. 2. super() is used to invoke immediate parent class constructor. 3. super is used to invoke immediate parent class method.

Restricting Inheritance :

120 Restricting Inheritance Parent Child Inherited capability

Final Members: A way for Preventing Overriding of Members in Subclasses:

121 Final Members: A way for Preventing Overriding of Members in Subclasses All methods and variables can be overridden by default in subclasses. This can be prevented by declaring them as final using the keyword “final” as a modifier. For example: final int marks = 100; final void display(); This ensures that functionality defined in this method cannot be altered any. Similarly, the value of a final variable cannot be altered.

Final Classes: A way for Preventing Classes being extended:

122 Final Classes: A way for Preventing Classes being extended We can prevent an inheritance of classes by other classes by declaring them as final classes. This is achieved in Java by using the keyword final as follows: final class Marks { // members } final class Student extends Person { // members } Any attempt to inherit these classes will cause an error.

Abstract Classes:

123 Abstract Classes When we define a class to be “final”, it cannot be extended. In certain situation, we want to properties of classes to be always extended and used. Such classes are called Abstract Classes . An Abstract class is a conceptual class. An Abstract class cannot be instantiated – objects cannot be created . Abstract classes provides a common root for a group of classes, nicely tied together in a package:

Abstract Class Syntax:

124 Abstract Class Syntax abstract class ClassName { ... … abstract Type MethodName1(); … … Type Method2() { // method body } } When a class contains one or more abstract methods, it should be declared as abstract class. The abstract methods of an abstract class must be defined in its subclass. We cannot declare abstract constructors or abstract static methods.

Abstract Class -Example:

125 Abstract Class -Example Shape is a abstract class . Shape Circle Rectangle

The Shape Abstract Class:

126 The Shape Abstract Class Is the following statement valid? Shape s = new Shape(); No. It is illegal because the Shape class is an abstract class, which cannot be instantiated to create its objects. public abstract class Shape { public abstract double area(); public void move() { // non-abstract method // implementation } }

Abstract Classes:

127 Abstract Classes public Circle extends Shape { protected double r; protected static final double PI =3.1415926535; public Circle() { r = 1.0; ) public double area() { return PI * r * r; } … } public Rectangle extends Shape { protected double w, h; public Rectangle() { w = 0.0; h=0.0; } public double area() { return w * h; } }

Abstract Classes Properties:

128 Abstract Classes Properties A class with one or more abstract methods is automatically abstract and it cannot be instantiated. A class declared abstract, even with no abstract methods can not be instantiated. A subclass of an abstract class can be instantiated if it overrides all abstract methods by implementation them. A subclass that does not implement all of the superclass abstract methods is itself abstract; and it cannot be instantiated.

Summary:

129 Summary If you do not want (properties of) your class to be extended or inherited by other classes, define it as a final class. Java supports this is through the keyword “final”. This is applied to classes. You can also apply the final to only methods if you do not want anyone to override them. If you want your class (properties/methods) to be extended by all those who want to use, then define it as an abstract class or define one or more of its methods as abstract methods. Java supports this is through the keyword “abstract”. This is applied to methods only. Subclasses should implement abstract methods; otherwise, they cannot be instantiated.

Interface:

Interface Since we have a good understanding of the  extends  keyword let us look into how the  implements keyword is used to get the IS-A relationship. The  implements  keyword is used by classes by inherit from interfaces. Interfaces can never be extended by the classes. An interface in the Java programming language is an abstract type that is used to specify an interface  that classes must implement.

Interface:

Interface Interface is a conceptual entity similar to a Abstract class. Can contain only constants (final variables) and abstract method (no implementation) - Different from Abstract classes. Use when a number of classes share a common interface. Each class should implement the interface.

Interface:

Interface An interface is basically a kind of class—it contains methods and variables, but they have to be only abstract classes and final fields/variables. Therefore, it is the responsibility of the class that implements an interface to supply the code for methods. A class can implement any number of interfaces, but cannot extend more than one class at a time. Therefore, interfaces are considered as an informal way of realising multiple inheritance in Java.

Interface Example:

Interface Example speak() Politician Priest <<Interface>> Speaker speak() speak() Lecturer speak()

Interfaces Definition:

Interfaces Definition Syntax (appears like abstract class): Example: interface InterfaceName { // Constant/Final Variable Declaration // Methods Declaration – only method body } interface Speaker { public void speak( ); }

PowerPoint Presentation:

135 Implementing Interfaces Interfaces are used like super-classes who properties are inherited by classes. This is achieved by creating a class that implements the given interface as follows: class ClassName implements InterfaceName [, InterfaceName2, … ] { // Body of Class }

PowerPoint Presentation:

136 Implementing Interfaces Example class Politician implements Speaker { public void speak(){ System.out.println ( “ Talk politics ” ); } } class Priest implements Speaker { public void speak(){ System.out.println ( “ Religious Talks ” ); } } class Lecturer implements Speaker { public void speak(){ System.out.println ( “ Talks Object Oriented Design and Programming! ” ); } }

PowerPoint Presentation:

137 Extending Interfaces Like classes, interfaces can also be extended. The new sub-interface will inherit all the members of the superinterface in the manner similar to classes. This is achieved by using the keyword extends as follows: interface InterfaceName2 extends InterfaceName1 { // Body of InterfaceName2 }

PowerPoint Presentation:

138 Inheritance and Interface Implementation A general form of interface implementation: This shows a class can extended another class while implementing one or more interfaces. It appears like a multiple inheritance (if we consider interfaces as special kind of classes with certain restrictions or special features). class ClassName extends SuperClass implements InterfaceName [, InterfaceName2, … ] { // Body of Class }

Interface Cont..:

Interface Cont.. Interfaces are declared using the  interface   keyword . Interface   may only contain  method signature  and constant declarations (variable declarations that are declared to be both  static  and  final ). An interface may never contain method definitions. Interfaces cannot be instantiated, but rather are implemented. A class that implements an interface must implement all of the methods described in the interface, or be an abstract class.

Interface Cont..:

Interface Cont.. Object references in Java may be specified to be of an interface type. One benefit of using interfaces is that they simulate  multiple inheritance .  All classes in Java must have exactly one  base class because multiple inheritance  of classes is not allowed. A Java class may implement n number of interface. Interface may extends n number of interface.

Interface Example:

Interface Example

Interface Example:

Interface Example

Comparable Interface:

Comparable Interface Provides an interface for comparing any two objects of same class . General Form : public interface Comparable { int compareTo(Object other ); } Note : other parameter should be type casted to the class type implementing Comparable interface 3. Collections. sort method can sort objects of any class that implements comparable interface. 4. By implementing this interface , programmers can implement the logic for comparing two objects of same class for less than, greater than or equal to. public interface Comparable<T> { int compareTo(<T> other ); }

Examples for Implementation:

Examples for Implementation class BOX Implements Comparable { ……………………………………… ……………………………………… ……………………………………… public int compareTo(Object other) { BOX box = (BOX) other; ......Logic for comparison …. } …………………………………. } class Student Implements Comparable { ……………………………………… ……………………………………… ……………………………………… public int compareTo(Object other) { Student std = (Student) other; ......Logic for comparison …. } …………………………………. }

Examples for Implementation:

Examples for Implementation class BOX Implements Comparable<BOX> { ……………………………………… ……………………………………… ……………………………………… public int compareTo(BOX other) { ......Logic for comparison …. } …………………………………. } class Student Implements Comparable<Student> { ……………………………………… ……………………………………… ……………………………………… public int compareTo(Student other) { ......Logic for comparison …. } …………………………………. }

Examples:

Examples class BOX implements Comparable { private double length; private double width; private double height; BOX(double l,double b,double h) { length=l;width=b;height=h; } public double getLength() { return length;} public double getWidth() { return width;} public double getHeight() { return height;} public double getArea() { return 2*(length*width + width*height+height*length); } public double getVolume() { return length*width*height; } Unparametrized Comparable

PowerPoint Presentation:

public int compareTo(Object other) { BOX b1 =(BOX) other; if(this.getVolume() > b1.getVolume()) return 1; if(this.getVolume() < b1.getVolume()) return -1; return 0; } public String toString() { return “Length:”+length+” Width :”+width +” Height :”+height; } } // End of BOX class

PowerPoint Presentation:

import java.util.*; class ComparableTest { public static void main(String[] args) { BOX[] box = new BOX[5]; box[0] = new BOX(10,8,6); box[1] = new BOX(5,10,5); box[2] = new BOX(8,8,8); box[3] = new BOX(10,20,30); box[4] = new BOX(1,2,3); Arrays.sort(box); for(int i=0;i<box.length;i++) System.out.println(box[i]); } } // End of class Import java.util.*; class ComparableTest { public static void main(String[] args) { ArrayList box = new ArrayList(); box.add( new BOX(10,8,6)); box.add( new BOX(5,10,5)); box.add( new BOX(8,8,8)); box.add( new BOX(10,20,30)); box.add( new BOX(1,2,3)); Collections.sort(box); Iterator itr = ar.iterator(); while(itr.hasNext()) { BOX b =(BOX) itr.next(); System.out.println(b); } } }// End of class

Problems With Comparable Interface:

Problems With Comparable Interface Method int compareTo(Object obj) needs to be included in the base class itself. We can include only single ordering logic. Different order requires logic to be included and requires changes in the base class itself. Each type we need different order we need to change the code itself.

PowerPoint Presentation:

import java.util.*; class Student implements Comparable { private String name; private String idno; private int age; private String city; …………………….. ……………………… public int compareTo(Object other) { Student std = (Student) other; return this.name.compareTo(other.name); } public String toString() { Return “Name:”+name+”Id No:”+idno+”Age:”+age; } } // End of class Student[] students = new Student[10]; …………………………… ………………………… ……………………………… Arrays.sort(students); for(int i=0 ; i<students.length;i++) System.out.println(students[i]); OUTPUT List sorted by Name

PowerPoint Presentation:

import java.util.*; class Student implements Comparable { private String name; private String idno; private int age; private String city; …………………….. ……………………… public int compareTo(Object other) { Student std = (Student) other; return this.idno.compareTo(other.idno); } public String toString() { Return “Name:”+name+”Id No:”+idno+”Age:”+age; } } // End of class Student[] students = new Student[10]; …………………………… ………………………… ……………………………… Arrays.sort(students); for(int i=0 ; i<students.length;i++) System.out.println(students[i]); OUTPUT List sorted by IdNo

Comparator Interface:

Comparator Interface Allows two objects to compare explicitly. Syntax : public interface Comparator { int compare(Object O1, Object O2); } public interface Comparator<T> { int compare(T O1, T O2); } Does not require change in the base class. We can define as many comparator classes for the base class. Each Comparator class implements Comparator interface and provides different logic for comparisons of objects. But as we are passing both parameters explicitly, we have to type cast both Object types to their base type before implementing the logic OR Use the second form Unparametrized Comparator Parametrized Comparator

PowerPoint Presentation:

Student class Student { private String name; private String idno; private int age; private String city; ………………….. ………………….. Comparator studentbyname studentbyidno studentbynameidno studentbynameage studentbyage

PowerPoint Presentation:

class studentbyname implements comparator { public int compare(Object o1,Object o2) { Student s1 = (Student) o1; Student s2 = (Student) o2; return s1.getName().compareTo(s2.getName()); } } class studentbyidno implements comparator { public int compare(Object o1,Object o2) { Student s1 = (Student) o1; Student s2 = (Student) o2; return s1.getIdNo().compareTo(s2.getIdNo()); } }

PowerPoint Presentation:

class studentbyage implements comparator { public int compare(Object o1,Object o2) { Student s1 = (Student) o1; Student s2 = (Student) o2; if( s1.getAge() > s2.getAge() ) return 1; if( s1.getAge() < s2.getAge() ) return -1; return 0; } } class studentbynameidno implements comparator { public int compare(Object o1,Object o2) { Student s1 = (Student) o1; Student s2 = (Student) o2; if( s1.getName().compareTo(s2.getName()) == 0) return s1.getIdNo().compareTo(s2.getIdNo()); else return s1.getName().compareTo(s2.getName()); } }

PowerPoint Presentation:

class studentbynameage implements comparator { public int compare(Object o1,Object o2) { Student s1 = (Student) o1; Student s2 = (Student) o2; if( s1.getName().compareTo(s2.getName()) == 0) return s1.getAge() – s2.getAge(); else return s1.getName().compareTo(s2.getName()); } }

PowerPoint Presentation:

Import java.util.*; class comparatorTest { public static void main(String args[]) { Student[] students = new Student[5]; Student[0] = new Student(“John”,”2000A1Ps234”,23,”Pilani”); Student[1] = new Student(“Meera”,”2001A1Ps234”,23,”Pilani”); Student[2] = new Student(“Kamal”,”2001A1Ps344”,23,”Pilani”); Student[3] = new Student(“Ram”,”2000A2Ps644”,23,”Pilani”); Student[4] = new Student(“Sham”,”2000A7Ps543”,23,”Pilani”); // Sort By Name Comparator c1 = new studentbyname(); Arrays.sort(students,c1); for(int i=0;i<students.length;i++) System.out.println(students[i]);

PowerPoint Presentation:

// Sort By Idno c1 = new studentbyidno(); Arrays.sort(students,c1); for(int i=0;i<students.length;i++) System.out.println(students[i]); // Sort By Age c1 = new studentbyage(); Arrays.sort(students,c1); for(int i=0;i<students.length;i++) System.out.println(students[i]); // Sort by Name & Idno c1 = new studentbynameidno(); Arrays.sort(students,c1); for(int i=0;i<students.length;i++) System.out.println(students[i]); // Sort by Name & Age c1 = new studentbynameage(); Arrays.sort(students,c1); for(int i=0;i<students.length;i++) System.out.println(students[i]); } // End of Main } // End of test class.

PowerPoint Presentation:

import java.util.*; class A { int a; } class ctest { public static void main(String args[]) { String[] names = {"OOP","BITS","PILANI"}; Arrays.sort(names); int[] data = { 10,-45,87,0,20,21 }; Arrays.sort(data); A[] arr = new A[5]; arr[0] = new A(); arr[1] = new A(); arr[2] = new A(); arr[3] = new A(); arr[4] = new A(); Arrays.sort(arr); } } Ok As String class implements Comparable Exception in thread "main" java.lang.ClassCastException: A at java.util.Arrays.mergeSort(Arrays.java:1156) at java.util.Arrays.sort(Arrays.java:1080) at ctest.main(ctest.java:21) Ok As Integer class implements Comparable NOT Ok as A class does not implements Comparable.

PowerPoint Presentation:

import java.util.*; class A implements Comparable { int a; public int compareTo( Object other) { A a1 = (A) other; if(this.a == a1.a ) return 0; if(this.a < a1.a ) return -1; return 1; } } class ctest { public static void main(String args[]) { String[] names = {"OOP","BITS","PILANI"}; Arrays.sort(names); int[] data = { 10,-45,87,0,20,21 }; Arrays.sort(data); A[] arr = new A[5]; arr[0] = new A(); arr[1] = new A(); arr[2] = new A(); arr[3] = new A(); arr[4] = new A(); Arrays.sort(arr); } } Unparametrized Comparator Unparametrized Comparable Will Work Will Work Will Work Type cast Object type to Base Type Before use

PowerPoint Presentation:

import java.util.*; class A implements Comparable<A> { int a; public int compareTo( A other ) { // A a1 = (A) other; // No need of cast if(this.a == other.a ) return 0; if(this.a < other.a ) return -1; return 1; } } class ctest { public static void main(String args[]) { String[] names = {"OOP","BITS","PILANI"}; Arrays.sort(names); int[] data = { 10,-45,87,0,20,21 }; Arrays.sort(data); A[] arr = new A[5]; arr[0] = new A(); arr[1] = new A(); arr[2] = new A(); arr[3] = new A(); arr[4] = new A(); Arrays.sort(arr); } } Parametrized Comparator Parametrized Comparable Will Work Will Work Will Work

PowerPoint Presentation:

import java.util.*; class BOX implements Comparable<BOX> { private double l,b,h; // Overloaded Constructors BOX(double a) { l=b=h=a; } BOX(double l,double b,double h) { this.l=l; this.b=b; this.h=h; } // Acessor Methods public double getL() { return l; } public double getB() { return b; } public double getH() { return h; } Cont…. Parametrized Comparable of type BOX

PowerPoint Presentation:

// area() Volume() Methods double area() { return 2*(l*b+b*h+h*l); } double volume() { return l*b*h; } // isEquals() method boolean isEqual(BOX other) { if(this.area() == other.area()) return true; return false; /* OR if(area() == other.area()) return true return false; */ } static boolean isEquals(BOX b1, BOX b2) { if(b1.area() == b2.area()) return true; return false; }

PowerPoint Presentation:

// compareTo method public int compareTo(BOX other) { if(area() > other.area()) return 1; if(area() < other.area()) return -1; return 0; } public String toString() { String s1="length:"+l; String s2="width:"+b; String s3="area:"+h; String s4="Area:"+area(); String s5="Volume:"+volume(); return s1+s2+s3+s4+s5; } } // End of class BOX

PowerPoint Presentation:

class comparableTest10 { public static void main(String args[]) { ArrayList<BOX> boxes = new ArrayList<BOX>(); boxes.add(new BOX(10)); boxes.add(new BOX(20)); boxes.add(new BOX(10,6,8)); boxes.add(new BOX(4,6,10)); boxes.add(new BOX(10,12,14)); Iterator itr = boxes.iterator(); while(itr.hasNext()) System.out.println((BOX)itr.next()); Collections.sort(boxes); Iterator itr1 = boxes.iterator(); while(itr1.hasNext()) System.out.println((BOX)itr1.next()); } }

PowerPoint Presentation:

Converting a Class To an Interface Type Interface acts as a super class for the implementation classes. A reference variable belonging to type interface can point to any of the object of the classes implementing the interface. A B C X << classes >> << interface >> A a1 = new A(); X x1 = a1; Class to interface type Conversion

PowerPoint Presentation:

Converting an Interface to a class Type A B C X << classes >> << interface >> X x1 = new A(); A a1 = (A) x1; X x1 = new B(); B b1 = (B) x1; X x1 = new C(); C c1 = (C) x1; Interface to Class type Conversion

Comparator Example:

Comparator Example Supply comparators for BOX class so that BOX[] OR ArrayList<BOX> can be sorted by any of the following orders: Sort By Length Either in Ascending or descending order Sort By Width Either in Ascending or descending order Sort By Height Either in Ascending or descending order Sort By Area Either in Ascending or descending order Sort By Volume Either in Ascending or descending order

PowerPoint Presentation:

class BOX { ……………….instance fields ………………instance methods …………………… } BOX is base class whose references stored either in Arrays or in Any Collection class such as ArrayList, Vector or LinkedList Needs to be sorted Comparator<BOX> SORTBOXBYLENGTH SORTBOXBYWIDTH SORTBOXBYHEIGHT SORTBOXBYAREA SORTBOXBYVOLUME BOX class does not implement any comparable or comparatorinterface Comparator Classes

PowerPoint Presentation:

import java.util.*; class BOX { private double l,b,h; // Overloaded Constructors BOX(double a) { l=b=h=a; } BOX(double l,double b,double h) { this.l=l; this.b=b; this.h=h; } // Acessor Methods public double getL() { return l; } public double getB() { return b; } public double getH() { return h; } // area() Volume() Methods double area() { return 2*(l*b+b*h+h*l); } double volume() { return l*b*h; } // isEquals() method boolean isEqual(BOX other) { if(this.area() == other.area()) return true; return false; /* OR if(area() == other.area()) return true return false; */ } Cont …..

PowerPoint Presentation:

static boolean isEquals(BOX b1, BOX b2) { if(b1.area() == b2.area()) return true; return false; } public String toString() { String s1="length:"+l; String s2="width:"+b; String s3="area:"+h; String s4="Area:"+area(); String s5="Volume:"+volume(); return s1+s2+s3+s4+s5; } } // End of class BOX NOTE : BOX class is base class whose references needs to be sorted. It does not implement either comparable or comparator class Cont …..

PowerPoint Presentation:

class SORTBOXBYLENGTH implements Comparator<BOX> { private int order; // Defines Order of sorting 1 for Ascending -1 for Descending SORTBOXBYLENGTH(boolean isAscending) { if(isAscending) order =1; else order =-1; } public int compare(BOX b1,BOX b2) { if(b1.getL() > b2.getL()) return 1*order; if(b1.getL() < b2.getL()) return -1*order; return 0; } }// End of class // Comparator class for Sorting by BOX references By length

PowerPoint Presentation:

class SORTBOXBYWIDTH implements Comparator<BOX> { private int order; SORTBOXBYWIDTH(boolean isAscending) { if(isAscending) order =1; else order =-1; } public int compare(BOX b1,BOX b2) { if(b1.getB() > b2.getB()) return 1*order; if(b1.getB() < b2.getB()) return -1*order; return 0; } } // End of class // Comparator class for Sorting by BOX references By Width

PowerPoint Presentation:

class SORTBOXBYHEIGHT implements Comparator<BOX> { private int order; SORTBOXBYHEIGHT(boolean isAscending) { if(isAscending) order =1; else order =-1; } public int compare(BOX b1,BOX b2) { if(b1.getH() > b2.getH()) return 1*order; if(b1.getH() < b2.getH()) return -1*order; return 0; } } // End of class // Comparator class for Sorting by BOX references By Height

PowerPoint Presentation:

class SORTBOXBYAREA implements Comparator<BOX> { private int order; SORTBOXBYAREA(boolean isAscending) { if(isAscending) order =1; else order =-1; } public int compare(BOX b1,BOX b2) { if(b1.area() > b2.area()) return 1*order; if(b1.area() < b2.area()) return -1*order; return 0; } } // End of class // Comparator class for Sorting by BOX references By Area

PowerPoint Presentation:

class SORTBOXBYVOLUME implements Comparator<BOX> { private int order; SORTBOXBYVOLUME(boolean isAscending) { if(isAscending) order =1; else order =-1; } public int compare(BOX b1,BOX b2) { if(b1.volume() > b2.volume()) return 1*order; if(b1.volume() < b2.volume()) return -1*order; return 0; } } // End of class // Comparator class for Sorting by BOX references By Volume

PowerPoint Presentation:

class comparatorTest { public static void main(String args[]) { ArrayList<BOX> boxes = new ArrayList<BOX>(); boxes.add(new BOX(10)); boxes.add(new BOX(20)); boxes.add(new BOX(10,6,8)); boxes.add(new BOX(4,6,10)); boxes.add(new BOX(10,12,14)); // SORT BY LENTH ORDER:Ascending Comparator<BOX> c1 = new SORTBOXBYLENGTH(true); Collections.sort(boxes,c1); for(int i=0;i<boxes.size();i++) System.out.println(boxes.get(i)); System.out.println(""); // SORT BY LENTH ORDER:Descending c1 = new SORTBOXBYLENGTH(false); Collections.sort(boxes,c1); for(int i=0;i<boxes.size();i++) System.out.println(boxes.get(i)); System.out.println("");

PowerPoint Presentation:

// SORT BY Volume ORDER:Ascending c1 = new SORTBOXBYVOLUME(true); Collections.sort(boxes,c1); for(int i=0;i<boxes.size();i++) System.out.println(boxes.get(i)); System.out.println(""); // SORT BY Volume ORDER:Descending c1 = new SORTBOXBYVOLUME(false); Collections.sort(boxes,c1); for(int i=0;i<boxes.size();i++) System.out.println(boxes.get(i)); System.out.println(""); } } // End of Main class

Exercise 1:

Exercise 1 Suppose C is a class that implements interfaces I and J. Which of the following Requires a type cast? C c = ……? I i = …..? J j = …..? c = i j = c i = j C I J << class>> << interfaces>> First c = (C) I Third I = (I) j

Exercise 2:

Exercise 2 Suppose C is a class that implements interfaces I and J. Which of the following will throw an Exception? C c = new C() I i = c; J j = (J) i; C d = (C) i; C I J << class>> << interfaces>> Second

Exercise 3:

Exercise 3 Suppose the class Sandwich implements Editable interface. Which if the following statements are legal? Sandwich sub = new Sandwich(); Editable e = sub; sub = e sub = (Sandwich) e; OK OK OK Illegal

Polymorphism:

Polymorphism Polymorphism is the ability of an object to take on many forms. The most common use of polymorphism in OOP occurs when a parent class reference is used to refer to a child class object. Any Java object that can pass more than one IS-A test is considered to be polymorphic. In Java, all Java objects are polymorphic since any object will pass the IS-A test for their own type and for the class Object.

Polymorphism:

Polymorphism It is important to know that the only possible way to access an object is through a reference variable. A reference variable can be of only one type. Once declared, the type of a reference variable cannot be changed. The reference variable can be reassigned to other objects provided that it is not declared final. The type of the reference variable would determine the methods that it can invoke on the object.

Polymorphism:

Polymorphism A reference variable can refer to any object of its declared type or any subtype of its declared type. A reference variable can be declared as a class or interface type. refer example from next slide.

Polymorphism:

Polymorphism

Method Overriding Cont..:

Method Overriding Cont.. Sub class can override the methods defined by the super class. Overridden Methods in the sub classes should have same name, same signature , same return type and may have either the same or higher scope than super class method. Java implements Run Time Polymorphism/ Dynamic Method Dispatch by Method Overriding. [Late Binding] Call to Overridden Methods is Resolved at Run Time. Call to a overridden method is not decided by the type of reference variable Rather by the type of the object where reference variable is pointing. While Overriding a Method, the sub class should assign either same or higher access level than super class method.

PowerPoint Presentation:

EXAMPLE METHOD OVERRIDING class A { void show() { System.out.println ("Hello This is show() in A"); }// End of show() Method } // End of class A class B extends A { void show() { System.out.println ("Hello This is show() in B"); }// End of show() Method } // End of class B class override { public static void main(String args []) { // super class reference variable // can point to sub class object A a1 = new A(); a1.show(); a1 = new B(); a1.show(); } } B class overrides show() method from super class A Call to show() of A class Call to show() of B class

PowerPoint Presentation:

class A { void show( int a) { System.out.println ("Hello This is show() in A"); } } class B extends A { void show() { System.out.println ("Hello This is show() in B"); } } class override1 { public static void main(String args []) { /* A a1 = new B(); a1.show(); */ A a1 = new A(); a1.show(10); B b1 = new B(); b1.show(10); b1.show(); } OUTPUT Hello This is show() in A Hello This is show() in A Hello This is show() in B Is this Method Overriding NO

PowerPoint Presentation:

Dynamic Method Dispatch Super class reference variable can refer to a sub class object. Super class variable if refers to sub class object can call only overridden methods . Call to an overridden method is decided by the type of object referred to. A B C D A a1 = new B(); a1.show(); // call to show() of B a1 = new C(); a1.show(); // call to show() of C a1 = new D(); a1.show(); // call to show() of D Assume show() Method is Overridden by sub classes

PowerPoint Presentation:

class A { void show() { System.out.println("Hello This is show() in A"); } } class B extends A { void show() { System.out.println("Hello This is show() in B"); } } class C extends A { void show() { System.out.println("Hello This is show() in C"); } } class D extends A { void show() { System.out.println("Hello This is show() in D"); } } DYNAMIC METHOD DISPATCH CONTINUED…..

PowerPoint Presentation:

class override2 { public static void main(String args[]) { A a1 = new A(); a1.show(); a1 = new B(); a1.show(); a1 = new C(); a1.show(); a1 = new D(); a1.show(); } } Hello This is show() in A Hello This is show() in B Hello This is show() in C Hello This is show() in D

Method Overriding Cont..:

Method Overriding Cont.. Sub class can override the methods defined by the super class. Overridden Methods in the sub classes should have same name, same signature , same return type and may have either the same or higher scope than super class method. Java implements Run Time Polymorphism/ Dynamic Method Dispatch by Method Overriding. [Late Binding] Call to Overridden Methods is Resolved at Run Time. Call to a overridden method is not decided by the type of reference variable Rather by the type of the object where reference variable is pointing. While Overriding a Method, the sub class should assign either same or higher access level than super class method.

PowerPoint Presentation:

class override3 { public static void main(String args []) { A a1 = new B(); B b1 = (B) a1; /* A a1 = new B(); C c1 = (C) a1; Exception in thread "main" java.lang.ClassCastException : B at override3.main(override3.java:39) */ } }

PowerPoint Presentation:

Examples Overriding class A { void show() { …. } } class B extends A { void show() { …. } void show( int x) { … } void print() { … } } A a1 = new B(); a1.show() ; // Valid // a1.show(10); // Invalid //a1.print(); // Invalid When a super class variable points to a sub class object, then it can only call overridden methods of the sub class.

PowerPoint Presentation:

class A { protected void show() { System.out.println ("Hi"); } } class B extends A { void show() { System.out.println ("Hi"); } } D:\Java1> javac AB.java AB.java:10: show() in B cannot override show() in A; attempting to assign weaker access privileges; was protected void show() ^ 1 error

PowerPoint Presentation:

class A { private void show() { System.out.println ("Hi"); } } class B extends A { int show() { System.out.println ("Hi"); return 10; } } NO IS THIS METHOD OVERRIDING CODE WILL COMPILE & RUN SUCESSFULLY

PowerPoint Presentation:

class A { static int show() { System.out.println ("class A"); return 0; } } class B extends A { void show() { System.out.println ("class B"); } } What’s Wrong Here sample.java:12: show() in B cannot override show() in A; overridden method is static void show() ^ 1 error

PowerPoint Presentation:

Nested Classes Java programming language allows you to define a class within another class class OuterClass { ... class NestedClass { ... } } Enclosing Class OR Outer Class Nested Class A nested class is a member of its enclosing class Nested has access to other members of the enclosing class,even if they are declared private 2 . Can be private, public, protected or friendly access

PowerPoint Presentation:

Nested Class Types Static nested classes Static keyword applied for class declaration Static nested class can use the instance fields/methods of the outer class only through object reference. Static nested class can be accessed OuterClass.StaticNestedClass 4. To create an object for the static nested class, use this syntax: OuterClass.StaticNestedClass nestedObject = new OuterClass .StaticNestedClass ();

PowerPoint Presentation:

Nested Class Types cont.. Non-Static nested classes These nested classes do not have static keyword applied Non-Static nested class can use the instance fields/methods of the outer class directly. 3. To create an object for the non-static nested class, use this syntax: OuterClass.NestedClass nestedObject = Outerobjectreference . new innerclass (); Inner class instance can only exists inside Outer class instance.

PowerPoint Presentation:

class A { private int a; A(int a) { this.a =a; } void print() { System.out.println("a="+a); } class B { int b; B(int b) { int c = b+10; this.b = c; } void show() { print(); System.out.println("b="+b); } } // End of class B } // End of class A Nested class with friendly access Outer Class Call to print() of outer class Example 1 [Non-static Nested Class]

PowerPoint Presentation:

class innertest1 { public static void main(String args[]) { A a1 = new A(10); A.B b1 = a1.new B(100); b1.show(); } } To create an inner class instance for non-static classes you need an outer class reference. Outer class Name Inner class Name Inner class Reference Outer class Reference If class B is Private then it is not visible in main(). A.B b1 = a1.new B(100); is WRONG/INVALID Example 1 [Non-static Nested Class] cont….

Example 2:

Example 2

PowerPoint Presentation:

class A { private int a; private int b=10; A(int a) { this.a=a; } class B { private int b; B(int b) { this.b =b; } void show() { int b=20; System.out.println("a="+a); System.out.println("b="+b); System.out.println("this.b="+this.b); System.out.println("Outer b="+A.this.b); } } // End of B inner class void show() { B b1 = new B(30); b1.show(); } } // End of Outer class A Outer class Nested Inner class [Non-static Type] Instance Field of B Outer Class A’s a Local b B’s instance Field b A’s instance Field b

PowerPoint Presentation:

class innerTest { public static void main(String args []) { // Create an inner class B's instance // Call show() method // STEP 1 // Create an Outer Instance first A a1 = new A(20); A.B b1 = a1.new B(-30); b1.show(); // inner class object instantiation thru anonymous outer // reference A.B b2 = new A(30).new B(-40); b2.show(); } } a=20 b=20 this.b=-30 Outer b=10 a=30 b=20 this.b=-40 Outer b=10

PowerPoint Presentation:

class A { private int a; A( int a) { this.a =a; } void print() { System.out.println ("a="+a); } static class B { int b; B( int b) { int c = b+10; this.b = c; } void show() { // print(); INVALID A a1 = new A(10); a1.print(); System.out.println ("b="+b); } } // End of class B } // End of class A Static nested class can refere to outer members only through outer reference Static inner class Static Inner class / Static Nested class Example

PowerPoint Presentation:

class innertest10 { public static void main(String args []) { A.B b1 = new A.B(100); b1.show(); } } Instance of static Inner class Example cont….

PowerPoint Presentation:

class A { private int a; protected static int b=10; A( int a) { this.a =a; } public void show() { System.out.println ("a="+a); display(); } public static void display() { System.out.println ("b="+b); } } Static Nested class Example 2

PowerPoint Presentation:

static class B { private int a; protected static int b=100; B( int a) { this.a =a; } void show() { // A.this.show (); // Won't work show() is non-static in outer display(); // Will work as method is static in outer System.out.println ("a="+a); // System.out.println ("a="+ A.this.a ); // Won't work a is non-static in outer System.out.println ("b="+b); // Will refer to its own b System.out.println (" A'sb ="+ A.b ); // will refer to outer class B new A(40).show(); // This is how you can call non static methods of outer } } // End of inner class B } // End of class A Example 2 cont….

PowerPoint Presentation:

class innerTest1 { public static void main(String args []) { A.B b1 = new A.B(-30); b1.show(); } } D:\jdk1.3\bin>java innerTest1 b=10 a=-30 b=100 A'sb =10 a=40 b=10 Example 2 cont….

PowerPoint Presentation:

Local Inner classes [ Classes Within method body] class A { private int a; protected static int b=10; A( int a) { this.a =a; } void show() { class B {} } } Class declared within a method body. Here method is show() Local inner classes Can not be declared as public,private or protected Class B is visible only in method show(). It can be used within this show() method only Local inner classes can only use final variables from its enclosing method. However inner classes can refer to its fields of enclosing class.

PowerPoint Presentation:

class A { private int a; protected static int b=10; A( int a) { this.a =a; } void show() { int x=10; } // End of show() method } // End of A class D:\jdk1.3\bin> javac innerTest2.java innerTest2.java:23: local variable x is accessed from within inner class; to be declared final System.out.println ("x="+x); ^ 1 error class B { private int b; B( int b) { this.b =b; } void display() { System.out.println ("a="+a); System.out.println ("b="+b); System.out.println ("x="+x); } } // End of class B Reference for A’s a Reference for B’s b Reference is wrong / errorneous ‘x’ is local variable inside the local method. Local classes can use only final fields from enclosing method

PowerPoint Presentation:

class innertest { public static void main(String args []) { final int a1=10; class A { private int a; private int b; int c; A( int a) { this.a =a; b = a+20; c = a+40; } void show() { System.out.println ("a1="+a1); System.out.println ("a="+a); System.out.println ("b="+b); System.out.println ("c="+c); } } //End of A new A(20).show(); print(); }// End of main static void print() { /* A a1 = new A(30); a1.show(); */ System.out.println ("Hello"); } }

OUTPUT:

OUTPUT E:\oop>java innertest a1=10 a=20 b=40 c=60 Hello

Anonymous Inner classes:

Anonymous Inner classes Another category of local inner classes Classes without any name i.e classes having no name Can either implements an interface or extends a class. Can not have more than one instance active at a time. Whole body of the class is declared in a single statement ending with ;

Cont… :

Cont… Syntax [ If extending a class] [ variable_type_superclass =]  new superclass_name ()  {                                                                 // properties and methods                                                   }  [;] Syntax [ If implementing an interface] [ variable_type_reference =]  new reference_name ()  {                                                                 // properties and methods                                                   }  [;]

PowerPoint Presentation:

class A { private int a; A( int a) { this.a =a; } void show() { System.out.println ("a="+a); } // End of show() }// End of class A Anonymous Inner Class Example

PowerPoint Presentation:

class innertest1 { public static void main(String args []) { A a1 = new A(20){ public void show() { super.show (); System.out.println ("Hello"); } public void display() { System.out.println ("Hi"); } }; a1.show(); // a1.display(); } } Calling show from inner class Anonymous inner class extending super class A

PowerPoint Presentation:

Anonymous inner class implementing an interface interface X { int sum( int a,int b); int mul ( int x,int y); } class innertest2 { public static void main(String args []) { X x1 = new X() { public int sum( int a,int b) { return a+b ; } public int mul ( int a,int b) { return a*b; } }; System.out.println (x1.sum(10,20)); System.out.println (x1.mul(10,20)); }// End of main }// End of innertest2

Wrapper Classes:

Wrapper Classes Java uses primitive types, such as int , char, double to hold the basic data types supported by the language. Sometimes it is required to create an object representation of these primitive types. These are collection classes that deal only with such objects. One needs to wrap the primitive type in a class.

PowerPoint Presentation:

To satisfy this need, Java provides classes that correspond to each of the primitive types. Basically, these classes encapsulate, or wrap, the primitive types within a class. Thus, they are commonly referred to as type wrapper. Type wrapper are classes that encapsulate a primitive type within an object. The wrapper types are Byte, Short, Integer, Long, Character, Boolean, Double, Float. These classes offer a wide array of methods that allow to fully integrate the primitive types into Java's object hierarchy.

PowerPoint Presentation:

Wrapper Classes are based upon the well-known software engineering design pattern called the Wrapper pattern. A design pattern is a template solution to a common problem. It describes the problem and identifies the recommended solution(s) to that problem. Because design patterns deal with common problems, they are often quite abstract! The problem: e.g . we want to store an int in a Vector, but Vectors do not accept primitive types. The Solution: We create another class that wraps the underlying class/type and provides an appropriate interface for the client. e.g. we create an Integer class that subclasses Object (as all classes do), allowing us to store wrapped int’s in Vectors.

Example that will not work:

Example that will not work import java.util.Vector ; public class MyApp { public static void main(String[] args ) { int myValue = 2; Vector myVector = new Vector(); myVector.addElement ( myValue ); for ( int x=0; x < myVector.size (); x++) { System.out.println (“Value: “ + myVector.get (x)); } } } The compiler detects an error here

Java Wrapper Classes:

Java Wrapper Classes Object Boolean Character Void Number String Short Double Integer Long Float Byte

Primitives & Wrappers:

Primitives & Wrappers Java has a wrapper class for each of the eight primitive data types: Primitive Type Wrapper Class Primitive Type Wrapper Class boolean Boolean float Float byte Byte int Integer char Character long Long double Double short Short

Converting Primitive to Object:

Converting Primitive to Object Constructor calling Conversion Action Integer IntVal = new Integer( i ); Primitive integer to Integer object Float FloatVal = new Float(f); Primitive float to Float object Double DoubleVal = new Double(d); Primitive double to Double object Long LongVal new Long(l); Primitive long to Long object

Converting Numeric Strings to Primitive:

Converting Numeric Strings to Primitive int i = integer.parselnt ( str ); Converts String str into primitive integer i long l = Long.parseLong ( str ); Converts String str into primitive long l Double d= Double.parseDouble ( str ); Converting String to primitive double Note: parselnt () and parseLong () … methods throw a NumberFormatException if the value of the str does not represent an integer.

Some Useful Methods:

Some Useful Methods The Java Wrapper Classes include various useful methods: Getting a value from a String e.g. int value = Integer.parseInt(“33”); sets value to 33. Converting a value to a String: e.g. String str = Double.toString(33.34); sets str to the String “33.34”. Getting a wrapper class instance for a value: e.g. Integer obj = Integer.getInteger(“12”); creates a new Integer object with value 12 and makes obj refer to that object.

Reading a Double:

Reading a Double import java.io.*; class MyProgram { public static void main(String[] args) { BufferedReader in = new BufferedReader( new InputStreamReader(System.in)); String line = null ; System.out.println("Input Something:" ); try { line = in.readLine(); } catch (IOException ie) { System.out.println("Exception caught: " + ie); } try { double value = Double.parseDouble(line); System.out.println("Value: " + value); } catch (NumberFormatException nfe) { System.out.println("You didn't enter a double number"); } } }

Use of the Wrapper Classes:

Use of the Wrapper Classes Java’s primitive data types (boolean, int, etc.) are not classes. Wrapper classes are used in situations where objects are required, such as for elements of a Collection: List<Integer> a = new ArrayList<Integer>(); methodRequiringListOfIntegers(a);

Value => Object: Wrapper Object Creation:

Value => Object: Wrapper Object Creation Wrapper .valueOf() takes a value (or string) and returns an object of that class: Integer i1 = Integer.valueOf(42); Integer i2 = Integer.valueOf( “ 42 ” ); Boolean b1 = Boolean .valueOf(true); Boolean b2 = Boolean .valueOf( “ true ” ); Long n1 = Long.valueOf(42000000L); Long n1 = Long.valueOf( “ 42000000L ” );

Object => Value:

Object => Value Each wrapper class Type has a method typeValue to obtain the object’s value: Integer i1 = Integer.valueOf(42); Boolean b1 = Boolean.valueOf( “ false ” ); System.out.println(i1.intValue()); System.out.println(b1.intValue()); => 42 false

String => value:

String => value The Wrapper class for each primitive type has a method parse Type () to parse a string representation & return the literal value. Integer.parseInt(“42”) => 42 Boolean.parseBoolean(“true”) => true Double.parseDouble(“2.71”) => 2.71 //… Common use: Parsing the arguments to a program:

Parsing argument lists:

Parsing argument lists // Parse int and float program args . public parseArgs (String[] args ) { for ( int i = 0; i < args.length ; i ++) { try { … println ( Integer. parseInt ( args [ i ])); } catch (Exception e) { }}}

Sample values::

Sample values: boolObj new Boolean(Boolean.TRUE); charObj = new Character('a'); byteObj = new Byte("100"); shortObj = new Short("32000"); intObj = new Integer(2000000); longObj = new Long(500000000000000000L); floatObj = new Float(1.42); doubleObj = new Double(1.42); printWrapperInfo(); //method to print objects above

Sample values (output from previous slide)::

Sample values (output from previous slide): => For Boolean & Character Wrappers: Boolean:true Character:a For Number wrappers: Byte:100 Short:32000 Integer:2000000 Long:500000000000000000 Float:1.42 Double:1.42

Each Number Wrapper has a MAX_VALUE constant::

Each Number Wrapper has a MAX_VALUE constant: byteObj = new Byte(Byte.MAX_VALUE); shortObj = new Short(Short.MAX_VALUE); intObj = new Integer(Integer.MAX_VALUE); longObj = new Long(Long.MAX_VALUE); floatObj = new Float(Float.MAX_VALUE); doubleObj = new Double(Double.MAX_VALUE); printNumValues("MAXIMUM NUMBER VALUES:");

MAX values (output from previous slide)::

MAX values (output from previous slide): => Byte:127 Short:32767 Integer:2147483647 Long:9223372036854775807 Float:3.4028235E38 Double:1.7976931348623157E308

Byte Example:

Byte Example The Byte class encapsulates a byte value. It defines the constants MAX_VALUE and MIN_VALUE and provides these constructors: Byte(byte b) Byte(String str ) Here, b is a byte value and str is the string equivalent of a byte value.

Byte Example:

Byte Example

Short Example:

Short Example The Short class encapsulates a short value. It defines the constants MAX_VALUE and MIN_VALUE and provides the following constructors: Short(short s) Short(String str )

Short Example:

Short Example

Integer Example:

Integer Example The Integer class encapsulates an integer value. This class provides following constructors: Integer( int i ) Integer(String str ) Here, i is a simple int value and str is a String object.

Integer Example:

Integer Example

Character Example:

Character Example The Character class encapsulates a char value. This class provides the following constructor. Character(char ch ) Here, c is a char value. charValue () method returns the char value that is encapsulated by a Character object and has the following form: char charValue ()

Character Example:

Character Example

Boolean Example:

Boolean Example The Boolean class encapsulates a Boolean value. It defines FALSE and TRUE constants. This class provides following constructors: Boolean(Boolean b) Boolean(String str ) Here, b is a Boolean value and str is the string equivalent of a Boolean value. The methods associated with Boolean Class are as follows: 1. Boolean booleanValue () 2. Boolean equals(Boolean b) 3. String toString (Boolean b)

Boolean Example:

Boolean Example java2all

The Object Class:

The Object Class Every java class has Object as its superclass and thus inherits the Object methods. Object is a non-abstract class Many Object methods, however, have implementations that aren’t particularly useful in general In most cases it is a good idea to override these methods with more useful versions. In other cases it is required if you want your objects to correctly work with other class libraries.

Clone Method:

Clone Method Recall that the “=“ operator simply copies Object references. e.g., >> Student s1 = new Student(“Smith”, Jim, 3.13); >> Student s2 = s1; >> s1.setName(“ Sahil ”); >> System.out.println (s2.getName()); OP:- Sahil What if we want to actually make a copy of an Object? Most elegant way is to use the clone() method inherited from Object. Student s2 = (Student) s1.clone();

About clone() method:

About clone() method First, note that the clone method is protected in the Object class. This means that it is protected for subclasses as well. Hence, it cannot be called from within an Object of another class and package. To use the clone method, you must override in your subclass and upgrade visibility to public . Also, any class that uses clone must implement the Cloneable interface. This is a bit different from other interfaces that we’ve seen. There are no methods; rather, it is used just as a marker of your intent. The method that needs to be implemented is inherited from Object.

Issue With clone() method:

Issue With clone() method Finally, clone throws a CloneNotSupportedException . This is thrown if your class is not marked Cloneable . This is all a little odd but you must handle this in subclass.

Steps For Cloning:

Steps For Cloning To reiterate, if you would like objects of class C to support cloning, do the following: implement the Cloneable interface override the clone method with public access privileges call super.clone () Handle CloneNotSupported Exception. This will get you default cloning means shallow copy.

Shallow Copies With Cloning:

Shallow Copies With Cloning We haven’t yet said what the default clone() method does. By default, clone makes a shallow copy of all iv’s in a class. Shallow copy means that all native datatype iv’s are copied in regular way, but iv’s that are objects are not recursed upon – that is, references are copied. This is not what you typically want. Must override clone explicitly for Deep Copying.

Deep Copies:

Deep Copies For deep copies that recurse through the object iv’s, you have to do some more work. super.clone () is first called to clone the first level of iv’s. Returned cloned object’s object fields are then accessed one by one and clone method is called for each. See DeepClone.java example

Additional clone() properties:

Additional clone() properties Note that the following are typical, but not strictly required: x.clone () != x; x.clone (). getClass () == x.getClass (); x.clone ().equals(x); Finally, though no one really cares, Object does not support clone();

toString() method:

toString() method The Object method String toString (); is intended to return a readable textual representation of the object upon which it is called. This is great for debugging! Best way to think of this is using a print statement. If we execute: System.out.println ( someObject ); we would like to see some meaningful info about someObject , such as values of iv’s, etc.

default toString():

default toString() By default toString () prints total garbage that no one is interested in getClass (). getName () + '@' + Integer.toHexString ( hashCode ()) By convention, print simple formatted list of field names and values (or some important subset). The intent is not to overformat . Typically used for debugging. Always override toString ()!

equals() method:

equals() method Recall that boolean == method compares when applied to object compares references. That is, two object are the same if the point to the same memory. Since java does not support operator overloading, you cannot change this operator. However, the equals method of the Object class gives you a chance to more meaningful compare objects of a given class.

equals method, cont:

equals method, cont By default, equals(Object o) does exactly what the == operator does – compare object references. To override, simply override method with version that does more meaningful test, ie compares iv’s and returns true if equal, false otherwise. See Equals.java example in course notes.

equals subtleties:

equals subtleties As with any method that you override, to do so properly you must obey contracts that go beyond interface matching. With equals, the extra conditions that must be met are discussed on the next slide:

equals contract:

equals contract It is reflexive : for any reference value x , x.equals(x) should return true . It is symmetric : for any reference values x and y , x.equals(y) should return true if and only if y.equals(x) returns true . It is transitive : for any reference values x , y , and z , if x.equals(y) returns true and y.equals(z) returns true , then x.equals(z) should return true . It is consistent : for any reference values x and y , multiple invocations of x.equals(y) consistently return true or consistently return false , provided no information used in equals comparisons on the object is modified. For any non-null reference value x , x.equals(null) should return false .

hashcode() method:

hashcode() method Java provides all objects with the ability to generate a hash code. By default, the hashing algorithm is typically based on an integer representation of the java address. This method is supported for use with java.util.Hashtable Will discuss Hashtable in detail during Collections discussion.

Rules for overriding hashcode:

Rules for overriding hashcode Whenever invoked on the same object more than once, the hashCode method must return the same integer, provided no information used in equals comparisons on the object is modified. If two objects are equal according to the equals(Object) method, then calling the hashCode method on each of the two objects must produce the same integer result. It is not required that if two objects are unequal according to the equals(java.lang.Object) method, then calling the hashCode method on each of the two objects must produce distinct integer results. However, the programmer should be aware that producing distinct integer results for unequal objects may improve the performance of hashtables.

finalize() method:

finalize() method Called as final step when Object is no longer used, just before garbage collection Object version does nothing Since java has automatic garbage collection, finalize() does not need to be overridden reclaim memory. Can be used to reclaim other resources – close streams, database connections, threads. However, it is strongly recommended not to rely on this for scarce resources. Be explicit and create own dispose method.

Polymorphism:

Polymorphism Polymorphism is the ability of an object to take on many forms. The most common use of polymorphism in OOP occurs when a parent class reference is used to refer to a child class object. Any Java object that can pass more than one IS-A test is considered to be polymorphic. In Java, all Java objects are polymorphic since any object will pass the IS-A test for their own type and for the class Object.

Polymorphism:

Polymorphism It is important to know that the only possible way to access an object is through a reference variable. A reference variable can be of only one type. Once declared, the type of a reference variable cannot be changed. The reference variable can be reassigned to other objects provided that it is not declared final. The type of the reference variable would determine the methods that it can invoke on the object.

Polymorphism:

Polymorphism A reference variable can refer to any object of its declared type or any subtype of its declared type. A reference variable can be declared as a class or interface type. refer example from next slide.

Polymorphism:

Polymorphism

Method Overriding Cont..:

Method Overriding Cont.. Sub class can override the methods defined by the super class. Overridden Methods in the sub classes should have same name, same signature , same return type and may have either the same or higher scope than super class method. Java implements Run Time Polymorphism/ Dynamic Method Dispatch by Method Overriding. [Late Binding] Call to Overridden Methods is Resolved at Run Time. Call to a overridden method is not decided by the type of reference variable Rather by the type of the object where reference variable is pointing. While Overriding a Method, the sub class should assign either same or higher access level than super class method.

PowerPoint Presentation:

EXAMPLE METHOD OVERRIDING class A { void show() { System.out.println ("Hello This is show() in A"); }// End of show() Method } // End of class A class B extends A { void show() { System.out.println ("Hello This is show() in B"); }// End of show() Method } // End of class B class override { public static void main(String args []) { // super class reference variable // can point to sub class object A a1 = new A(); a1.show(); a1 = new B(); a1.show(); } } B class overrides show() method from super class A Call to show() of A class Call to show() of B class

PowerPoint Presentation:

class A { void show( int a) { System.out.println ("Hello This is show() in A"); } } class B extends A { void show() { System.out.println ("Hello This is show() in B"); } } class override1 { public static void main(String args []) { /* A a1 = new B(); a1.show(); */ A a1 = new A(); a1.show(10); B b1 = new B(); b1.show(10); b1.show(); } OUTPUT Hello This is show() in A Hello This is show() in A Hello This is show() in B Is this Method Overriding NO

PowerPoint Presentation:

Dynamic Method Dispatch Super class reference variable can refer to a sub class object. Super class variable if refers to sub class object can call only overridden methods . Call to an overridden method is decided by the type of object referred to. A B C D A a1 = new B(); a1.show(); // call to show() of B a1 = new C(); a1.show(); // call to show() of C a1 = new D(); a1.show(); // call to show() of D Assume show() Method is Overridden by sub classes

PowerPoint Presentation:

class A { void show() { System.out.println("Hello This is show() in A"); } } class B extends A { void show() { System.out.println("Hello This is show() in B"); } } class C extends A { void show() { System.out.println("Hello This is show() in C"); } } class D extends A { void show() { System.out.println("Hello This is show() in D"); } } DYNAMIC METHOD DISPATCH CONTINUED…..

PowerPoint Presentation:

class override2 { public static void main(String args[]) { A a1 = new A(); a1.show(); a1 = new B(); a1.show(); a1 = new C(); a1.show(); a1 = new D(); a1.show(); } } Hello This is show() in A Hello This is show() in B Hello This is show() in C Hello This is show() in D

Method Overriding Cont..:

Method Overriding Cont.. Sub class can override the methods defined by the super class. Overridden Methods in the sub classes should have same name, same signature , same return type and may have either the same or higher scope than super class method. Java implements Run Time Polymorphism/ Dynamic Method Dispatch by Method Overriding. [Late Binding] Call to Overridden Methods is Resolved at Run Time. Call to a overridden method is not decided by the type of reference variable Rather by the type of the object where reference variable is pointing. While Overriding a Method, the sub class should assign either same or higher access level than super class method.

PowerPoint Presentation:

class override3 { public static void main(String args []) { A a1 = new B(); B b1 = (B) a1; /* A a1 = new B(); C c1 = (C) a1; Exception in thread "main" java.lang.ClassCastException : B at override3.main(override3.java:39) */ } }

PowerPoint Presentation:

Examples Overriding class A { void show() { …. } } class B extends A { void show() { …. } void show( int x) { … } void print() { … } } A a1 = new B(); a1.show() ; // Valid // a1.show(10); // Invalid //a1.print(); // Invalid When a super class variable points to a sub class object, then it can only call overridden methods of the sub class.

PowerPoint Presentation:

class A { protected void show() { System.out.println ("Hi"); } } class B extends A { void show() { System.out.println ("Hi"); } } D:\Java1> javac AB.java AB.java:10: show() in B cannot override show() in A; attempting to assign weaker access privileges; was protected void show() ^ 1 error

PowerPoint Presentation:

class A { private void show() { System.out.println ("Hi"); } } class B extends A { int show() { System.out.println ("Hi"); return 10; } } NO IS THIS METHOD OVERRIDING CODE WILL COMPILE & RUN SUCESSFULLY

PowerPoint Presentation:

class A { static int show() { System.out.println ("class A"); return 0; } } class B extends A { void show() { System.out.println ("class B"); } } What’s Wrong Here sample.java:12: show() in B cannot override show() in A; overridden method is static void show() ^ 1 error

PowerPoint Presentation:

Nested Classes Java programming language allows you to define a class within another class class OuterClass { ... class NestedClass { ... } } Enclosing Class OR Outer Class Nested Class A nested class is a member of its enclosing class Nested has access to other members of the enclosing class,even if they are declared private 2 . Can be private, public, protected or friendly access

PowerPoint Presentation:

Nested Class Types Static nested classes Static keyword applied for class declaration Static nested class can use the instance fields/methods of the outer class only through object reference. Static nested class can be accessed OuterClass.StaticNestedClass 4. To create an object for the static nested class, use this syntax: OuterClass.StaticNestedClass nestedObject = new OuterClass .StaticNestedClass ();

PowerPoint Presentation:

Nested Class Types cont.. Non-Static nested classes These nested classes do not have static keyword applied Non-Static nested class can use the instance fields/methods of the outer class directly. 3. To create an object for the non-static nested class, use this syntax: OuterClass.NestedClass nestedObject = Outerobjectreference . new innerclass (); Inner class instance can only exists inside Outer class instance.

PowerPoint Presentation:

class A { private int a; A(int a) { this.a =a; } void print() { System.out.println("a="+a); } class B { int b; B(int b) { int c = b+10; this.b = c; } void show() { print(); System.out.println("b="+b); } } // End of class B } // End of class A Nested class with friendly access Outer Class Call to print() of outer class Example 1 [Non-static Nested Class]

PowerPoint Presentation:

class innertest1 { public static void main(String args[]) { A a1 = new A(10); A.B b1 = a1.new B(100); b1.show(); } } To create an inner class instance for non-static classes you need an outer class reference. Outer class Name Inner class Name Inner class Reference Outer class Reference If class B is Private then it is not visible in main(). A.B b1 = a1.new B(100); is WRONG/INVALID Example 1 [Non-static Nested Class] cont….

Example 2:

Example 2

PowerPoint Presentation:

class A { private int a; private int b=10; A(int a) { this.a=a; } class B { private int b; B(int b) { this.b =b; } void show() { int b=20; System.out.println("a="+a); System.out.println("b="+b); System.out.println("this.b="+this.b); System.out.println("Outer b="+A.this.b); } } // End of B inner class void show() { B b1 = new B(30); b1.show(); } } // End of Outer class A Outer class Nested Inner class [Non-static Type] Instance Field of B Outer Class A’s a Local b B’s instance Field b A’s instance Field b

PowerPoint Presentation:

class innerTest { public static void main(String args []) { // Create an inner class B's instance // Call show() method // STEP 1 // Create an Outer Instance first A a1 = new A(20); A.B b1 = a1.new B(-30); b1.show(); // inner class object instantiation thru anonymous outer // reference A.B b2 = new A(30).new B(-40); b2.show(); } } a=20 b=20 this.b=-30 Outer b=10 a=30 b=20 this.b=-40 Outer b=10

PowerPoint Presentation:

class A { private int a; A( int a) { this.a =a; } void print() { System.out.println ("a="+a); } static class B { int b; B( int b) { int c = b+10; this.b = c; } void show() { // print(); INVALID A a1 = new A(10); a1.print(); System.out.println ("b="+b); } } // End of class B } // End of class A Static nested class can refere to outer members only through outer reference Static inner class Static Inner class / Static Nested class Example

PowerPoint Presentation:

class innertest10 { public static void main(String args []) { A.B b1 = new A.B(100); b1.show(); } } Instance of static Inner class Example cont….

PowerPoint Presentation:

class A { private int a; protected static int b=10; A( int a) { this.a =a; } public void show() { System.out.println ("a="+a); display(); } public static void display() { System.out.println ("b="+b); } } Static Nested class Example 2

PowerPoint Presentation:

static class B { private int a; protected static int b=100; B( int a) { this.a =a; } void show() { // A.this.show (); // Won't work show() is non-static in outer display(); // Will work as method is static in outer System.out.println ("a="+a); // System.out.println ("a="+ A.this.a ); // Won't work a is non-static in outer System.out.println ("b="+b); // Will refer to its own b System.out.println (" A'sb ="+ A.b ); // will refer to outer class B new A(40).show(); // This is how you can call non static methods of outer } } // End of inner class B } // End of class A Example 2 cont….

PowerPoint Presentation:

class innerTest1 { public static void main(String args []) { A.B b1 = new A.B(-30); b1.show(); } } D:\jdk1.3\bin>java innerTest1 b=10 a=-30 b=100 A'sb =10 a=40 b=10 Example 2 cont….

PowerPoint Presentation:

Local Inner classes [ Classes Within method body] class A { private int a; protected static int b=10; A( int a) { this.a =a; } void show() { class B {} } } Class declared within a method body. Here method is show() Local inner classes Can not be declared as public,private or protected Class B is visible only in method show(). It can be used within this show() method only Local inner classes can only use final variables from its enclosing method. However inner classes can refer to its fields of enclosing class.

PowerPoint Presentation:

class A { private int a; protected static int b=10; A( int a) { this.a =a; } void show() { int x=10; } // End of show() method } // End of A class D:\jdk1.3\bin> javac innerTest2.java innerTest2.java:23: local variable x is accessed from within inner class; to be declared final System.out.println ("x="+x); ^ 1 error class B { private int b; B( int b) { this.b =b; } void display() { System.out.println ("a="+a); System.out.println ("b="+b); System.out.println ("x="+x); } } // End of class B Reference for A’s a Reference for B’s b Reference is wrong / errorneous ‘x’ is local variable inside the local method. Local classes can use only final fields from enclosing method

PowerPoint Presentation:

class innertest { public static void main(String args []) { final int a1=10; class A { private int a; private int b; int c; A( int a) { this.a =a; b = a+20; c = a+40; } void show() { System.out.println ("a1="+a1); System.out.println ("a="+a); System.out.println ("b="+b); System.out.println ("c="+c); } } //End of A new A(20).show(); print(); }// End of main static void print() { /* A a1 = new A(30); a1.show(); */ System.out.println ("Hello"); } }

OUTPUT:

OUTPUT E:\oop>java innertest a1=10 a=20 b=40 c=60 Hello

Anonymous Inner classes:

Anonymous Inner classes Another category of local inner classes Classes without any name i.e classes having no name Can either implements an interface or extends a class. Can not have more than one instance active at a time. Whole body of the class is declared in a single statement ending with ;

Cont… :

Cont… Syntax [ If extending a class] [ variable_type_superclass =]  new superclass_name ()  {                                                                 // properties and methods                                                   }  [;] Syntax [ If implementing an interface] [ variable_type_reference =]  new reference_name ()  {                                                                 // properties and methods                                                   }  [;]

PowerPoint Presentation:

class A { private int a; A( int a) { this.a =a; } void show() { System.out.println ("a="+a); } // End of show() }// End of class A Anonymous Inner Class Example

PowerPoint Presentation:

class innertest1 { public static void main(String args []) { A a1 = new A(20){ public void show() { super.show (); System.out.println ("Hello"); } public void display() { System.out.println ("Hi"); } }; a1.show(); // a1.display(); } } Calling show from inner class Anonymous inner class extending super class A

PowerPoint Presentation:

Anonymous inner class implementing an interface interface X { int sum( int a,int b); int mul ( int x,int y); } class innertest2 { public static void main(String args []) { X x1 = new X() { public int sum( int a,int b) { return a+b ; } public int mul ( int a,int b) { return a*b; } }; System.out.println (x1.sum(10,20)); System.out.println (x1.mul(10,20)); }// End of main }// End of innertest2

Wrapper Classes:

Wrapper Classes Java uses primitive types, such as int , char, double to hold the basic data types supported by the language. Sometimes it is required to create an object representation of these primitive types. These are collection classes that deal only with such objects. One needs to wrap the primitive type in a class.

PowerPoint Presentation:

To satisfy this need, Java provides classes that correspond to each of the primitive types. Basically, these classes encapsulate, or wrap, the primitive types within a class. Thus, they are commonly referred to as type wrapper. Type wrapper are classes that encapsulate a primitive type within an object. The wrapper types are Byte, Short, Integer, Long, Character, Boolean, Double, Float. These classes offer a wide array of methods that allow to fully integrate the primitive types into Java's object hierarchy.

PowerPoint Presentation:

Wrapper Classes are based upon the well-known software engineering design pattern called the Wrapper pattern. A design pattern is a template solution to a common problem. It describes the problem and identifies the recommended solution(s) to that problem. Because design patterns deal with common problems, they are often quite abstract! The problem: e.g . we want to store an int in a Vector, but Vectors do not accept primitive types. The Solution: We create another class that wraps the underlying class/type and provides an appropriate interface for the client. e.g. we create an Integer class that subclasses Object (as all classes do), allowing us to store wrapped int’s in Vectors.

Example that will not work:

Example that will not work import java.util.Vector ; public class MyApp { public static void main(String[] args ) { int myValue = 2; Vector myVector = new Vector(); myVector.addElement ( myValue ); for ( int x=0; x < myVector.size (); x++) { System.out.println (“Value: “ + myVector.get (x)); } } } The compiler detects an error here

Java Wrapper Classes:

Java Wrapper Classes Object Boolean Character Void Number String Short Double Integer Long Float Byte

Primitives & Wrappers:

Primitives & Wrappers Java has a wrapper class for each of the eight primitive data types: Primitive Type Wrapper Class Primitive Type Wrapper Class boolean Boolean float Float byte Byte int Integer char Character long Long double Double short Short

Converting Primitive to Object:

Converting Primitive to Object Constructor calling Conversion Action Integer IntVal = new Integer( i ); Primitive integer to Integer object Float FloatVal = new Float(f); Primitive float to Float object Double DoubleVal = new Double(d); Primitive double to Double object Long LongVal new Long(l); Primitive long to Long object

Converting Numeric Strings to Primitive:

Converting Numeric Strings to Primitive int i = integer.parselnt ( str ); Converts String str into primitive integer i long l = Long.parseLong ( str ); Converts String str into primitive long l Double d= Double.parseDouble ( str ); Converting String to primitive double Note: parselnt () and parseLong () … methods throw a NumberFormatException if the value of the str does not represent an integer.

Some Useful Methods:

Some Useful Methods The Java Wrapper Classes include various useful methods: Getting a value from a String e.g. int value = Integer.parseInt(“33”); sets value to 33. Converting a value to a String: e.g. String str = Double.toString(33.34); sets str to the String “33.34”. Getting a wrapper class instance for a value: e.g. Integer obj = Integer.getInteger(“12”); creates a new Integer object with value 12 and makes obj refer to that object.

Reading a Double:

Reading a Double import java.io.*; class MyProgram { public static void main(String[] args ) { BufferedReader in = new BufferedReader ( new InputStreamReader ( System.in )); String line = null; System.out.println ("Input Something:" ); try { line = in.readLine (); } catch ( IOException ie ) { System.out.println ("Exception caught: " + ie ); } try { double value = Double.parseDouble (line); System.out.println ("Value: " + value); } catch ( NumberFormatException nfe ) { System.out.println ("You didn't enter a double number"); } } }

Use of the Wrapper Classes:

Use of the Wrapper Classes Java’s primitive data types (boolean, int, etc.) are not classes. Wrapper classes are used in situations where objects are required, such as for elements of a Collection: List<Integer> a = new ArrayList<Integer>(); methodRequiringListOfIntegers(a);

Value => Object: Wrapper Object Creation:

Value => Object: Wrapper Object Creation Wrapper .valueOf() takes a value (or string) and returns an object of that class: Integer i1 = Integer.valueOf(42); Integer i2 = Integer.valueOf( “ 42 ” ); Boolean b1 = Boolean .valueOf(true); Boolean b2 = Boolean .valueOf( “ true ” ); Long n1 = Long.valueOf(42000000L); Long n1 = Long.valueOf( “ 42000000L ” );

Object => Value:

Object => Value Each wrapper class Type has a method typeValue to obtain the object’s value: Integer i1 = Integer.valueOf(42); Boolean b1 = Boolean.valueOf( “ false ” ); System.out.println(i1.intValue()); System.out.println(b1.intValue()); => 42 false

String => value:

String => value The Wrapper class for each primitive type has a method parse Type () to parse a string representation & return the literal value. Integer.parseInt(“42”) => 42 Boolean.parseBoolean(“true”) => true Double.parseDouble(“2.71”) => 2.71 //… Common use: Parsing the arguments to a program:

Parsing argument lists:

Parsing argument lists // Parse int and float program args . public parseArgs (String[] args ) { for ( int i = 0; i < args.length ; i ++) { try { … println ( Integer. parseInt ( args [ i ])); } catch (Exception e) { }}}

Sample values::

Sample values: boolObj new Boolean(Boolean.TRUE); charObj = new Character('a'); byteObj = new Byte("100"); shortObj = new Short("32000"); intObj = new Integer(2000000); longObj = new Long(500000000000000000L); floatObj = new Float(1.42); doubleObj = new Double(1.42); printWrapperInfo(); //method to print objects above

Sample values (output from previous slide)::

Sample values (output from previous slide): => For Boolean & Character Wrappers: Boolean:true Character:a For Number wrappers: Byte:100 Short:32000 Integer:2000000 Long:500000000000000000 Float:1.42 Double:1.42

Each Number Wrapper has a MAX_VALUE constant::

Each Number Wrapper has a MAX_VALUE constant: byteObj = new Byte(Byte.MAX_VALUE); shortObj = new Short(Short.MAX_VALUE); intObj = new Integer(Integer.MAX_VALUE); longObj = new Long(Long.MAX_VALUE); floatObj = new Float(Float.MAX_VALUE); doubleObj = new Double(Double.MAX_VALUE); printNumValues("MAXIMUM NUMBER VALUES:");

MAX values (output from previous slide)::

MAX values (output from previous slide): => Byte:127 Short:32767 Integer:2147483647 Long:9223372036854775807 Float:3.4028235E38 Double:1.7976931348623157E308

Byte Example:

Byte Example The Byte class encapsulates a byte value. It defines the constants MAX_VALUE and MIN_VALUE and provides these constructors: Byte(byte b) Byte(String str ) Here, b is a byte value and str is the string equivalent of a byte value.

Byte Example:

Byte Example

Short Example:

Short Example The Short class encapsulates a short value. It defines the constants MAX_VALUE and MIN_VALUE and provides the following constructors: Short(short s) Short(String str )

Short Example:

Short Example

Integer Example:

Integer Example The Integer class encapsulates an integer value. This class provides following constructors: Integer( int i ) Integer(String str ) Here, i is a simple int value and str is a String object.

Integer Example:

Integer Example

Character Example:

Character Example The Character class encapsulates a char value. This class provides the following constructor. Character(char ch ) Here, c is a char value. charValue () method returns the char value that is encapsulated by a Character object and has the following form: char charValue ()

Character Example:

Character Example

Boolean Example:

Boolean Example The Boolean class encapsulates a Boolean value. It defines FALSE and TRUE constants. This class provides following constructors: Boolean(Boolean b) Boolean(String str ) Here, b is a Boolean value and str is the string equivalent of a Boolean value. The methods associated with Boolean Class are as follows: 1. Boolean booleanValue () 2. Boolean equals(Boolean b) 3. String toString (Boolean b)

Boolean Example:

Boolean Example java2all

The Object Class:

The Object Class Every java class has Object as its superclass and thus inherits the Object methods. Object is a non-abstract class Many Object methods, however, have implementations that aren’t particularly useful in general In most cases it is a good idea to override these methods with more useful versions. In other cases it is required if you want your objects to correctly work with other class libraries.

Clone Method:

Clone Method Recall that the “=“ operator simply copies Object references. e.g., >> Student s1 = new Student(“Smith”, Jim, 3.13); >> Student s2 = s1; >> s1.setName(“ Sahil ”); >> System.out.println (s2.getName()); OP:- Sahil What if we want to actually make a copy of an Object? Most elegant way is to use the clone() method inherited from Object. Student s2 = (Student) s1.clone();

About clone() method:

About clone() method First, note that the clone method is protected in the Object class. This means that it is protected for subclasses as well. Hence, it cannot be called from within an Object of another class and package. To use the clone method, you must override in your subclass and upgrade visibility to public . Also, any class that uses clone must implement the Cloneable interface. This is a bit different from other interfaces that we’ve seen. There are no methods; rather, it is used just as a marker of your intent. The method that needs to be implemented is inherited from Object.

Issue With clone() method:

Issue With clone() method Finally, clone throws a CloneNotSupportedException . This is thrown if your class is not marked Cloneable . This is all a little odd but you must handle this in subclass.

Steps For Cloning:

Steps For Cloning To reiterate, if you would like objects of class C to support cloning, do the following: implement the Cloneable interface override the clone method with public access privileges call super.clone () Handle CloneNotSupported Exception. This will get you default cloning means shallow copy.

Shallow Copies With Cloning:

Shallow Copies With Cloning We haven’t yet said what the default clone() method does. By default, clone makes a shallow copy of all iv’s in a class. Shallow copy means that all native datatype iv’s are copied in regular way, but iv’s that are objects are not recursed upon – that is, references are copied. This is not what you typically want. Must override clone explicitly for Deep Copying.

Deep Copies:

Deep Copies For deep copies that recurse through the object iv’s, you have to do some more work. super.clone () is first called to clone the first level of iv’s. Returned cloned object’s object fields are then accessed one by one and clone method is called for each. See DeepClone.java example

Additional clone() properties:

Additional clone() properties Note that the following are typical, but not strictly required: x.clone () != x; x.clone (). getClass () == x.getClass (); x.clone ().equals(x); Finally, though no one really cares, Object does not support clone();

toString() method:

toString () method The Object method String toString (); is intended to return a readable textual representation of the object upon which it is called. This is great for debugging! Best way to think of this is using a print statement. If we execute: System.out.println ( someObject ); we would like to see some meaningful info about someObject , such as values of iv’s, etc.

default toString():

default toString () By default toString () prints total garbage that no one is interested in getClass (). getName () + '@' + Integer.toHexString ( hashCode ()) By convention, print simple formatted list of field names and values (or some important subset). The intent is not to overformat . Typically used for debugging. Always override toString ()!

equals() method:

equals() method Recall that boolean == method compares when applied to object compares references. That is, two object are the same if the point to the same memory. Since java does not support operator overloading, you cannot change this operator. However, the equals method of the Object class gives you a chance to more meaningful compare objects of a given class.

equals method, cont:

equals method, cont By default, equals(Object o) does exactly what the == operator does – compare object references. To override, simply override method with version that does more meaningful test, ie compares iv’s and returns true if equal, false otherwise. See Equals.java example in course notes.

equals subtleties:

equals subtleties As with any method that you override, to do so properly you must obey contracts that go beyond interface matching. With equals, the extra conditions that must be met are discussed on the next slide:

equals contract:

equals contract It is reflexive : for any reference value x , x.equals(x) should return true . It is symmetric : for any reference values x and y , x.equals(y) should return true if and only if y.equals(x) returns true . It is transitive : for any reference values x , y , and z , if x.equals(y) returns true and y.equals(z) returns true , then x.equals(z) should return true . It is consistent : for any reference values x and y , multiple invocations of x.equals(y) consistently return true or consistently return false , provided no information used in equals comparisons on the object is modified. For any non-null reference value x , x.equals(null) should return false .

hashcode() method:

hashcode () method Java provides all objects with the ability to generate a hash code. By default, the hashing algorithm is typically based on an integer representation of the java address. This method is supported for use with java.util.Hashtable Will discuss Hashtable in detail during Collections discussion.

Rules for overriding hashcode:

Rules for overriding hashcode Whenever invoked on the same object more than once, the hashCode method must return the same integer, provided no information used in equals comparisons on the object is modified. If two objects are equal according to the equals(Object) method, then calling the hashCode method on each of the two objects must produce the same integer result. It is not required that if two objects are unequal according to the equals( java.lang.Object ) method, then calling the hashCode method on each of the two objects must produce distinct integer results. However, the programmer should be aware that producing distinct integer results for unequal objects may improve the performance of hashtables .

finalize() method:

finalize() method Called as final step when Object is no longer used, just before garbage collection Object version does nothing Since java has automatic garbage collection, finalize() does not need to be overridden reclaim memory. Can be used to reclaim other resources – close streams, database connections, threads. However, it is strongly recommended not to rely on this for scarce resources. Be explicit and create own dispose method.

The Object Class:

The Object Class Every java class has Object as its superclass and thus inherits the Object methods. Object is a non-abstract class Many Object methods, however, have implementations that aren’t particularly useful in general In most cases it is a good idea to override these methods with more useful versions. In other cases it is required if you want your objects to correctly work with other class libraries.

Clone Method:

Clone Method Recall that the “=“ operator simply copies Object references. e.g., >> Student s1 = new Student(“Smith”, Jim, 3.13); >> Student s2 = s1; >> s1.setName(“ Sahil ”); >> System.out.println (s2.getName()); OP:- Sahil What if we want to actually make a copy of an Object? Most elegant way is to use the clone() method inherited from Object. Student s2 = (Student) s1.clone();

About clone() method:

About clone() method First, note that the clone method is protected in the Object class. This means that it is protected for subclasses as well. Hence, it cannot be called from within an Object of another class and package. To use the clone method, you must override in your subclass and upgrade visibility to public . Also, any class that uses clone must implement the Cloneable interface. This is a bit different from other interfaces that we’ve seen. There are no methods; rather, it is used just as a marker of your intent. The method that needs to be implemented is inherited from Object.

Issue With clone() method:

Issue With clone() method Finally, clone throws a CloneNotSupportedException . This is thrown if your class is not marked Cloneable . This is all a little odd but you must handle this in subclass.

Steps For Cloning:

Steps For Cloning To reiterate, if you would like objects of class C to support cloning, do the following: implement the Cloneable interface override the clone method with public access privileges call super.clone () Handle CloneNotSupported Exception. This will get you default cloning means shallow copy.

Shallow Copies With Cloning:

Shallow Copies With Cloning We haven’t yet said what the default clone() method does. By default, clone makes a shallow copy of all iv’s in a class. Shallow copy means that all native datatype iv’s are copied in regular way, but iv’s that are objects are not recursed upon – that is, references are copied. This is not what you typically want. Must override clone explicitly for Deep Copying.

Deep Copies:

Deep Copies For deep copies that recurse through the object iv’s, you have to do some more work. super.clone () is first called to clone the first level of iv’s. Returned cloned object’s object fields are then accessed one by one and clone method is called for each. See DeepClone.java example

Additional clone() properties:

Additional clone() properties Note that the following are typical, but not strictly required: x.clone () != x; x.clone (). getClass () == x.getClass (); x.clone ().equals(x); Finally, though no one really cares, Object does not support clone();

toString() method:

toString () method The Object method String toString (); is intended to return a readable textual representation of the object upon which it is called. This is great for debugging! Best way to think of this is using a print statement. If we execute: System.out.println ( someObject ); we would like to see some meaningful info about someObject , such as values of iv’s, etc.

default toString():

default toString () By default toString () prints total garbage that no one is interested in getClass (). getName () + '@' + Integer.toHexString ( hashCode ()) By convention, print simple formatted list of field names and values (or some important subset). The intent is not to overformat . Typically used for debugging. Always override toString ()!

equals() method:

equals() method Recall that boolean == method compares when applied to object compares references. That is, two object are the same if the point to the same memory. Since java does not support operator overloading, you cannot change this operator. However, the equals method of the Object class gives you a chance to more meaningful compare objects of a given class.

equals method, cont:

equals method, cont By default, equals(Object o) does exactly what the == operator does – compare object references. To override, simply override method with version that does more meaningful test, ie compares iv’s and returns true if equal, false otherwise. See Equals.java example in course notes.

equals subtleties:

equals subtleties As with any method that you override, to do so properly you must obey contracts that go beyond interface matching. With equals, the extra conditions that must be met are discussed on the next slide:

equals contract:

equals contract It is reflexive : for any reference value x , x.equals(x) should return true . It is symmetric : for any reference values x and y , x.equals(y) should return true if and only if y.equals(x) returns true . It is transitive : for any reference values x , y , and z , if x.equals(y) returns true and y.equals(z) returns true , then x.equals(z) should return true . It is consistent : for any reference values x and y , multiple invocations of x.equals(y) consistently return true or consistently return false , provided no information used in equals comparisons on the object is modified. For any non-null reference value x , x.equals(null) should return false .

hashcode() method:

hashcode () method Java provides all objects with the ability to generate a hash code. By default, the hashing algorithm is typically based on an integer representation of the java address. This method is supported for use with java.util.Hashtable Will discuss Hashtable in detail during Collections discussion.

Rules for overriding hashcode:

Rules for overriding hashcode Whenever invoked on the same object more than once, the hashCode method must return the same integer, provided no information used in equals comparisons on the object is modified. If two objects are equal according to the equals(Object) method, then calling the hashCode method on each of the two objects must produce the same integer result. It is not required that if two objects are unequal according to the equals( java.lang.Object ) method, then calling the hashCode method on each of the two objects must produce distinct integer results. However, the programmer should be aware that producing distinct integer results for unequal objects may improve the performance of hashtables .

finalize() method:

finalize() method Called as final step when Object is no longer used, just before garbage collection Object version does nothing Since java has automatic garbage collection, finalize() does not need to be overridden reclaim memory. Can be used to reclaim other resources – close streams, database connections, threads. However, it is strongly recommended not to rely on this for scarce resources. Be explicit and create own dispose method.

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