Lect-1 Introduction on seed production.

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How to produce the quality seed

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Seed Production Technology : An introduction Dr. M. K. Karnwal Asstt. Seed Scientist, Genetics & Plant Breeding Deptt. Genetics & Plant Breeding

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Seed Production : An introduction Seed: Botanically seed is a ripened ovule. Moreover: seed are normally the product of sexual reproduction. Agronomically: Any part of the plant which is being used for raising a commercial crop is known as a seed. It may be vegetative part of the plant or mature embryo or grain of the plant.

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Seed Production : An introduction Seed: But, Some seeds are produced without pollination, called apomixis. eg. Many citrus crops, mango, Kentucky bluegrass. The plants produced from apomictic seed are genetically identical to the maternal plant---clones

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Seed Production : An introduction Seed are for propagation: The biological function of seeds is for propagation of the species. This also one of the major function of seeds in Agricultural practice. What else are seeds are used for?

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Seed Production : An introduction Seed are the major sources of food for the world Cereal crops: wheat, rice, corn, barley, oat, rye, millet, sorghum etc. Pseudo cereals: buckwheat, amaranth etc. Oilseed crops: soybean, sunflower, canola and other mustered etc. Pulses: lentils, chickpeas, pea etc. Beans: kidney bean, pinto bean, fava bean, lima bean, butterbean, pigeon pea.

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Seed Production : An introduction Seed are alive ! To function in propagation, Seeds must be alive Seeds respire (slowly) Consume O2, Produce CO2 and H2O Seeds have a finite lifespan They can be stored indefinitely Seeds of many plants remain viable for only a short time, a few days. Tropical plants grow in environment that do not have a winter season through which seed must survive before the spring growing season. There is a cost in dormancy.

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Comm. Seed Production : An introduction Seed are alive ! To function in propagation, Seeds must be alive Other seeds remains viable for a very long time, in some cases more than 100 years Common feature of many weeds.

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Comm. Seed Production : An introduction General feature of Seeds A number of structural features are common to almost all seeds. Embryonic axis Roots and shoots, in miniature form. Food reserves Allow seedling to grow before it is capable of performing photosynthesis. Seed coat Provides protection from the environment.

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Comm. Seed Production : An introduction Monocot and Dicot Seeds: Flowering plants (Angiosperms) are divided into two groups based on seed structure. Dicotyledonous plants with two seed leaves. Monocotyledonous plants with one seed leaf.

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Veins Comm. Seed Production : An introduction Monocot and Dicot Seeds: In addition to differences in seed morphology, there are a number of other common differences between monocots and dicots T.S. of Stem

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Comm. Seed Production : An introduction A typical seed of a dicotyledon: Embryonic axis (plant in mature) Plumule- first true leaves Hypocotyl/ Epicotyle- embryonic stem (H/E) Radicle- embryonic root. Cotyledons (seed leaves for storage of food reserves). Proteins Starches (carbohydrates) Lipids, oils

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Comm. Seed Production : An introduction A typical seed of a dicotyledon: Exterior structure: Seed Coat: for protection Hilum- Where the seed was attached to mother plant, “ botanical belly button ” Micropyle: where the tube that carried pollen to the egg was attached.

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Comm. Seed Production : An introduction A typical seed of a monocotyledon: Embryonic axis: Plumule: first true leaves Radicle- Embryonic root Coleoptile: Protective cap over plumule Scutellum: Transfer of food from endosperm to seedling. (Coleoptile and scutellum are equivalent to cotyledons in a dicot) Endosperm: Food reserve and storage Proteins, oils and starches

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Comm. Seed Production : An introduction Diversity among seeds: Seeds are very diverse : In terms of size: Begonia and impatiens seed weigh 10-20 micrograms (millionths of a gram). Coconuts weight more than a kilogram, seeds of related palms weigh more than 15 Kgs. In terms of adaptation: To survive various environments until conditions are favorable for germination. In terms of method of distribution: By animals By wind By water etc.

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Comm. Seed Production : An introduction Germination of seeds: A complex series of steps involving : (1) Uptake of water. (2) Utilization of stored reserves. (3) Development and expansion of the embryonic axis. (4) Establishment of a seedling capable of sustained, independent growth. Uptake of water- imbibition: Seeds are normally desiccated ( ~10% water). Desiccation allows seed to remain dormant. Water uptake starts process of germination. Other important factors to consider at beginning: Temperature requirement (some seeds require a minimum temp. to germinate, e.g. tomato will not germinate below 10 ˚C (50˚F). Increase respiration. ( more O2 required for metabolism)

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Comm. Seed Production : An introduction Germination of seeds: (2) Utilization of stored reserves: In cotyledons or endosperm tissue. During germination, enzymes are made that convert stored reserves (large molecules) into compounds that can be used by the seedling (smaller molecules). Starches → sugars Lipids, fats → sugars Proteins → amino acids etc. (3) Expansion and growth of seeding: Root radicle elongates down, hypocotyl expands up. Establishment of root system and emergence of shoot. Transport of compounds into growing seedling through vascular system. (These compounds have two functions – a) support respiration in the embryo b) Provide a source of building blocks (carbon, nitrogen, etc.) for the seedling.

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Comm. Seed Production : An introduction Germination of seeds: (4) Establishment of Seedling: After the expansion and growth of the seedling, it established into soil through the root which is stabilized in the soil during the establishment of the seedling. The roots uptake the water from the soil with the help of root hairs and transport it to the leaves and other parts of the plant trough xylem vessels. Similarly, the food nutrients and minerals are transported from root to the other parts of the plant by phloem vessels.

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Comm. Seed Production : An introduction Germination of dicots seed: Most of the dicots seed follow the pattern of epigeal germination. (The hypocotyl grows first it pushes the cotyledons and other parts of the seed out of the soil)

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Comm. Seed Production : An introduction Germination of monocots seed: Most of the monocots seed follow the pattern of hypogeal germination. (The epicotyl grows first only the plumule is pushed out of soil, while cotyledons and all other parts remain under the soil)

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Comm. Seed Production : An introduction Grain: A mature ovule, containing an embryo within a seed coat. Nutritive tissue may also be present within the seed coat. Seed Coat: A hardened outer layer of grain/ seed, derived from the integuments of the ovule, and which function to prevent mechanical injury to embryo and water losses from the embryo. It may also regulates germination in the different ways i.e. epigeal and hypogeal germination. Seed: Any part of the plant which is used for raising a commercial crop is known as seed. It may be vegetative part of the plant or mature embryo (ripened ovule) or grain of the plant.

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Comm. Seed Production : An introduction Genetically Seeds are two types: Orthodox Seed: Seed of this type can be dried to a moisture content of 5% or 25% without loosing their viability. e.g. Rice, wheat, maize, rapeseed mustard, soybean, cabbage, cauliflower etc. Viability: When a seed is capable of germinating after all the necessary environmental conditions are met. or Viability is the capacity of the seed to produce the seedling after getting favourable environment. (Tetrazolium test is being used to detect the viability of the orthodox seed) (b) Recalcitrant Seed: The viability of this group of seeds drops drastically, if their moisture content is reduced below 12-13%. e.g. The seeds of citrus, coffee, rubber, mango, jackfruit and other forest trees etc.

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Seed Production : An introduction Differences between scientifically produced seed and the grain (used as seed) (Scientifically produced) seed Grain (used as seed) 1. It is the result of well planned seed programme It is the part of commercial produce saved for sowing or planting purposes 2. It is the result of sound scientific knowledge, organized effort, investment on processing, storage and marketing facilities. No such knowledge or effort is required 3. The pedigree of the seed is ensured. It can be related to the initial breeders seed Its varietal purity is unknown 4. During production, effort is made to rogue out off-types, diseased plants, objectionable weeds and other crop plants at appropriate stages of crop growth which ensures satisfactory seed purity and health. No such effort is made. Hence, the purity and health status may be inferior

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Seed Production : An introduction Differences between scientifically produced seed and the grain (used as seed) S.N. (Scientifically produced) seed Grain (used as seed) 5. The seed is scientifically processed, treated and packed and labeled with proper lot identity. The grain used as seed may be manually cleaned. In some cases, prior to sowing it may also be treated. This is not labeled 6. The seed is tested for planting quality namely, germination, purity, admixture of weed seeds and other crop seeds, seed health and seed moisture content. Routine seed testing is not done. 7. The seed quality is usually supervised by an agency not related with production (seed certification agency) There is no quality control. 8. The seed has to essentially meet the “quality standards”. The quality is therefore well known. The labels, certification tags on the seed containers serves as quality marks. No such standards apply here. The quality is non-descript and not known.

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Comm. Seed Production : An introduction Good quality Seed: Availability of good quality seeds are responsible for increasing both production and productivity of both agricultural and horticultural crops. A statement “Good quality seed on good land yields abundant produce”. This statement is appearing in the ancient Hindu Manuscript i.e. Manu Smriti. The use of good quality seed is indispensable for the successful production of any crop. What is good quality seed? ( Note, that India ranks eight position in seed trade in the World)

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Comm. Seed Production : An introduction What is good quality seed? The good quality seed means it should be: Genetically pure. It should be cheap and easily available in the market. Free from undesirable weed seeds/ dust, inert matters etc. It should have good looking appearance with uniformity. It should be viable and vigorous with genuine genetic purity. Free from seed born diseases and other insects and pests. It should have higher adaptability, minimum moisture content and high germination percentage. It should have height yielding ability and superior quality.

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Comm. Seed Production : An introduction Good quality seed producing agro-climatic zones. India being gifted with diverse agro climatic zones which is capable of producing a large quantity of good quality seeds of all the subtropical to temperate agricultural crops. The growth of the plant and production of good quality seeds are strongly influenced by genetic and environmental factors. Environmental factors includes: Temperature, rainfall, wind velocity, soil condition and texture, insect activity and their relationship with varietals adaptation in any given locality etc. (All these environment factors/ natural factors can be modified to a great extent to the optimum level for good quality seed production--- how? )

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Comm. Seed Production : An introduction According to the various agro-climatic zones, we can classify the different kind of seed production programme to the different seed producing regions. Good quality seed producing regions: S.N Region Seed producing Vegetable Crops 1. Deccan Plateau of North A.P., North Karnataka, Eastern Maharastra (including Marathwara and Vidharbha ). Brinjal , Chilli , Cucumber, Gourd, Okra, Onion, tomato, groundnut, pigeonpea etc. 2. Coastal Distt . of A.P., TN, Rj . (Kota), Nimar vally & Indore region of M.P. Bottle gourd, Bittergourd , Pea, Cauliflower (Med season), Okra, Onion & Watermelon, Rapeseed Mustard, Barley, soybean, urdbean , Moongbean , Oat etc. 3. Gujrat & Rajashthan (Sriganganagar). Bitter gourd, Cauliflower, Cucumber, Pea, Rapessed Mustard, Bajra , Sorghum etc. 4. U.P. : Distt. of Etawah, Kanpur, Aligarh, Mainpuri & Barelly. Wheat, Barley, Maize, Sugarcane, Bitter gourd, Cucumber, Mid-season Cauliflower. 5. Hajpur region of North Bihar & Saproon valley (Solan), Mandi Distt. of H.P. and J&K. Bitter gourd, Cucumber & early Cauliflower, Amranth etc.

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Comm. Seed Production : An introduction According to the various agro-climatic zones, we can classify the different kind of seed production programme to the different seed producing regions. Good quality seed producing regions: S.N Region Seed producing Vegetable Crops 6. H.P. (Lower Valley), Uttarakhand & Kashmir vally . Beet, Cabbage, Cucumber, early Cauliflower & Carrot, Potato, Ragi , Millets and French bean etc. 7. Punjab & Haryana (Small areas) Rapeseed Mustard, Wheat, Rice, Barley, Oat, Asiatic Radish, Carrot, Cauliflower, Okra & Turnip. 8. West Bangal Leafy vegetables, Pumpkin & Tomato. 9. North Bangal, Kalipong Capsicum, Cauliflower, French Bean, Leafy vegetables, Pumpkin & Tomato. 10. Bomdila Distt. of A.P. Cauliflower (Snow ball), French bean, Radish & Turnip. The Production tech. of seed varies from location to location and from crop to crop. Thus the general recommendation should be adopted, which could be suitably modified on the basis of location and individual crop.

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Seed Production : An introduction How you shall produce the good quality seed of agricultural crops? Sol. : We can produce the good quality seeds through: By maintenance of proper isolation distance, according to the mode of pollination of the crop. Inspection of seed field at appropriate stages and time. Removal of off type and other undesirable plants. Selection of true to type plants of seed. Selection of better and healthy fruits or seeds. Use of suitable technology/ methods of seed extraction or separation. Proper drying, processing, packaging and storage of seed.

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Seed Production : An introduction History of Seed Industry in India Pre -independence development: During early years of 20th century efforts were made to develop improved varieties of cotton, wheat, groundnut and sugarcane. The State Department of Agriculture adopted two methods for multiplication and distribution of these improved varieties; ( i ) the seed of improved varieties were multiplied at one location and distributed over a large area to replace local varieties (ii) The seed was distributed in small packets to large number of farmers and it was expected that farmers would multiply their own seed . When the second method …. tried in Bengal with improved varieties of jute and paddy it did not give fruitful results , hence the first method was followed.

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Seed Production : An introduction History of Seed Industry in India Pre -independence development: In 1925 Royal Commission on Agriculture was constituted Recommendations for introduction and spread of improved varieties: 1. Separate organization should be there within agriculture to deal with seed testing and distribution 2. The seed distribution should be made through co-operative societies, dept. of agriculture and seed growers 3. Private seed growers should be given encouragement. Following the suggestions of Royal commission the Govt. of India established several Research Institutes , however the seed multiplication and distribution was not encouraging.

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History of Seed Industry in India Pre -independence development: Later on several committees were made, notable among them are; Sir John Russell Committee in 1937 ICAR committee in 1940 Dr. Burns committee in 1944 Famine enquiry committee in 1944 and Food Grain Policy committee in 1944 These review commissions revealed that; Crop botanist should be involved in development of improved varieties, their testing and demonstration. 2. Initial seed should be multiplied on govt. farms and subsequent multiplication in the fields of registered growers. 3. Govt. should purchase the seed from registered growers at a premium price and later on distribute to fanners at concessional rates. Seed Production : An introduction

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History of Seed Industry in India 2. After -independence development: 1948-49 - Dr S. Radha Krishnan recommended the formation of Agricultural Universities and he called them Rural Universities . 1950 - Recommendations were given by experts from foreign countries for the establishment of Agril . Univ. Until 1951 agriculture was neglected and after the formation of Agricultural Universities and Research Institutes agriculture development started in India. First Five Year Plan (1951-56) During this period major emphasis was given for the use of improved seed The improved varieties were developed and the breeder seed was produced on govt. farms In 1952 - Grow More Food Enquiry Committee was constituted---- ----recommended Seed Multiplication and Distribution Schemes Seed Production : An introduction

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History of Seed Industry in India 2. After -independence development: Second Five Year Plan (1956-61) This period is regarded as Golden period for Agricultural Development and Research . In 1957 All India coordinated maize Improvement Project was started in collaboration with Rockfeller foundation of USA with multidisciplinary approach.---Within four years of its establishment four maize hybrids were released. 1961: (1) Deccan Hybrid Makka –----Hyd (2) Ranjit ------ New Delhi (3) Ganga -1 ------G.B.Pant Agril. Univ. U.P (4) Ganga -101 ------G.B. Pant Agril. Univ., U.P. By seeing the progress made the Govt. of India started similar projects on Sorghum and Bajra in 1961. first sorghum hybrid CSH -1 was released from New Delhi in 1964 and First bajra hybrid HB -1 from Punjab in 1965 Seed Production : An introduction

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History of Seed Industry in India 2. After -independence development: Second Five Year Plan (1956-61) During this period importance was given for ---multiplication of Foundation Seed from Breeder Seed at block level . For this a policy was made that each National Extension Service Block should have a seed farm and a seed store . In 1959 first Indo- American Agriculture Production Team was constituted to examine India's food production problems. The team headed by Dr. Sherman E. Johnson ---- made following suggestions: Village Block and district level extension workers should be made responsible for educating farmers in use of improved seed. 2 . State Agriculture Department should be made responsible for seed certification . 3. Co-operatives and private seed growers should be made responsible for seed supply 4. Setting up of seed testing laboratories and 5. Development of uniform seed certification standards and seed laws . Seed Production : An introduction First Agricultural Univ. in the country was started at Pantnagar in U.P.

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History of Seed Industry in India 2. After -independence development: Third Five Year Plan (1961-66)- first four maize hybrids in 1961 necessitated the creation of separate organization for seed production to exploit the full production potential of these hybrids and this gave birth to National Seeds Corporation (NSC) in 1963. The main aim of establishing NSC was 1. To establish foundation and certified seed production 2. To assist in the development of seed production and marketing of seeds 3. To encourage and assist in development of seed certification programs, seed law and seed law enforcement programs. 4. To train personnel involved in seed programs and 5. Co-ordinate the improved seed programs Seed Production : An introduction

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History of Seed Industry in India 2. After -independence development: Third Five Year Plan (1961-66 )- The most significant achievements of NSC in development of seed industry are: Establishment of a scientific seed industry in the country 2. Encouragement of Indian manufacturers for seed processing equipment. 3. Development of field inspection methods and seed standards for seed certification and labeling 4. Multiplication of pre-released varieties of all India importance 5. FSP of varieties of all India Importance 6. NSC provided expert services to FAO for designing high capacity processing plants in Iran and seed storage structures in Malaysia. The seed industry developed fairly rapidly with the establishment of NSC . Seed Production : An introduction

Importance of Seed in Agriculture:

Importance of Seed in Agriculture Means for realization of the effect of Plant Breeding Research Carrier of New Technology Most vital yet Cheapest Input Gives highest return to its relative cost Availability of Good Quality Seed to the farmers must be ensured Seed Production : An introduction

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