QUALITATIVE TECHNIQUES USED IN PLANNING

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MUHAMMAD ASIF CHAUDHRY : 

MUHAMMAD ASIF CHAUDHRY PhD SCHOLAR

QUALITATIVE TECHNIQUES USED IN PLANNING : 

QUALITATIVE TECHNIQUES USED IN PLANNING

In Planning, The most commonly used techniques are : 

In Planning, The most commonly used techniques are Gantt Charts The CPM PERT

Project Plan : 

Project Plan The project plan (PC-1) is a document which outlines the objectives of the project, presents justification of the project, identifies the resources or inputs of a project and figures out a scheme for implementing the project.

The pc-1 form is the standard form used for preparing a work plan . Ideally a project plan should provide the project manager complete guidelines for implementing it. The project plan should on the one hand tell the project manager what the project is about and what the strategies should be followed to implement it. : 

The pc-1 form is the standard form used for preparing a work plan . Ideally a project plan should provide the project manager complete guidelines for implementing it. The project plan should on the one hand tell the project manager what the project is about and what the strategies should be followed to implement it.

The Work Plan : 

The Work Plan It represents a breakdown of a project into manageable tasks each of which can be scheduled and allocated to an individual or an organization who will be responsible for its execution.

Steps and techniques to be followed in the preparation of work plan : 

Steps and techniques to be followed in the preparation of work plan Preparation of a Project Break down structure (PBS) Project Breakdown in the Manageable Tasks or Activities Preparation of Gantt Chart or a Bar Diagram Preparation of Milestone charts Critical Path Scheduling (CPA) or Critical Path Analyses (CPA) Programmed Evaluation and Review Technique (PERT)

Project Breakdown Structured : 

Project Breakdown Structured It is a systematic and disciplined approach for breaking down a project into its main components and sub components. PBS lists all the activities that must be carried out to complete the project in a systematic and structured way. The project break down presents the activities which are to be carried out at various levels .

Benefits of Project Break down Structure : 

Benefits of Project Break down Structure It forces the project manager ,the supporting staff, and personnel in charge of various related organizations to study entire project and to think through all its details It can be used as framework for the project information system as far as planning, budjeting, accounting and control are concerned Project Breakdown Structure can also provide a short cut to understanding the project by the person, who under certain emergent conditions may have to take over as the manager of the project

Slide 10: 

The process of project break down ensures that all necessary operations are carried out and that no resources are devoted to unnecessary work

2-Project Break down into Manageable Tasks : 

2-Project Break down into Manageable Tasks It is an elaboration of the project breakdown structure. The manageable tasks help project manager or project planner conceive and list the activities which must be carried out to accomplish a project.

Manageable tasks should have the following characteristics : 

Manageable tasks should have the following characteristics They should be clearly defined They should point to specific activities which constitute a sub project The activities should be listed in the order in which they must be carried out

Gantt Chart or Bar Diagram : 

Gantt Chart or Bar Diagram The Gantt Chart is designed to graphically scheduled to monitor the progress of a project with reference to and within the frame work of schedule time within which the project has to be completed.

Types of Gantt Chart : 

Types of Gantt Chart The Planning Chart: In preparing the planning chart , it is customary to use symbols . It has its value in monitoring and reviewing the progress of a project The Progress chart: It is used to show accumulative work against time in relation to schedules

Uses of Gantt Chart : 

Uses of Gantt Chart The Gantt Chart can be used for scheduling the execution of various project activities by taking the earliest and the latest starting and finishing dates for an activity from the network It can be used as a simple and easily understandable model for communicating information to all levels of project management and supervision It can be used as a tool for monitoring the progress of the project

Slide 16: 

The Gantt Chart makes it possible to graphically record and present on a single sheet of a paper planning scheduling and actual progress of a project It singles out the activities that are either behind or ahead of schedule so that extra resources can be committed or withdrawn It leads to management by exception i. e. levels of the activities which are going satisfactorily and straightening those which are going badly

4- Milestone Chart : 

4- Milestone Chart The Milestone Chart provides points on the Gantt Chart for measuring progress. The Milestones represent significant events or important points of time in the life of the project or each project activity.

Uses of Milestone chart : 

Uses of Milestone chart The Milestone transform task into related events and activities and so a relationship between the starting and finishing time of various activities Besides providing an extension in the use of Gantt chart, Milestones have also led to the development of the system of network analyses and planning for project impementation Milestones can be checked up as they are reached. They help to monitor the schedule of a project activity and record any slip in the schedule of a project activity

5- Critical Path Method (CPM) : 

5- Critical Path Method (CPM) CPM is a mathematically ordered system of planning and scheduling for programmed management, assisted by electronic data processing which makes possible a balanced , optimum, time cost schedule to assure timeless and minimum use of resources. It is in many respects very similar to Programmed Evaluation and Review Technique.

Preparation of a CPM steps to be followed : 

Preparation of a CPM steps to be followed Identification and listing of project activities Preparation of the Project Graphic Model or Arrow Diagram estimating activities duration and introduction of time in the network Calculating the scheduling time of activities and events and determining floats and critical paths

Programmed Evaluation and Review Technique : 

Programmed Evaluation and Review Technique It is the improvement of CPM. The two techniques have a close resemblance as they both use arrow diagrams in identical manner.

Slide 22: 

Thank You