Category: Education

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What is Management ? Management is the art of directing human and material resources in the attainment of specific goals It is an art of getting things done through others It is the process through which educational Managers, Planners and administrators identify organizational problems and attempt to resolve them

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Elements of Management Planning Organizing Directing Coordinating Controlling Levels of Management - Top management (strategic views) - Middle management (tactical views) -Operational Management (normal activities) Communication is a vital process between these levels

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System classification 1. Deterministic or mechanistic system 2. Probabilistic or stochastic system 3. Self organizing or adaptive or cybernetic system

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Information Data are facts, events and transactions which have been recorded. They are the raw input materials from which information is produced When facts are filtered through one or more processes be come information

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Processed data when presented in some useful form is called information. Management usually involves in decision making on every spot. Decision is the key element of management process. Decisions are based on information. It is life blood of an organization As without proper flow of ; Appropriate accurate relevant data computer information manager decision ……………………………………………………………………………………..

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Data Information Stored facts Inactive(only exists) Technology based Gathered from various Presented facts Active (it enables doing) Business based Transformed from data

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Information is critical The information we have is not what we want The information we want is not the information we need The information we need is not available Why need information To ensure effective and efficient decision making leading to prosperity of the organization Classification of information By source By frequency By time By level By nature By use By form By occurrence

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Stages involved in information processing 1. Identification of information needs (policy, strategy, plan, problem solving, extension etc) 2. Inventory of available sources and data (the department having data, how it is presented) 3. Data collection (school census, statistical surveys, sampling surveys, administrative and managerial documents, management data base, external information) 4. Data base construction (structure, complexity of questions, classification, administrative units) 5. Data processing (statistical tables, maps, figures, analytical texts) 6. Publication and dissemination (written, website, CDs)

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Characteristics of good information Relevant Accurate Complete under stable System System is a set of procedure involving (people, equipment, and information) and that processes input to produce output. System is a functional unit MAJOR COMPONENTS OF SYSTEM INPUT PROCESS OUTPUT

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Management Information It comprises data and information necessary for making management decision and is generally derived market trend reports, sales analysis, cost benefit reports, business information reports, research reports, specially prepared for management purposes.

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Management Information System MIS is any organized approach for obtaining relevant and timely information on which managerial decisions are based. MIS is defined as formal system for providing management with information necessary for decision making effectively. MIS facilitate the decision making process and enable the organizational planning, control, and operational functions to be carried out MIS is integrated techniques for gathering relevant information from whatever source it originates and transfer it into useable form for decision making by the manager. MIS REFERS BROADLY TO A COMPUTER BASED SYSTEM THAT PROVIDES MANAGERS WITH TH ETOOLS OF ORGANIZING, EVALUATING AND EFFICIENTLY

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What is MIS Right information To right person At the right place At the right time In the right form At the right cost What is MIS role.? It increased business complexities ( technological revolution, research and development, explosion of information) It increased Management complexities (Management Science Technologies, Decision Making, and Functional uses of MIS) It enhance quality of our operations, It enhance quality of our services We achieve efficiency, transparency, speedy decision making etc.

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Historical Development In the year , 50’s and 60’s the management saw the potential of computers to process large amounts of data speedily and accurately In the 70’s there was a shift from data to information. The focus was not on data but on the analysis of organization data Such concept came to be widely known as MIS Requirements for a successful MIS Direction, involvement and commitment on the part of administrators who will use the system The system must provide early warning signal about any significance future needs. The system must be flexible and evolutionary The system should produce meaningful results quickly

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. Need and importance of MIS in Educational Planning For solving administrative problems such as payment of salaries, Control of funds, invoicing and accounting. MIS has been found useful in organizing school transport network with maximum efficiency, in solving complex problems of organization and in planning and building. Use of MIS in Management MIS is a three stage process data generation, data processing and information transmission Provides specialized and technical kind of information for the concerned managers The real time requirements, frequency of requirement accuracy requirement, data reduction requirement, storage requirement etc. Reduces overload of information

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Need and use of MIS in Educational planning Management provides information on past present and project future Information on relevant events inside and outside the organization The MIS facilitate effective implementation of the planning controlling and operational functions. Its important task is to deliver the right information to the right people at the right time M.S. Scott Morton has pointed the three levels of responsibilities for providing information to the Managers 1. Operation 2) Control 3) management Phases of MIS Study phase. Initial stage, preliminary designing, Design phase. Functions to be identified for performance Development phase. Prepare implementation plan Operational phase. Operating the system

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. Benefits of Computer aided MIS MIS is not new but is computerization is new. MIS existed long before the advent of the computer. The MIS techniques existed to supply administrators with the information. With introduction of computers new dimensions have been added to MIS such as speed, accuracy and increased volume of data by virtue of which a number of alternatives could be considered in decisions. A properly designed controlled and run information system should result in the following benefits:- more effective utilization of resources Increased efficiency of the organization Better direction and administration of the organization Reduction in operating and administration staff of the organization Reduction in operating and administrative cost Income of commercial enterprises, increases profits.

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Different modules t be included in the EMIS SMI PFMI LCMI CMI PMI CESMI EPREMI

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Some experiences of MIS in Pakistan MUST 1980-83 to enhance decision making problem solving capabilities of educational planners and administrators FEMIS information to planners, researchers, policy makers, administrators, monitors and other data users for enlightened decision making, pragmatic strategies planning, efficient administration and effective monitoring and evaluation. Reasons and Problems failure /non implementation of MIS in Pakistan Non involvement of the Managers Communication gape between management & Data process personnel The information is put in by the system analysist rather than manager Lack of use of terminals installed in the Manager’s office


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