Form work

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Form work, Scaffolding & shoring : 

Form work, Scaffolding & shoring MUHAMMAD AMMAR

General : 

General For the different construction activities like Brick work above 5 ft Surface finishing works like plastering, painting, walling etc. Renovation, repair and alteration works. Roof and slab pouring Some temporary nature supports and structures are required like Formwork (Supporting Structure) Scaffoldings (arrangement for working plate forms) Shoring (supporting method for unsafe structure) Underpinning (Method of strengthening an existing structure’s footing)

Form work : 

Form work Definition Qualities of formwork Types of formwork Formwork detail for different structural members Removal of formwork Maintenance of formwork Cost of formwork Advantages of steel form work

Definition : 

Definition Its is an artificial support provided below and around the precast or cast insitue concrete work. Formwork is commonly made of Steel wood Formwork construction & casting is of prime importance in concrete industry. It share a significant amount of concrete cost. Formwork is designed according to The ACI document SP-4. It can be purchased from www.concrete.org

Qualities of formwork : 

Qualities of formwork It should be according to ACI document SP-4 It should be water tight It should be strong It can be reusable Its contact surface should be uniform It should be according to the size of member.

Types of formwork : 

Types of formwork Formwork are mainly of two types Steel formwork Wooden formwork Steel formwork is made of steel sheets Angle Iron Tee Iron Wooden formwork consists of Props Planks battens Ledgers sheeting

Formwork detail for different structural members : 

Formwork detail for different structural members In concrete construction formwork is commonly provided for the following structural members. Foundations Wall Column Slabs & beams Stairs

Formwork for Foundations : 

Formwork for Foundations Wall foundations It consists of Plywood Sheeting Struts

Formwork for Foundations : 

Formwork for Foundations Column Foundations It consists of Side Supports Side Planks Cleats Side Support Side Planks Cleats

Formwork for Wall : 

Formwork for Wall It consists of Timber sheeting Vertical posts Horizontal members Rackers Stakes Wedges After completing one side of formwork reinforcement is provided at the place then the second side formwork is provided. Vertical Posts Struts

Formwork for Column : 

Formwork for Column It consists of the following Side & End Planks Yoke Nut & Bolts Two end & two side planks are joined by the yokes and bolts.

Column form work : 

Column form work

Formwork for Slabs & beams : 

Formwork for Slabs & beams It consists of Sole plates Wedges Props Head tree Planks Batten Ledgers Beam formwork rests on head tree Slab form work rests on battens and joists If prop height are more than 8’ provide horizontal braces.

Lintel or Beam Formwork : 

Lintel or Beam Formwork

Formwork for Stairs : 

Formwork for Stairs It consists of Vertical & inclined posts Inclined members Wooden Planks or sheeting Stringer Riser Planks Riser Planks

Removal of formwork : 

Removal of formwork Time of formwork removal depends on the following factors Type of Cement Rapid hardening cements require lesser time as compared to OPC (Ordinary Portland Cement) Ratio of concrete mix Rich ratio concrete gain strength earlier as compared to weak ratio concrete. Weather condition Hydration process accelerates in hot weather conditions as compared to cold and humid weather conditions.

Time of Removal of formwork : 

Time of Removal of formwork

Maintenance of formwork : 

Maintenance of formwork Due to continuous use wooden planks & steel plates surfaces become uneven and require maintenance. For wooden formwork use cardboard or plastic fiber board. Bolt hole places must also be repaired. For steel formwork plates must be leveled by mallet and loose corners must be welded.

Cost of formwork : 

Cost of formwork For normal works cost of formwork is about 30%-40% of the concrete cost. For special works cost of formwork is about 50%-60% of the concrete cost. Formwork cost is controlled by the following factors Formwork Material cost Formwork erecting cost Formwork removal cost Formwork jointing cost (Nails and Cables) Labor charges.

Advantages of steel form work : 

Advantages of steel form work It can be used for a no. of times. It is non absorbent. Smooth finish surface obtained. No shrinkage of formwork occurs. Easy to use. Its volume is less Its strength is more.

Scaffolding : 

Scaffolding Definitions It’s a temporary structure to provide a platform at different levels of a building for workers and Materials.

Types of Scaffolding : 

Types of Scaffolding Following are the types of scaffolds Single Scaffolds Double Scaffolds Ladder Scaffolds Cantilever Scaffolds Suspended Scaffolds Steel or Tubular Scaffolds

Definition : 

Definition Scaffold It is the temporary support system provided for the construction & maintenance purposes. It consists of supports and a working platform for workers and Materials. Scaffolding Method of construction of scaffolds is called scaffolding.

Single Scaffolds : 

Single Scaffolds It consists of Standards (v posts)(10 cm) Putlogs (7.5 x 7.5) Ledgers ( Wooden boards Braces Used for ordinary buildings 1.2 m

Double Scaffolds : 

Double Scaffolds It consists of Two rows of standards. 15 cm, 1.5 m Shores are provided. Used for superior works

Ladder Scaffolds : 

Ladder Scaffolds It consists of Brackets for Plate form.

Cantilever Scaffolds : 

Cantilever Scaffolds It consists of Cantilever Struts Standards Putlogs Plate forms It is used above ground level

Suspended Scaffolds : 

Suspended Scaffolds It consists of Ropes Working platforms Ropes can be raised Manually or mechanically Used for light construction and finishing works of multistory buildings.

Steel or Tubular Scaffolds : 

Steel or Tubular Scaffolds It consists of Steel tubes (1-1/2” – 2-1/2” diameter) Coupler or Clamps (to hold pipes in different positions) Prop nuts (to hold single pipes) Bolts, Nuts & washers Wedge & Clip

Scaffold pipes : 

Scaffold pipes

Coupler or Clamps : 

Coupler or Clamps

Scaffold fittings : 

Scaffold fittings Double Coupler It joins ledgers and standards. Swivel Coupler Composed of two single couplers and used to join two scaffolds at any angle. Putlog Coupler Used to join putlogs with transom. Base Plate Used at the base of the standards. Split joint Pin It’s a connection fitting used to join scaffold tubes. Reveal Pin It fit in to the end of a tube to form an adjustable strut. Putlog end A flat plate used at the end of a scaffold to convert it in to a putlog.

Scaffold fittings : 

Scaffold fittings

Scaffold fittings : 

Scaffold fittings

Prop nuts, clamp and fasteners : 

Prop nuts, clamp and fasteners

Wedge & Clip : 

Wedge & Clip

Standards : 

Standards BS 1139:Part 2:Section 2.1 (working scaffolds and false work made of steel tubes ) NZ 3620 Scaffold Planks AS 1576 Scaffolding

Web links for Scaffolding : 

Web links for Scaffolding http://www.advancescaffold.com/international-standard.html http://www.bhanuudyog.com/product.htm#

Shoring : 

Shoring Definition It is the method of providing temporary support (shores) to an unsafe structure. Types of Shoring Horizontal shoring or flying shoring Vertical shoring or dead shoring Inclined Shoring or flying shoring

Horizontal shoring : 

Horizontal shoring It consists of Horizontal beam or strut Wall plates Cleats Straining beams Used to support two adjacent buildings.

Single Flying Shoring : 

Single Flying Shoring

Double Flying Shoring : 

Double Flying Shoring

Vertical shoring : 

Vertical shoring It consists of Dead shores Sole plates Needles Props Used for rebuilding of walls.

Dead or Vertical Shoring : 

Dead or Vertical Shoring

Inclined Shoring : 

Inclined Shoring It consists of Rackers Needles Cleats Braces Sole plate Used to strengthen a wall.

Inclined or Raking Shoring : 

Inclined or Raking Shoring

Inclined or Raking Shoring (unsymmetrical) : 

Inclined or Raking Shoring (unsymmetrical)

Raking Shoring Details : 

Raking Shoring Details

Raking Shoring Details : 

Raking Shoring Details

Inclined Shoring or Raking Shoring : 

Inclined Shoring or Raking Shoring

Under-Pinning : 

Under-Pinning Definition Methods of Under-Pinning Pit method Pile method

Pit method : 

Pit method Old wall is supported by a bearing plate, steel beam and jacks. Excavation up to new depth is carried out. Foundation is provided for small 5’ (1.5 m) lengths. P.C.C (1:2:4) is provided for new foundation. For proper joint b/w old and new work, strengthening and to avoid settlement vertical steel bars may be added. Steel Bars

Pile method : 

Pile method

Slide 59: 

ACI Document SP-4 Back

Kicker or Starter : 

Kicker or Starter

Inverted Beams : 

Inverted Beams

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