Sub-family Mimosaceae

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Presentation Description

Family Fabaceae or Legume Family

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Presentation Transcript

Fabaceae:

Fabaceae Commonly known as legume family 400 genera 10,000 species Found all over the world, concentrated in warm temperate regions (3rd largest family of flowering plants)

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Fabaceae is composed of three different sub-families, namely P apillionaceae , Caesalpiniaceae and M imosaceae .

Sub-family Mimosaceae:

The family Mimosaceae includes about 40 genera, and at the same time has been considered to be the smallest one of all the three families of the order Leguminales . Sub-family Mimosaceae

Distribution::

Distribution: The plants of this family are almost exclusively tropical or sub-tropical in distribution. In our country this family is represented by many important genera, e.g., Acacia, Albizzia , Mimosa, Neptunia , Prosopis , Senegel , etc.

Habit:

Habit They are either shrubs or trees very rarely herbs, sometimes climbers. Many of them are thorny and xeromorphic, e.g.. Acacia, Prosopis ; hydrophytes are also found, e.g., Neptunia oleracea . Mostly wild, but some are grown as sand binders to check soil erosion and desert extension.

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Root : Tap and branched, deep rooted in the soil . Stem: Erect, branched, terete , woody, solid. The stem tissue is often rich in tannin-sacs and gum passages.

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Leaves: Alternate, petiolate , usually the base of petiole is provided with pulvinus ; stipulate, usually stipules are modified into thorns; compound, pinnate and generally bipinnate . Leaflets entire, oval, obtuse, unicostate reticulate venation. Leaf movements are common, reaching a climax in the ultra-sensitivity of Mimosa pudica and Neptunia oleracea . In some Acacias from Australia the leaves are bipinnate and fall earlier. The petioles are being flattened and developing into phyllodes .

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Inflorescence: Compound cymose heads. Flower: Usually sessile, actinomorphic, regular, hermaphrodite, bracteate , hypogynous , complete small, yellow, fragrant.

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Calyx: 5 or 4, gamosepalous , the sepals are campanulate , more or less connate, green ( sepaloid ), small, inferior, aestivation generally valvate . Corolla: 5 or 4, free, gamopetalous , valvate , inferior, slightly united towards the base, usually pentamerous .

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Androecium: Usually indefinite stamens , polyandrous, sometimes the number is reduced to ten or even four (e.g., in Mimosa pudica ). Stamens are attractive, bright coloured somewhat scented. Anthers minute, introrse , yellow, versatile . The filaments are long and slender. Gynoecium: Carpel one (monocarpellary); filiform , ovary superior, unilocular ; marginal placentation; style long; stigma minute and simple .

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Fruit: Legume or lomentum . Seeds: Exalbuminous . Pollination: Usually through the agency of insects (entomophily ).

Lomentum or pod:

Lomentum or pod

Seeds:

Seeds

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Economic Importance of Mimosaceae : The sub-family is not of much economic importance. A few members are however useful . Gum arabic is obtained from the barks of A. nilotica (syn. A. arabica ) and A. Senegal. Saresh - a type of gum – is obtained from Albizzia lebbek . The bark of Acacia yields tannin which is used in leather tanning . The wood of Adenanthera is powdered and yields a red dye . Prosopis is grown as a hedge plant and also as a wind breaker in Rajasthan to check spreading desert, acts as water indicator . Durable timber is obtained from Acacia. Leaves and pods of Acacia and siris are used by some herbivores.

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