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Editing OWL Ontologies with Protégé:

Editing OWL Ontologies with Protégé Holger Knublauch Stanford University July 06, 2004

This Tutorial:

This Tutorial Introduction to OWL, the Semantic Web, and the Protégé OWL Plugin Theory + Walkthrough Also available: Tutorial by Matthew Horridge ( http://www.co-ode.org ) Similar content but more details on logic Other example scenario (Pizzas) ... Workshop (this afternoon) ... Talks (tomorrow morning)


Overview The Semantic Web and OWL Basic OWL Interactive: Classes, Properties Advanced OWL Interactive: Class Descriptions Creating Semantic Web Contents

The Semantic Web:

The Semantic Web Shared ontologies help to exchange data and meaning between web-based services (Image by Jim Hendler)

Wine Example Scenario:

Wine Example Scenario Tell me what wines I should buy to serve with each course of the following menu. Wine Agent Grocery Agent Books Agent I recommend Chardonney or DryRiesling

Ontologies in the Semantic Web:

Ontologies in the Semantic Web Provide shared data structures to exchange information between agents Can be explicitly used as annotations in web sites Can be used for knowledge-based services using other web resources Can help to structure knowledge to build domain models (for other purposes)


OWL W eb O ntology L anguage Official W3C Standard since Feb 2004 Based on predecessors (DAML+OIL) A Web Language: Based on RDF(S) An Ontology Language: Based on logic

OWL Ontologies:

OWL Ontologies What’s inside an OWL ontology Classes + class-hierarchy Properties (Slots) / values Relations between classes (inheritance, disjoints, equivalents) Restrictions on properties (type, cardinality) Characteristics of properties (transitive, …) Annotations Individuals Reasoning tasks: classification, consistency checking

OWL Use Cases:

OWL Use Cases At least two different user groups OWL used as data exchange language (define interfaces of services and agents) OWL used for terminologies or knowledge models OWL DL is the subset of OWL (Full) that is optimized for reasoning and knowledge modeling

Protégé OWL Plugin:

Protégé OWL Plugin Extension of Protégé for handling OWL ontologies Project started in April 2003 Features Loading and saving OWL files & databases Graphical editors for class expressions Access to description logics reasoners Powerful platform for hooking in custom-tailored components

OWL Plugin Architecture:

OWL Plugin Architecture Protégé API (Classes, properties, individuals, etc.) Protégé GUI (Tabs, Widgets, Menus) DB Storage Protégé Core System Protégé OWL API (Logical class definitions, restrictions, etc.) Protégé OWL GUI (Expression Editor, Conditions Widget, etc.) OWL File Storage Jena API (Parsing, Reasoning) OWL Plugin OWL Extension APIs (SWRL, OWL-S, etc.) OWL GUI Plugins (SWRL Editors, ezOWL, OWLViz, Wizards, etc.)


Installation Bundled in Protégé 2.1 (Full): 1 2 3

Tutorial Scenario:

Tutorial Scenario Semantic Web for Tourism/Traveling Goal: Find matching holiday destinations for a customer I am looking for a comfortable destination with beach access Tourism Web

Scenario Architecture:

Scenario Architecture A search problem: Match customer’s expectations with potential destinations Required: Web Service that exploits formal information about the available destinations Accomodation (Hotels, B&B, Camping, ...) Activities (Sightseeing, Sports, ...)

Tourism Semantic Web:

Tourism Semantic Web Open World: New hotels are being added New activities are offered Providers publish their services dynamically Standard format / grounding is needed → Tourism Ontology

Tourism Semantic Web:

Tourism Semantic Web OWL Metadata (Individuals) OWL Metadata (Individuals) OWL Metadata (Individuals) OWL Metadata (Individuals) Tourism Ontology Web Services Destination Accomodation Activity

OWL (in Protégé):

OWL (in Protégé) Individuals (e.g., “FourSeasons”) Properties ObjectProperties (references) DatatypeProperties (simple values) Classes (e.g., “Hotel”)


Individuals Represent objects in the domain Specific things Two names could represent the same “real-world” individual SydneysOlympicBeach BondiBeach Sydney


ObjectProperties Link two individuals together Relationships (0..n, n..m) Sydney BondiBeach hasPart FourSeasons hasAccomodation

Inverse Properties:

Inverse Properties Represent bidirectional relationships Adding a value to one property also adds a value to the inverse property Sydney BondiBeach hasPart isPartOf

Transitive Properties:

Transitive Properties If A is related to B and B is related to C then A is also related to C Often used for part-of relationships Sydney BondiBeach hasPart NewSouthWales hasPart hasPart (derived)


DatatypeProperties Link individuals to primitive values (integers, floats, strings, booleans etc) Often: AnnotationProperties without formal “meaning” Sydney hasSize = 4,500,000 isCapital = true rdfs:comment = “Don’t miss the opera house”


Classes Sets of individuals with common characteristics Individuals are instances of at least one class City Sydney Beach Cairns BondiBeach CurrawongBeach

Range and Domain:

Range and Domain Property characteristics Domain: “left side of relation” (Destination) Range: “right side” (Accomodation) Sydney BestWestern FourSeasons hasAccomodation Destination Accomodation hasAccomodation


Domains Individuals can only take values of properties that have matching domain “Only Destinations can have Accomodations” Domain can contain multiple classes Domain can be undefined: Property can be used everywhere

Superclass Relationships:

Superclass Relationships Classes can be organized in a hierarchy Direct instances of subclass are also (indirect) instances of superclasses Cairns Sydney Canberra Coonabarabran

Class Relationships:

Class Relationships Classes can overlap arbitrarily City Sydney Cairns BondiBeach RetireeDestination

Class Disjointness:

Class Disjointness All classes could potentially overlap In many cases we want to make sure they don’t share instances Sydney UrbanArea RuralArea Sydney Woomera CapeYork disjointWith City Destination

(Create a new OWL project):

(Create a new OWL project)

(Create simple classes):

(Create simple classes)

(Create class hierarchy and set disjoints):

(Create class hierarchy and set disjoints)

(Create Contact class with datatype properties):

(Create Contact class with datatype properties)

(Edit details of datatype properties):

(Edit details of datatype properties)

(Create an object property hasContact):

(Create an object property hasContact)

(Create an object property with inverse):

(Create an object property with inverse)

(Create the remaining classes and properties):

(Create the remaining classes and properties)

Class Descriptions:

Class Descriptions Classes can be described by their logical characteristics Descriptions are “anonymous classes” Things with three star accomodation Things with sightseeing opportunities RetireeDestination Sydney SanJose BlueMountains

Class Descriptions:

Class Descriptions Define the “meaning” of classes Anonymous class expressions are used “All national parks have campgrounds.” “A backpackers destination is a destination that has budget accomodation and offers sports or adventure activities.” Expressions mostly restrict property values (OWL Restrictions)

Class Descriptions: Why?:

Class Descriptions: Why? Based on OWL’s Description Logic support Formalize intentions and modeling decisions (comparable to test cases) Make sure that individuals fulfill conditions Tool-supported reasoning

Reasoning with Classes:

Reasoning with Classes Tool support for three types of reasoning exists: Consistency checking: Can a class have any instances? Classification: Is A a subclass of B? Instance classification: Which classes does an individual belong to? For Protégé we recommend RACER (but other tools with DIG support work too)

Restrictions (Overview):

Restrictions (Overview) Define a condition for property values allValuesFrom someValuesFrom hasValue minCardinality maxCardinality cardinality An anonymous class consisting of all individuals that fulfill the condition

Cardinality Restrictions:

Cardinality Restrictions Meaning: The property must have at least/at most/exactly x values is the shortcut for and Example: A FamilyDestination is a Destination that has at least one Accomodation and at least 2 Activities

allValuesFrom Restrictions:

allValuesFrom Restrictions Meaning: All values of the property must be of a certain type Warning: Also individuals with no values fulfill this condition (trivial satisfaction) Example: Hiking is a Sport that is only possible in NationalParks

someValuesFrom Restrictions:

someValuesFrom Restrictions Meaning: At least one value of the property must be of a certain type Others may exist as well Example: A NationalPark is a RuralArea that has at least one Campground and offers at least one Hiking opportunity

hasValue Restrictions:

hasValue Restrictions Meaning: At least one of the values of the property is a certain value Similar to someValuesFrom but with Individuals and primitive values Example: A PartOfSydney is a Destination where one of the values of the isPartOf property is Sydney

Enumerated Classes:

Enumerated Classes Consist of exactly the listed individuals OneStarRating TwoStarRating ThreeStarRating BudgetAccomodation

Logical Class Definitions:

Logical Class Definitions Define classes out of other classes unionOf (or) intersectionOf (and) complementOf (not) Allow arbitrary nesting of class descriptions (A and (B or C) and not D)


unionOf The class of individuals that belong to class A or class B (or both) Example: Adventure or Sports activities Adventure Sports


intersectionOf The class of individuals that belong to both class A and class B Example: A BudgetHotelDestination is a destination with accomodation that is a budget accomodation and a hotel BudgetAccomodation Hotel

Implicit intersectionOf:

Implicit intersectionOf When a class is defined by more than one class description, then it consists of the intersection of the descriptions Example: A luxury hotel is a hotel that is also an accomodation with 3 stars AccomodationWith3Stars Hotel LuxuryHotel


complementOf The class of all individuals that do not belong to a certain class Example: A quiet destination is a destination that is not a family destination Destination FamilyDestination QuietDestination (grayed)

Class Conditions:

Class Conditions Necessary Conditions : (Primitive / partial classes) “If we know that something is a X, then it must fulfill the conditions...” Necessary & Sufficient Conditions : (Defined / complete classes) “If something fulfills the conditions..., then it is an X.”

Class Conditions (2):

Class Conditions (2) QuietDestination NationalPark (not everything that fulfills these conditions is a NationalPark) (everything that fulfills these conditions is a QuietDestination)


Classification NationalPark BackpackersDestination A RuralArea is a Destination A Campground is BudgetAccomodation Hiking is a Sport Therefore: Every NationalPark is a Backpackers-Destiantion (Other BackpackerDestinations)

Classification (2):

Classification (2) Input: Asserted class definitions Output: Inferred subclass relationships

(Create an enumerated class out of individuals):

(Create an enumerated class out of individuals)

(Create a hasValue restriction):

(Create a hasValue restriction)

(Create a hasValue restriction):

(Create a hasValue restriction)

(Create a defined class):

(Create a defined class)

(Classify Campground):

(Classify Campground)

(Add restrictions to City and Capital):

(Add restrictions to City and Capital)

(Create defined class BackpackersDestination):

(Create defined class BackpackersDestination)

(Create defined class FamilyDestination):

(Create defined class FamilyDestination)

(Create defined class QuietDestination):

(Create defined class QuietDestination)

(Create defined class RetireeDestination):

(Create defined class RetireeDestination)



(Consistency Checking):

(Consistency Checking)

Visualization with OWLViz:

Visualization with OWLViz

OWL Wizards:

OWL Wizards

Putting it All Together:

Putting it All Together Ontology has been developed Published on a dedicated web address Ontology provides standard terminology Other ontologies can extend it Users can instantiate the ontology to provide instances specific hotels specific activities

Ontology Import:

Ontology Import Adds all classes, properties and individuals from an external OWL ontology into your project Allows to create individuals, subclasses, or to further restrict imported classes Can be used to instantiate an ontology for the Semantic Web

Tourism Semantic Web (2):

Tourism Semantic Web (2) OWL Metadata (Individuals) Tourism Ontology Web Services Destination Accomodation Activity

Ontology Import with Protégé:

Ontology Import with Protégé On the Metadata tab: Add namespace, define prefix Check “Imported” and reload your project





OWL File:

OWL File <?xml version="1.0"?>\ <rdf:RDF xmlns="http://protege.stanford.edu/plugins/owl/owl-library/heli-bunjee.owl#" xmlns:rdf="http://www.w3.org/1999/02/22-rdf-syntax-ns#" xmlns:rdfs="http://www.w3.org/2000/01/rdf-schema#" xmlns:owl="http://www.w3.org/2002/07/owl#" xmlns:dc="http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/" xmlns:travel="http://protege.stanford.edu/plugins/owl/owl-library/travel.owl#" xml:base="http://protege.stanford.edu/plugins/owl/owl-library/heli-bunjee.owl"> <owl:Ontology rdf:about=""> <owl:imports rdf:resource="http://protege.stanford.edu/plugins/owl/owl-library/travel.owl"/> </owl:Ontology> <owl:Class rdf:ID="HeliBunjeeJumping"> <rdfs:subClassOf rdf:resource="http://protege.stanford.edu/plugins/owl/owl-library/travel.owl#BunjeeJumping"/> </owl:Class> <HeliBunjeeJumping rdf:ID="ManicSuperBunjee"> <travel:isPossibleIn> <rdf:Description rdf:about="http://protege.stanford.edu/plugins/owl/owl-library/travel.owl#Sydney"> <travel:hasActivity rdf:resource="#ManicSuperBunjee"/> </rdf:Description> </travel:isPossibleIn> <travel:hasContact> <travel:Contact rdf:ID="MSBInc"> <travel:hasEmail rdf:datatype="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#string">msb@manicsuperbunjee.com </travel:hasEmail> <travel:hasCity rdf:datatype="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#string">Sydney</travel:hasCity> <travel:hasStreet rdf:datatype="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#string">Queen Victoria St</travel:hasStreet> <travel:hasZipCode rdf:datatype="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#int">1240</travel:hasZipCode> </travel:Contact> </travel:hasContact> <rdfs:comment rdf:datatype="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#string">Manic super bunjee now offers nerve wrecking jumps from 300 feet right out of a helicopter. Satisfaction guaranteed.</rdfs:comment> </HeliBunjeeJumping> </rdf:RDF>

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