RTI : RTI An
overview What is Response to Intervention? : What is Response to Intervention? Response to Intervention (RTI) is a systematic and data-based method for identifying, defining, and resolving students' academic and/or behavioral difficulties. Key RTI Features : Key RTI Features Prevention-based model
Primary- before any problems exist
Secondary- at the first sign of problems
Tertiary- to reduce effects of problems
Includes three elements
Systematic review of data to inform instruction BRES Three-Tier RTI Model : BRES Three-Tier RTI Model Tier 1
Scientifically based general education instruction with regular progress monitoring
Intensive small-group scientifically based instruction with more frequent progress monitoring and data charting
Tier 3 (Title I)
More frequent, intensive small-groups with monitoring & charting & possible referral for comprehensive evaluation for special ed services RTI in 10 Easy Steps : RTI in 10 Easy Steps There are 10 basic steps to designing and implementing RTI procedures in a school.
Each step is essential and will affect the overall quality of the process and data collected.
The steps need to be implemented in order. RTI Step 1 : RTI Step 1 Implement scientifically-based general education instruction methods RTI Step 2 : RTI Step 2 Collect benchmarks of all students' performance three times during school year. RTI Step 3 : RTI Step 3 Identify which students scored below the benchmark targets.
Compare this at-risk list with teacher judgment and other indicators of students' progress. RTI Step 4 : RTI Step 4 Provide daily scientifically based small-group instruction to students who scored below benchmark target(s).
This is intervention in addition to instruction they continue to receive in the general ed curriculum. RTI Step 5 : RTI Step 5 Monitor student progress toward the benchmark(s), using daily assessments and data graphing.
Frequent assessment of student progress has been shown to be important for effective instructional decision making.
Students need to see the data too! RTI Steps 6-8 : RTI Steps 6-8 Review, revise and/or discontinue small-group instruction based on student performance and progress toward the benchmark.
Evaluate whether there is need to increase frequency, duration, intensity of intervention.
Interventions should not last forever and need to be reviewed frequently.
The data tell the story.
Every effort to help the student find success is needed. RTI Step 9 : RTI Step 9 For students not yet showing evidence of meeting the benchmarks, initiate a comprehensive evaluation to determine whether the student has a disability and is eligible for special education services. RTI Step 10 : RTI Step 10 IEP team determines whether student has a disability and meets the criteria for special ed services. Research on RTI & Special Ed : Research on RTI & Special Ed RTI has been shown to reduce the number of students identified as LD(Marston, Muyskens, Lau & Canter, 2003)
RTI also has been linked with a drop in the overall number of special ed placements (O'Connor, 2003).
RTI led to a significant reduction in primary grades special ed referrals and placement when used specifically for K-3 programming (Tilly, 2003).
RTI does not eliminate or discount the presence of LD, but is one important step in the process toward diagnosis and treatment (Speece, Case & Molloy, 2003). Aztec Elementary School : Aztec Elementary School A case study “I have been concerned about a student since pretty much the first day of school.”-1st grade teacher : “I have been concerned about a student since pretty much the first day of school.”-1st grade teacher Student Information : Student Information Grade: 2nd
Primary language: English
Home: Lives with mother. Frequent changes in address
School: Repeated kindergarten
K Report Card:
“Needs more time/support” in recognizing
letters & knowing letter sounds,
1st Grade Report Card:
“Needs more time/support” in reading,
writing, & active listening Presenting Problem : Presenting Problem Teacher concerns
Learns words, then can’t read them
Compensates “a lot”
Very slow reading progress
Can’t “chunk” words
Fine in math Presenting Problem : Presenting Problem Mother concerns
Dyslexia Achievement Testing : Achievement Testing Speech/Language Pathologist Reported:
IQ likely average
Far below in language, speech, reading
Trouble with syllables
No memorized sight words
Can’t retain information
Problems following directions “(Student) will never be able to read unless we use language and reading interventions together” : “(Student) will never be able to read unless we use language and reading interventions together” BASC-2Parent Rating Scales- Child : BASC-2Parent Rating Scales- Child Clinically Significant:
Atypicality, Activities of Daily Living, Functional Communication
All composite scores
Externalizing Problems, Internalizing Problems, Behavioral Symptoms Index, Adaptive Skills
Attention Problems, Hyperactivity,
Aggression, Conduct Problems, Anxiety, Depression, Somatization BASC-2Parent Rating Scales- Child : BASC-2Parent Rating Scales- Child Mother reported that Student “Almost Always”
Worries about schoolwork
Is easily distracted
Mother reported that Student “Often”
Speaks in short phrases that are hard to understand
Worries about what teachers think
Says “I’m not very good at this”
Has a short attention span
Gets into trouble
Is unclear when presenting ideas BASC-2Teacher Rating Scales- Child : BASC-2Teacher Rating Scales- Child Clinically Significant
School problems composite, Attention Problems, Learning Problems, Study Skills
Externalizing, Internalizing, Behavioral Symptoms Index, and Adaptive Skills Composite
Hyperactivity, Conduct Problems, Depression,
Somatization, Atypicality, Leadership,
Functional Communication BASC-2Teacher Rating Scales- Child : BASC-2Teacher Rating Scales- Child Teacher reported that Student “Almost Always”
Has a short attention span
Is easily distracted
Disrupts the schoolwork of
Has reading problems
Has trouble keeping up in class
Has spelling problems
Has trouble getting information
when needed Baseline- 1st Grade : Baseline- 1st Grade Word recognition: Instructional/Frustrational
Sounds per minute: 26
Words per minute: 15 Curriculum Based Measurement : Curriculum Based Measurement Sounds per minute: Progress Monitoring : Progress Monitoring Low Risk Some Risk At Risk Finding the Reading Level : Finding the Reading Level Finding the Reading Level : Finding the Reading Level Behavior : Behavior Current teacher responded that student:
Has a short attention span and is easily distracted
Sometimes doesn’t complete tests
Is improving in spelling and reading
Does not cheat