Academic Interventions Case Study

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RTI : 

RTI An overview

What is Response to Intervention? : 

What is Response to Intervention? Response to Intervention (RTI) is a systematic and data-based method for identifying, defining, and resolving students' academic and/or behavioral difficulties.

Key RTI Features : 

Key RTI Features Prevention-based model Primary- before any problems exist Secondary- at the first sign of problems Tertiary- to reduce effects of problems Includes three elements Effective instruction Data recording Systematic review of data to inform instruction

BRES Three-Tier RTI Model : 

BRES Three-Tier RTI Model Tier 1 Scientifically based general education instruction with regular progress monitoring Tier 2 Intensive small-group scientifically based instruction with more frequent progress monitoring and data charting Tier 3 (Title I) More frequent, intensive small-groups with monitoring & charting & possible referral for comprehensive evaluation for special ed services

RTI in 10 Easy Steps : 

RTI in 10 Easy Steps There are 10 basic steps to designing and implementing RTI procedures in a school. Each step is essential and will affect the overall quality of the process and data collected. The steps need to be implemented in order.

RTI Step 1 : 

RTI Step 1 Implement scientifically-based general education instruction methods

RTI Step 2 : 

RTI Step 2 Collect benchmarks of all students' performance three times during school year.

RTI Step 3 : 

RTI Step 3 Identify which students scored below the benchmark targets. Compare this at-risk list with teacher judgment and other indicators of students' progress.

RTI Step 4 : 

RTI Step 4 Provide daily scientifically based small-group instruction to students who scored below benchmark target(s). This is intervention in addition to instruction they continue to receive in the general ed curriculum.

RTI Step 5 : 

RTI Step 5 Monitor student progress toward the benchmark(s), using daily assessments and data graphing. Frequent assessment of student progress has been shown to be important for effective instructional decision making. Students need to see the data too!

RTI Steps 6-8 : 

RTI Steps 6-8 Review, revise and/or discontinue small-group instruction based on student performance and progress toward the benchmark. Evaluate whether there is need to increase frequency, duration, intensity of intervention. Interventions should not last forever and need to be reviewed frequently. The data tell the story. Every effort to help the student find success is needed.

RTI Step 9 : 

RTI Step 9 For students not yet showing evidence of meeting the benchmarks, initiate a comprehensive evaluation to determine whether the student has a disability and is eligible for special education services.

RTI Step 10 : 

RTI Step 10 IEP team determines whether student has a disability and meets the criteria for special ed services.

Research on RTI & Special Ed : 

Research on RTI & Special Ed RTI has been shown to reduce the number of students identified as LD(Marston, Muyskens, Lau & Canter, 2003) RTI also has been linked with a drop in the overall number of special ed placements (O'Connor, 2003). RTI led to a significant reduction in primary grades special ed referrals and placement when used specifically for K-3 programming (Tilly, 2003). RTI does not eliminate or discount the presence of LD, but is one important step in the process toward diagnosis and treatment (Speece, Case & Molloy, 2003).

Aztec Elementary School : 

Aztec Elementary School A case study

“I have been concerned about a student since pretty much the first day of school.”-1st grade teacher : 

“I have been concerned about a student since pretty much the first day of school.”-1st grade teacher

Student Information : 

Student Information Grade: 2nd Age: 9 Primary language: English Home: Lives with mother. Frequent changes in address School: Repeated kindergarten K Report Card: “Needs more time/support” in recognizing letters & knowing letter sounds, active listening 1st Grade Report Card: “Needs more time/support” in reading, writing, & active listening

Presenting Problem : 

Presenting Problem Teacher concerns Repeated kindergarten Reading problems Learns words, then can’t read them Compensates “a lot” Very slow reading progress Can’t “chunk” words Attention concerns Fine in math

Presenting Problem : 

Presenting Problem Mother concerns Wanted testing: ADHD Dyslexia

Achievement Testing : 

Achievement Testing Speech/Language Pathologist Reported: No ADHD IQ likely average Far below in language, speech, reading Trouble with syllables No memorized sight words Can’t retain information Problems following directions

“(Student) will never be able to read unless we use language and reading interventions together” : 

“(Student) will never be able to read unless we use language and reading interventions together”

BASC-2Parent Rating Scales- Child : 

BASC-2Parent Rating Scales- Child Clinically Significant: Atypicality, Activities of Daily Living, Functional Communication At-Risk All composite scores Externalizing Problems, Internalizing Problems, Behavioral Symptoms Index, Adaptive Skills Attention Problems, Hyperactivity, Aggression, Conduct Problems, Anxiety, Depression, Somatization

BASC-2Parent Rating Scales- Child : 

BASC-2Parent Rating Scales- Child Mother reported that Student “Almost Always” Worries about schoolwork Is easily distracted Mother reported that Student “Often” Speaks in short phrases that are hard to understand Worries about what teachers think Says “I’m not very good at this” Has a short attention span Acts confused Stares blankly Gets into trouble Is unclear when presenting ideas

BASC-2Teacher Rating Scales- Child : 

BASC-2Teacher Rating Scales- Child Clinically Significant School problems composite, Attention Problems, Learning Problems, Study Skills At-Risk At-Risk Externalizing, Internalizing, Behavioral Symptoms Index, and Adaptive Skills Composite Hyperactivity, Conduct Problems, Depression, Somatization, Atypicality, Leadership, Functional Communication

BASC-2Teacher Rating Scales- Child : 

BASC-2Teacher Rating Scales- Child Teacher reported that Student “Almost Always” Acts confused Has a short attention span Is easily distracted Disrupts the schoolwork of other children Has reading problems Has trouble keeping up in class Has spelling problems Has trouble getting information when needed

Baseline- 1st Grade : 

Baseline- 1st Grade Word recognition: Instructional/Frustrational Sounds per minute: 26 Words per minute: 15

Curriculum Based Measurement : 

Curriculum Based Measurement Sounds per minute:

Progress Monitoring : 

Progress Monitoring Low Risk Some Risk At Risk

Finding the Reading Level : 

Finding the Reading Level

Finding the Reading Level : 

Finding the Reading Level

Behavior : 

Behavior Current teacher responded that student: Has a short attention span and is easily distracted Sometimes doesn’t complete tests Is improving in spelling and reading Does not cheat