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Reconstruction 1865 - 1877 :

Reconstruction 1865 - 1877 Objectives To determine the tenets of the Reconstruction plans of Congress, Abraham Lincoln, and Andrew Johnson. To define areas of agreement and disagreement between the three Reconstruction plans.

Reconstruction 1865 - 1877 :

Reconstruction 1865 - 1877 Listen to the song “A Good Old Rebel” and answer the following questions. Select three words from the song that show the attitude of the rebels. Indicate any three items that the song seems to dislike. List any events that seem to be significant to the person in the song.

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What was Reconstruction? Attempt to achieve national reunification and reconciliation and to improve the status of former slaves. (freedmen). The reality is that it was enormously difficult to satisfy both these goals. The North prevailed during the Civil War. The South prevailed after the war. Reconstruction 1865 - 1877

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Four main questions regarding Reconstruction of the post-Civil War South; How to rebuild the South after its destruction during the Civil War? Physically devastated and socially revolutionized by emancipation. What would be the condition of African Americans in the South? Approx. 4 million ex-slaves How would the South be reintegrated into the Union? Amnesty or Punished Who would control the process: Southern states, president, or Congress? President, Congress, or Southern states Reconstruction 1865 - 1877

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Human toll of the Civil War: The North lost 364,000 soldiers. The South lost 260,000 soldiers. Between 1865 and 1877, the federal government carried out a program to repair the damage to the South and restore the southern states to the Union. This program was known as Reconstruction . Freedmen (freed slaves) were starting out their new lives in a poor region with slow economic activity. Plantation owners lost slave labor worth $3 billion. Poor white Southerners could not find work because of new job competition from Freedmen . The war had destroyed two thirds of the South’s shipping industry and about 9,000 miles of railroad. R E C O N S T R U C T I O N

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An assessment of the Reconstruction policies adopted between 1865 and 1877 indicates that the era’s legacy to the future contained both harmful and beneficial features. Reconstruction Harmful or Beneficial?

Harmful Results:

Harmful Results Less intelligent leadership was provided for the South The racial issue was sharpened The South became unnecessarily economy-minded One-party government was fastened on the South (locally and nationally) Sectional hatred was increased

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The Redistribution of Property The Educational System & Social Legislation Reconstruction was less brutal than it might have been Beneficial Results

Lincoln speech:

are in; to bind up the nation’s wounds….to do all which may achieve and cherish a just and a lasting peace, among ourselves, and with all nations.” Lincoln’s speech Lincoln speech “With malice toward none; with charity for all; with firmness in the right, as God gives us to see the right, let us strive on to finish the work we LINCOLN'S 2ND INAUGURAL SPEECH

Lincoln’s 2nd Inaugural Address (1865) :

Lincoln’s 2nd Inaugural Address (1865) 1. According to Lincoln, what was the main cause of the Civil War? 2. What does Lincoln say about each side’s expectations as the war began? 3. What does the inaugural address suggest about the policy Lincoln wanted to follow after the war (HINT: How should the South be treated) LINCOLN’S 10% PLAN A state could re-enter the Union when 10% of its voters in 1860 had taken an oath of allegiance “The states had never legally withdrawn from the Union”



WADE-DAVIS BILL (1864) Repubs. In Congress disliked Lincoln’s plan fearing the restoration of the planter aristocracy and re-enslavement of Blacks :

WADE-DAVIS BILL (1864) Repubs. In Congress disliked Lincoln’s plan fearing the restoration of the planter aristocracy and re-enslavement of Blacks 50% of state voters in 1860 must take oath of allegiance Stronger safeguards for emancipation “The states had forfeited their rights when they left the Union and were conquered provinces” Lincoln "pocket vetoed" Moderates v. Radicals

How had Reconstruction progressed by the end of 1865?:

How had Reconstruction progressed by the end of 1865? 1. Freedmen -Freed but with restrictions (“Black Codes”) 2. President Johnson -Ready to welcome back the South 3. Congress -Unwilling to accept the South so easily

Stages of Reconstruction (1865 - 1877):

Stages of Reconstruction (1865 - 1877) Presidential Andrew Johnson (1865 - 1866) 1. Amnesty (like Lincoln) 2. Former Confederates to receive official pardons 3. South to recognize 13th amendment Congressional “Radical Republicans” (1866 - 1877) 1. Support Freedmen 2. No voting for ex-confeds. 3. Stiffer requirements for admission back into the Union

John Picture background info:

Remained loyal to the Union during the Civil War. Jacksonian Democrat White Supremacist Lincoln chose him as his VP to help with the South’s Reconstruction. Supported Lincoln’s Plan Engaged in a power struggle with Congress over who would lead the country through Reconstruction. Would be impeached but not removed from office. John Picture background info PRESIDENT ANDREW JOHNSON

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Johnson’s plan to readmit the South was considered too gentle . Amnesty: Presidential pardon Rebels sign an oath of allegiance 10% of the population Even high ranking Confederate officials Write new state Constitutions approve the 13th Amendment reject secession and state’s rights submit to U.S. Government authority No mention of Education for freedmen Citizenship and voting rights PRESIDENTIAL RECONSTRUCTION

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13 th Amendment Ratified in December, 1865. Neither slavery nor involuntary servitude, except as punishment for crime whereof the party shall have been duly convicted, shall exist within the United States or any place subject to their jurisdiction. Congress shall have power to enforce this article by appropriate legislation. Created the Freedmen’s Bureau

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1865, Congress created the Freedman’s Bureau to help former slaves get a new start in life. This was the first major relief agency in United States history. “40 Acres and a Mule” Bureau’s Accomplishments Built thousands of schools to educate Blacks. Former slaves rushed to get an education for themselves and their children. Education was difficult and dangerous to gain. Southerners hated the idea that Freedmen would go to school. FREEDMEN'S BUREAU

Freedmen’s Bureau 2:

Freedmen’s Bureau 2

Freedmen’s Bureau 3:

Freedmen’s Bureau 3

Freedmen’s Bureau 4:

Freedmen’s Bureau 4

Freedmen’s Bureau 5:

Freedmen’s Bureau 5

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13th Amendment Abolished slavery in the U.S. Black Codes -Aimed to ensure a stable labor supply and restore racial dominance over Blacks Defined marriage laws, established work regulations, set curfews, defined legal rights in courts Codes restricted rather than reinforced black rights. Limited the rights of a FREE PEOPLE Laws intended to stop movement of Freedmen & to return Blacks to slave labor (1st state to pass - Miss.) Reconstruction Terms

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Growing Northern Alarm! Many Southern state constitutions fell short of minimum requirements. Johnson granted 13,500 special pardons. Revival of southern defiance. BLACK CODES

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As southern states were restored to the Union under President Johnson’s plan, they began to enact black codes , laws that restricted freedmen’s rights. The black codes established virtual slavery with provisions such as these: Curfews : Generally, black people could not gather after sunset. Vagrancy laws : Freedmen convicted of vagrancy– that is, not working– could be fined, whipped, or sold for a year’s labor. Labor contracts : Freedmen had to sign agreements in January for a year of work. Those who quit in the middle of a contract often lost all the wages they had earned. Land restrictions : Freed people could rent land or homes only in rural areas. This restriction forced them to live on plantations. BLACK CODES

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Radical (Congressional) Reconstruction

Congressional Reconstruction:

Congressional Reconstruction Johnson & Congress deeply divided *1866 Congressional Elections -Johnson campaigns against Republicans (discredited himself more than the Repubs.) -Radical Republicans win majorities in both houses RADICALS IN POWER!!

Radical Republicans:

Thaddeus Stevens Charles Summner RADICAL REPUBLICANS Wanted to the see the South punished. Advocated political, social and economic equality for the Freedmen. Would go after President Johnson through the impeachment process after he vetoes the Civil Rights Act of 1866. Radical Republicans

Plans compared:

Plans compared Amnesty : Presidential pardon oath of allegiance ---50% high ranking Confederate officials lose voting rights if you don’t sign oath Write new state Constitutions Ratify: 13, 14 & 15 Amendments reject secession and state’s rights submit to U.S. Government authority Help for Freedmen Freedmen’s Bureau for education 40 acres and a mule Divide the South into 5 military districts Reconstruction Act of 1867- -76 (Harsh) CONGRESSIONAL RECONSTRUCTION

Voting rights:

CIVIL WAR AMENDMENTS 13th Amendment Abolished slavery (1865) 14th Amendment Provided citizenship & equal protection under the law. (1868) 15th Amendment Provided the right to vote for all men which included white and black men. (1870) Voting rights Giving the Black man the right to vote was truly revolutionary…….. A victory for democracy!

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14 th Amendment Ratified in July, 1868. Provide a constitutional guarantee of the rights and security of freed people. Insure against neo-Confederate political power. Enshrine the national debt while repudiating that of the Confederacy. Southern states would be punished for denying the right to vote to black citizens!

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15 th Amendment Ratified in 1870. The right of citizens of the United States to vote shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or by any state on account of race, color, or previous condition of servitude. The Congress shall have power to enforce this article by appropriate legislation. Women’s rights groups were furious that they were not granted the vote! VERY DIFFICULT AMENDMENT TO ENFORCE

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Discussion Questions Of the three plans, which seems to restore the South to almost the same structure that existed prior to the Civil War? What would motivate the developers of this plan to achieve this goal? Of the three plans, which seems to create a completely different South? What would motivate the developers of this plan to achieve this goal?

Impeachment of Andrew Johnson:

Impeachment of Andrew Johnson 1. Find and identify sections in the Constitution (Article I & Article II) “IMPEACHMENT” 2. Decide whether you feel Johnson’s actions were worthy of impeachment based on the Constitution. Explain why.

Johnson’s Vet:

President Johnson vetoed the Civil Rights Act of 1866 This would have gave $$$ to the Freedmen’s Bureau for schools and granted citizenship to the Freedmen Congress believed Johnson was working against Reconstruction and overrode his veto. After 1866 Elections Congress passed the Reconstruction Act of 1867 Voting Tenure Act was passed also Johnson goes against the law, How? and is impeached, Why? Johnson’s Vet An inflexible President, 1866: Republican cartoon shows Johnson knocking Blacks of the Freedmen’s Bureau by his veto.

Impeachment process:

IMPEACHMENT PROCESS Impeachment: Bringing charges against the President. Two steps involved…… 1st Step : U. S. House of Representatives hold hearings to decide if there are crimes committed. They then vote on the charges and if there is a majority, then, charges are brought against the President. 2nd Step: U.S. Senate becomes a courtroom. The President is tried for the charges brought against him. The Chief Justice of the Supreme Court is the judge. Once trial is completed, Senators must vote to remove President with a 2/3’s vote. Impeachment process

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Brought up on 11 charges of high crimes and misdemeanors. Tenure in Office Act: Law Congress passed. President can’t fire any of his cabinet members without consulting Congress. fired Edwin Stanton since he was appointed by Lincoln Missed being removed from office by 1 vote Presidency would suffer as a result of this failed impeachment. President would be more of a figure-head. Saved the separation of powers of 3 branches govt. JOHNSON'S IMPEACHMENT

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With Johnson now having lost creditability The South would be reconstructed under the Radical Republicans plan. Republicans would elect Grant as their President in 1868 and he would carry out the Radical Reconstruction. “The Strong Government”, 1869-1877. Grant enforcing the Reconstruction Act of 1867 and “forcing” the South to change.

Military Reconstruction:

Military Reconstruction Each number indicates the Military Districts

Abolitionists vs Women’s rights:

Women rights supporters refused to support the 14th Amendment giving African American Men citizenship unless women were added to it. Abolitionists would not support women’s rights Abolitionists vs Women’s rights

Reconstruction & the Freedmen:

Reconstruction & the Freedmen 1. Sharecropping -Farmer works land in exchange for part of the crop 2. “Jim Crow” Laws -Segregation becomes official in South after Plessy v. Ferguson 1896 3. Rise of KKK -Intimidate Black voters

Organized in 1867, in Polaski, Tennessee by Nathan Bedford Forrest Spreading Terror :

Organized in 1867, in Polaski, Tennessee by Nathan Bedford Forrest Spreading Terror The Ku Klux Klan The Klan sought to eliminate the Republican Party in the South by intimidating voters. They wanted to keep African Americans as submissive laborers. They planted burning crosses on the lawns of their victims and tortured, kidnapped, or murdered them. Prosperous African Americans, carpetbaggers, and scalawags became their victims. The Federal Response President Grant’s War On Terrorism. The Enforcement Act of 1870 banned the use of terror, force, or bribery to prevent people from voting. Other laws banned the KKK and used the military to protect voters and voting places. As federal troops withdrew from the South, black suffrage all but ended. K K K

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The “Invisible Empire of the South”

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Sharecropping is primarily used in farming Landowner provided land, tools, animals, house and charge account at the local store to purchase necessities Freedmen provided the labor. Sharecropping is based on the “ credit ” system. Sharecroppers were Freedmen and poor Whites who stayed in the South and continued to farm. SHARECROPPING



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1. Poor whites and freedmen have no jobs, no homes, and no money to buy land. 2. Landowners need laborers and have no money to pay laborers. 4. Landlord keeps track of the money that sharecroppers owe him for housing, food or local store. 5. At harvest time, the sharecropper is paid. Pays off debts. If sharecropper owes more to the landlord or store than his share of the crop is worth; 6. Sharecropper cannot leave the farm as long as he is in debt to the landlord. A VICIOUS CYCLE OF DEBT ECONOMIC SLAVERY 3. Hire poor whites and freedmen as laborers Sign contracts to work landlord’s land in exchange for a part of the crop.

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369 total electoral votes, need 185 to win . 164 Chapter 23 1876 Election Tilden did not receive enough electoral votes. Special Commission gives votes to Hayes based on a deal Hayes wins the election Democrats refuse to recognize Hayes as President * *Disputed Electoral votes

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vs CORRUPT BARGAIN The election of 1876 and the Compromise of 1877 are referred to as the Corrupt Bargain. The Democrats and Republicans work out a deal to recognize Hayes as President In return, President Hayes must end Reconstruction and pull the Union troops out of the South. Once this happens, there is no protection for the Freedmen and the South will regain their states and go back to the way it was. This COMPROMISE effectively ended reconstruction. Why? Rutherford B. Hayes Samuel Tilden

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Agreement between Democrats and Republicans Hayes pulls the troops out of the South. Southerners take over their state governments their known as “REDEEMERS” Successes Freedmen gained would be lost because Southerners would take over their state governments. Black Codes become Jim Crow laws - keep Blacks from voting and becoming equal citizens. Cartoon of Hayes: end of Reconst

social reality:

social reality SEGREGATION After Reconstruction, 1865 to 1876, there were several ways that Southern states kept Blacks from voting and segregated , or separating people by the color of their skin in public facilities . Jim Crow laws , laws at the local and state level which segregated whites from blacks and kept African Americans as 2nd class citizens and from voting. poll taxes literacy tests grandfather clause

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social reality JIM CROW The systematic practice of discriminating against and segregating Black people, especially as practiced in the American South from the end of Reconstruction to the mid-20th century Derogatory name for a Black person, ultimately from the title of a 19th-century minstrel song. Goal : Take away political and constitutional rights guaranteed by Constitution: Voting and equality of all citizens under the law.

JC laws:

JC laws

JC laws1:

Jim Crow Laws: segregated Whites and Blacks in public facilities became the law after Reconstruction: Used at the local, state levels and eventually the national to separate the races in kept Blacks, minorities and poor whites from voting and as 2nd class citizen status schools, parks, transportation, restaurants, etc…. JC laws1

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Literacy tests - could be interpreted differently for blacks and whites Lengthy residence requirements - since blacks tended to move more frequently, this would make it difficult for them to meet these qualifications Poll tax - poor black sharecroppers could rarely afford Jim Crow Devices for Disenfranchisement

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d. White primary - Democratic “white men’s club” in South prevented blacks from having influence in elections e. “Grandfather clause” - Since some whites would be disenfranchised by a - c, this permitted any males over 21 to vote if their grandfathers (or fathers) had been eligible to vote in 1867 -Declared unconstitutional in 1915

The Struggle for African American Suffrage:

The Struggle for African American Suffrage 1865 Civil War ends Reconstruction begins 1870s Reconstruction ends. 1950s-1960s Civil Rights movement begins. 1900s-1940s Jim Crow laws prevent African Americans from voting Plessy vs Ferguson effected social equality for Black Americans from 1896 to 1960’s

Voting Restrictions for African Americans in the South, 1889-1950’s:

Voting Restrictions for African Americans in the South, 1889-1950’s

South’s Backlash1:

South’s Backlash1 0 to 20 20 to 60 60 to 100 100 to 200 200 or more Lynchings of Whites/Blacks

South’s Backlash1:

South’s Backlash1 The right to vote was taken away from the Freedmen after Reconstruction

Reconstruction Presidents (1865 - 1877):

Reconstruction Presidents (1865 - 1877) 1. Andrew Johnson -Presidential/Congressional Recon. 2. Ulysses S. Grant -Congressional Recon. 3. Rutherford B. Hayes -End of Reconstruction

Reconstruction Ends:

Reconstruction Ends There were five main factors that contributed to the end of Reconstruction. Corruption: Reconstruction legislatures & Grant’s administration symbolized corruption & poor government. The economy: Reconstruction legislatures taxed and spent heavily, putting the southern states deeper into debt. Violence: As federal troops withdrew from the South, some white Democrats used violence and intimidation to prevent freedmen from voting. This tactic allowed white Southerners to regain control of the state governments. The Democrats’ return to power : The pardoned ex-Confederates combined with other white Southerners to form a new bloc of Democratic voters known as the Solid South . They blocked Reconstruction policies. The Country : The Civil War was over and many Americans wanted to return to what the country was doing before the war.

Successes and Failures of Reconstruction :

Successes and Failures of Reconstruction Successes Failures Union is restored. Many white southerners bitter towards US govt & Republicans. South’s economy grows and new wealth is created in the North. The South is slow to industrialize. 14 th and 15 th amendments guarantee Blacks the rights of citizenship, equal protection under the law, and suffrage. After US troops are withdrawn, southern state governments and terrorist organizations effectively deny Blacks the right to vote. Freedmen’s Bureau and other organizations help many black families obtain housing, jobs, and schooling. Many black and white southerners remain caught in a cycle of poverty. Southern states adopt a system of mandatory education. Racist attitudes toward African Americans continue, in both the South and the North.

Quote by Frederick Douglass 1:

Quote by Frederick Douglass 1

Quote by Frederick Douglass 2:

Quote by Frederick Douglass 2

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Social equality vs. legal equality Which way would the scale tip? SOCIAL REALITY

social reality:

social reality PLESSY VS. FERGUSON OF 1896 Supreme Court decision which legalized segregation throughout the nation. “ Separate but Equal” as long as public facilities were equal Problem: Black facilities would never be equal to White facilities Our nation would be segregated until the 1960’s.

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Booker T. Washington How do Black Americans overcome segregation? Southern Perspective PHILOSOPHIES OF BLACK LEADERS Former slave Wrote a book/ Up From Slavery Before you are considered equal in society--must be self sufficient like most Americans Stressed vocational education for Black Americans Gradualism and economic self-sufficiency Founder of Tuskegee Institute

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PHILOSOPHIES OF BLACK LEADERS W.E.B. Dubois How do Black Americans overcome segregation? Northern Perspective Fought for immediate Black equality in society Talented 10% : Demanded the top 10% of the talented Black population be placed into the “ power positions ” Gain equality by breaking into power structure Founder of NAACP National Association for the Advancement of Colored People

Reconstruction Map:

Reconstruction Map Solid South Political term that describes how the South would vote in future elections…… Always voted for the Democrats because they hated the Republicans .

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