Indoor Gardening 101

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Indoor Gardening 101:

Indoor Gardening 101 By: Meghan Taylor

Identifying Ideal Houseplants:

Identifying Ideal Houseplants Having Tropical/Sub tropical origins. Plants from these warmer regions are ideal for indoor gardening because they can withstand many conditions that other plants can not. 90% of the 300,00 plant species derive from the Tropical/Subtropical Regions-leaving plenty of options out there for the avid indoor gardener.

What makes a Houseplant a Houseplant?:

What makes a Houseplant a Houseplant? Tolerates Dry Indoor Air Can live indoors for prolonged (1 year or longer) periods of time. Grows Relatively Fast Doesn’t grow taller than ceiling height. Easy to multiply. Requires little pruning/pinching. Resistant to insects and disease Can tolerate neglect/abuse. Doesn’t Require any back breaking conditions.

Choosing Plants Based on Personality:

Choosing Plants Based on Personality

Gung-Ho but Lose Interest:

Gung-Ho but L ose Interest S omeone that is excited in the beginning of a project, but grows uninterested. If this categorizes you choose plants that do not need a lot of care that will still look good once you begin to stray away. This gardener should grow cacti, succulents, or hardy foliage plants. The following plants are great for you.

Cast Iron Plant (Aspidistra elatoir):

Cast Iron Plant (Aspidistra elatoir) http:// www.woodlanders.net/index.cfm?fuseaction=plants.plantDetail&plant_id=603

Donkey’s Tail (Sedum morganium):

Donkey’s Tail (Sedum morganium) http:// pieceofeden.blogspot.com/2010_08_01_archive.html

Golden Ball Cactus (Echinocactus grusonil):

Golden Ball Cactus (Echinocactus grusonil) http://www.flickr.com/photos/weeping-willow/3649597783 /

Easily Forgets:

Easily Forgets This gardener has good intentions, but is easily distracted from their tasks. This gardener should choose low maintenance plants, that can tolerate drought. This gardener should grow cacti, and succulents. The following plants are great examples of what you should grow.

Arrowhead Plant (Snygonium podophyllum):

Arrowhead Plant (Snygonium podophyllum) http:// www.redlandsdailyfacts.com/greenthumb/ci_18687508

Dumbcane (Dieffen bachia):

Dumbcane (Dieffen bachia) http:// www.semillerosjogasol.es/ficha.asp?id=144

Jade Plant (Crassula argentina):

Jade Plant (Crassula argentina) http:// www.fourmilab.ch/fourmilog/archives/2009-03/001130.html

Overly Caring:

Overly Caring This gardener prunes and picks at their plants constantly. This isn’t such a bad thing if you have the right plants. This gardener should choose challenging plants, plants that thrive from pruning. The following are plants that you as an overly caring gardener should grow.

African Violet (Saintpaulia ionantha):

African Violet (Saintpaulia ionantha) http:// commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Saintpaulia_ionantha_01.JPG

Hibiscus (Hibiscus-Rosa-sinensis):

Hibiscus (Hibiscus-Rosa-sinensis) http://www.hibiscusflower.org /

China Doll (Radermachera sinensis):

China Doll (Radermachera sinensis) http:// devalmont.0catch.com/2.0complexlisting.htm

The Collector:

The Collector This gardener has to have one of everything. As a collector of plants, look for miniature/dwarf varieties, so that you can fit more plants in a smaller area. The following plants are great for the collector.

Amaryllis (Hippeastrum) :

Amaryllis (Hippeastrum) http:// en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Amaryllis_Red.JPG

Earth Star (Cryptanthus):

Earth Star (Cryptanthus) http://davesgarden.com/guides/pf/showimage/68267 /

Flowering Maple (Abutilon):

Flowering Maple (Abutilon) http:// www.chron.com/life/gardening/article/Plant-of-the-month-Flowering-maple-1712778.php

Can my Indoor Plant also be an Outdoor Plant?:

Can my Indoor Plant also be an Outdoor Plant? Many indoor plants can be placed outside during the summer months and brought back in during the winter months.

Moving Indoor Plants Outdoors :

Moving Indoor Plants Outdoors Follow the following steps to successfully move plants from indoors to out doors.

1. Acclimate:

1. Acclimate Slowly Introduce house plants to direct sunlight. Many house plants never receive direct sunlight because windows filter the UV Rays. TIP: Start plants in the shade and move them into the sunlight over a two week period WARNING: Plants will BURN!

2. Temperature:

2. Temperature Plants should never come into contact with freezing temperatures. Never move plants outside unless night temperatures are above 60 degrees Fahrenheit. TIP: If frosting/freezing weather is suspected move plants indoor. WARNING: Plants will FREEZE and Go into SHOCK!

3. Watering:

3. Watering Potted Plants need more water than plants that are directly in the ground. Wind is a factor, drying plants out faster than if they were indoor. TIP: Place container in the ground. Simply cover with a nylon stocking, to keep roots from anchoring to soil. WARNING: Plants will DRY OUT and become BRITTLE.

4. Fertilizing:

4. Fertilizing Indoor plants that are moved outdoors require more fertilizer due to the varying weather conditions.

What Is Fertilizer?:

What Is Fertilizer? Fertilizer is composed of many different nutrients that promote plants to grow. There are 3 main nutrient for plant growth. Nitrogen Vital to production of chlorophyll, that helps produce new leaves and stems. Phosphorus Vital in flowering and fruit baring plants. Phosphorus provides bright colors. Potassium Stores reserves and helps with resistance to insects and disease.

How Does Fertilizer Come?:

How Does Fertilizer Come? Fertilizer comes in many forms. Specialized Fertilizer. Ready to use liquid. Concentrated liquid that you dilute. Soluble Powder. Slow release pellets, powders, and granules.

Rules of Fertilizing:

Rules of Fertilizing Rule 1: Less Is M ore Plants can build up fertilizer if not in ideal growing conditions. Use about ½ of recommended amount. Rule 2: Never Fertilize Weak Plants A weak plant can not properly use fertilizer Rule 3: Wait Before Fertilizing New Plants What at least a month before fertilizing new plants. You want the plants to get use to their new conditions before fertilizing. Rule 4: Do The Rules Always Follow Through Sometimes plants prove the rules wrong. Rule 5: When to Fertilize Fertilize during peak months of summer and spring. Reduce fertilizer during fall.

Popular Plants for Indoor to Outdoor Environments:

Popular Plants for Indoor to Outdoor Environments

BIRD OF PARADISE (Strelitzia regina):

BIRD OF PARADISE (Strelitzia regina) http://www.healthyhouseplants.com/Plant_Encyclopedia/Bird-of-Paradise.php

FUCHSIA (Fushia):

FUCHSIA (Fushia) http://www.gardenharvestsupply.com/ProductCart/pc/Potted-Fuchsia-Plants-for-Sale-c167.htm

GERANIUM (Pelargonium hortorum):

GERANIUM (Pelargonium hortorum) http://www.direct2grower.com/seeds1/product/5078/2/

IMPATIENS (Impatiens wallerana):

IMPATIENS (Impatiens wallerana) http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Impatiens_walleriana.JPG

MADAGASCAR PERIWINKLE (Catharanthus roseus) :

MADAGASCAR PERIWINKLE (Catharanthus roseus) http://www.easybloom.com/plantlibrary/plant/madagascar-periwinkle-44

BRINGING PLANTS BACK INDOORS:

BRINGING PLANTS BACK INDOORS Follow the following steps to easily transition your plants back indoors.

1. Temperature:

1. Temperature Plants need to be brought indoors before the first frost-usually in the fall. TIP: Bringing plants indoors before the temperature drops will allow the plant to adapt easier.

2. Caring:

2. Caring Clean up the plant removing any dead leaves or flowers. Repot plants if needed due to growth. TIP: Removing the dead parts and repotting will provide room for the plant to grow

3. Avoiding Insects:

3. Avoiding Insects Prevent bringing insects into the home by using pesticide. Pesticide can be replaced with Soap and Water in a spray bottle. Make sure you give plants a through rinse letting them drain. Soak Root Ball in diluted insecticide to kill soil insects.

4. Protect:

4. Protect Protect other house hold plants by quarantining plant brought in from outdoors. Quarantine for at least 40 days. WARNING: DISEASE and INSECTS can spread from one plant to the next.

CHOOSING PLANTS BASED ON ENVIORNMENTAL CONDITIONS:

CHOOSING PLANTS BASED ON ENVIORNMENTAL CONDITIONS

How Much Light Are Indoor Plants Getting?:

How Much Light Are Indoor Plants Getting? Placement of windows depends on how much light will be received. South, West and East Window exposure is where plants will thrive .

Sunny, Dark, or Partially Lit?:

Sunny, Dark, or Partially Lit? If you still don’t know how much sunlight your room is receiving you can perform a Shadow Test. How to Perform the Shadow Test 1. Place a piece of white paper where you plan to place a plant. 2. Hold hand about 1 foot above the paper. Clear Darker Shadow means you have full light. Fuzzy shadow but can still see a figure means you have medium light Faint Shadow without being able to see a figure means that there is low light.

LIGHTING:

LIGHTING SIGNS OF INSUFFICIENT LIGHT SIGNS OF EXCESS LIGHT Weak elongated, pale green growth Abnormally Small leaves Bending toward light Lack of bloom, or poor flowering No growth or slow growth Leaf loss Root Rot or Stem Rot Wilting during the hottest hours of the day Foliage curled downward Spots (signs of burning) Brown Pale Translucent Yellowing and thickening of new growth Compact and Stunted Growth

pLaNt MaInTeNaNCe RuLeS:

pLaNt MaInTeNaNCe RuLeS Rule 1: A cleaner plant is a healthier plant. Can clean plant by sitting it outside in the rain. Can spray off with water hose. Check details on plant because some cannot withstand the showers. Rule 2: Pruning makes for a fuller houseplant. Pruning allows for new growth to move in. Rule 3: Support weak plants by staking. For smaller plant use toothpicks or chopsticks.

Major Signs of Disease and Distress:

Major Signs of Disease and Distress Wobbly Plants Wobbly plants means that they are not well routed which can lead soil insects. Crowded Roots Plants should have a good root ball but should not have excess roots showing. Unhealthy Roots Roots should be firm , not squishy. Also, tips of roots should be paler than rest of the roots.

PowerPoint Presentation:

Signs of Rot Soil should smell fresh and feel moist. Plant should not smell like rotting vegetables. Leaf Spots Can indicate disease or neglect. Damaged leaves will not recover, only new leaves will grow. Long Leggy Roots This plant has been neglected for a long time Insects Check under leaves and close to stems. Insects can lead to future problems. Open Flowers, but Unopened Buds Buds should be flowering around the same time

How to Tell if your Plant NEEDS Water or if it NEEDS to DRY OUT:

How to Tell if your Plant NEEDS Water or if it NEEDS to DRY OUT Using Your Eyes Potting soil appears dark brown when wet and pale brown when dry. Using your Fingers Place finger one to two knuckles deep into soil and the wetness you feel will depend on how much water is needed. Using your Muscles (The Lift Test) Wet soil will be much heavier than a plant with dry soil.

Signs you need to REPOT:

Signs you need to REPOT The roots extend through the drainage holes. Circling roots are pushing the plants out of is pot. Growth is slow or non existent. Plant is top heavy and falls over on its own. The plant dries out before next scheduled watering. Appears large compare to pot. Plant seems to be rotting. You haven’t repotted in a year or longer.

How To Repot:

How To Repot A few days in advance give plant a through watering, making it easier to transfer from one pot to the next. Pour potting mix into bucket and add water to moisten mix. Remove plant from pot by holding the stem between fingers and turn the pot upside down. Tap rim of pot and pull gently on plant to easily lift out of pot. Examine root ball and cut away roots that encircle the plant. Loosen root ball by gently inserting finger into root ball. Remove about 1/3 of old potting mix. Pour in pre-moistened potting mix from step 2. Set plant in pot, making sure it is completely centered. Add more soil to cover plant. Water well let drain.

Foliage Plants VS Flowering Plants:

Foliage Plants VS Flowering Plants Foliage Flowering Best for Beginner Gardeners Easy to grow Resist Dry Air Can endure Weak Light Enjoys Irregular Watering (over and under watering) Can withstand Varying Temperatures Leaves with out Blossoms Most Flowering plants are very Demanding. Requires more light than foliage plants Requires more water than foliage plants Requires High Humidity Require more Fertilizer In general flowering plants require more ATTENTION!

Why Cacti and Succulents?:

Why Cacti and Succulents? Cacti and Succulents are the simplest plants to grow. They require light watering (because they can store water) Require high amounts of sunlight

Pruning Techniques:

Pruning Techniques 3 basic techniques to prune and care for your plants. Pinching Squeeze the soft tip of stem between thumbnail and index finger until the tip comes off. Pinch above a leaf or a leaf node. Pinching is best for young plants. Pruning To Shape Cut close to nodes and trim plant to develop shape. Pruning to shape is great for bushy plants. Cutting Back Hardest form. Trim back about 1/3 of plant, more than this can cause the plant to not grow back. Cutting back can bring back unsightly plants.

MIXES AND POTTING SOIL:

MIXES AND POTTING SOIL DO NOT dig dirt up from outdoors and place in pot. Soil will become hard and solid almost rock like. Houseplants thrive from loose soul that their roots can easily maneuver through. FUN FACT! Almost all potting mixes sold today are soilless or artificial mixes Potting mix should be reddish brown NOT BLACK

sOiL MeDiUmS:

sOiL MeDiUmS

PEAT MOSS:

PEAT MOSS PROS CONS Contains no harmful microorganisms. Hard for microorganisms to form in soil. Well aerated. Holds water well. Holds nutrients well. Due to high acidity have to add alkaline products. Contains no nutrients meaning it takes more fertilizer, more often.

PEAT MOSS SUBSTITUTES :

PEAT MOSS SUBSTITUTES COIR DARK COLORED FIBERS FROM COCONUT SHELLS. COMPOSTED BARK DECOMPOSED SAWDUST

SAND A SOIL MEDIUM FOR CACTI AND SUCCELENTS:

SAND A SOIL MEDIUM FOR CACTI AND SUCCELENTS PROS CONS Water drains through sand quickly Cacti and Succulents enjoy this. Doesn’t retain nutrients meaning you must fertilize often. River Sand > Beach Sand Beach sand retains salt

More Soil Mediums:

More Soil Mediums Charcoal Absorbs toxic products that occur naturally as soil decomposes Crushed/Powdered Limestone Reduces acidity and supplies calcium and magnesium Crushed Egg Shells Reduces acidity and adds natural minerals as shells decompose

CREATING YOUR OWN ALL PURPOSE SOILLESS MIX:

CREATING YOUR OWN ALL PURPOSE SOILLESS MIX 1 PART BLOND PEAT MOSS 1 PART MEDIUM GRADE PERLITE 1 PART MEDIUM GRADE VERMICULITE 1 TABLESPOON POWDERED DOLOMIT LIMESTONE PER QUART. TIP: IT IS CHEAPER AND MORE CONVIENENT TO BUY THE PREMADE MIXES.

PROPAGATING HOUSEPLANTS:

PROPAGATING HOUSEPLANTS

WHY PROPOGATE HOUSEPLANTS:

WHY PROPOGATE HOUSEPLANTS TO REPLACE AGING PLANTS TO MAKE THE HOME A HEALTHIER PLACE TO LIVE PLANTS CLEAN AND HUMIDIFY AIR TO EXCHANGE WITH OTHER GARDENERS TO USE AS GIFTS

PROPAGATION TECHNIQUES:

PROPAGATION TECHNIQUES Propagation from Seeds Vegetative Propagation Multiplication by Division Multiplication by Offsets Multiplication by Offsets Propagation through Plantlets Multiplication through Cuttings Tip Cuttings

PROPAGATION FROM SEEDS:

PROPAGATION FROM SEEDS Why? Can sow seeds indoors anytime of year. What Supplies? One pot per plant (2-3 inches in diameter) Fresh Potting Mix Mixing Bowl Warm Water Spoon Spray Bottle Toothpicks/Chopsticks Labels Plastic Sandwich Bags Twist Ties

HOW TO: PROPAGATE FROM SEEDS:

HOW TO: PROPAGATE FROM SEEDS Soak seeds in warm water overnight to soften exterior. TIP: To keep water warm place in thermos. Mix potting soil into bowl with warm water until moist but not wet. TIP: Soil should hold shape when pressed. If soil is glistening it is too wet. Spoon mix into pots press down lightly to smooth out mix. Place seeds about 1/3 inch into pot and cover with mix. Write date and plant name on label, connect to toothpick, place in mix. Place pot into plastic baggie and seal with twist tie. TIP: This creates a greenhouse effect that will promote the plant to grow. When growth appears loosen bag from plant over a one week period. Check daily making sure plant never dries out. Place pot in warm sunny place but not in direct sunlight.

PLANTS TO GROW FROM SEEDS:

PLANTS TO GROW FROM SEEDS THE FOLLLOWING PLANTS ARE GREAT PLANTS TO GROW FROM SEEDS

COLEUS (Coleus x hybrida):

COLEUS (Coleus x hybrida) http:// marymicrogram.blogspot.com/2011/04/rare-drug-profile-coleus.html

Florists Gloxinia (Sinningia speciosa):

Florists Gloxinia (Sinningia speciosa) http://horrorbotanics.wordpress.com/2008/03/03/getting-started /

Polka-Dot Plant (Hypoestes phyllostachya):

Polka-Dot Plant (Hypoestes phyllostachya) http:// www.opinion250.com/blog/view/23685/12/polka+dot+plants+add+interest+and+colour

VEGETATIVE PROPAGATION (ASEXUAL PROPAGATION):

VEGETATIVE PROPAGATION (ASEXUAL PROPAGATION) Asexual Propagation is the fastest and easiest way to reproduce plants indoors. When? With plants that take years to grow to a usable size To ensure that the new plant is identical to the Mother Plant Can propagate all plants through asexual propagation. What are the forms of asexual propagation? Dividing Grafting Layering

MULTIPLICATION BY DIVISION:

MULTIPLICATION BY DIVISION Low stress propagation method. HOW TO DIVIDE PLANTS RINSE OFF SOME OF THE POTTING MIX TO GET A BETTER LOOK AT HOW THE PLANT IS DIVIDED WITH A CLEAN SHARP KNIFE SLICE BETWEEN THE CLUMP YOU WANT. DIVIDE ROOT SECTION EVENLY REPOT THE NEW CLUMP INTO FRESH POTTING MIX, USE POT THAT IS ABOUT 3 TIMES IN DIAMETER OF THE NEW PLANT. WATER THOROUGHLY PUT FRESH REPOTTED PLANT IN MODERATE LIGHT FOR A WEEK. TIP: If the plant wilts heavily after division, place into a clear bag to improve the humidity.

mUlTiPLiCaTiOn by OfFSeTs:

mUlTiPLiCaTiOn by OfFSeTs Follow the same steps of Multiplication by Division but make sure to add the following steps. Wait until offset is about 1/3 of the size of the mother plant. Un-pot mother plant. Clear away soil from mothers plant base to determine where to cut. With a sharp knife separate the offset from the mother plant. Repot both the offset and the mother plant.

MULTIPLICATION BY GRAFTING:

MULTIPLICATION BY GRAFTING MOST COMPLICATED PROPAGATION TECHNIQUE. SHOULD ONLY BE USED FOR PLANTS THAT REQUIRE THIS TECHNIQUE GRAFTING INVOLVES JOINING TWO DIFFERENT PLANTS TOGETHER. The plant rooted in the soil is called the rootstock; the one inserted on top of the rootstock is called the scion.

Propagation through Plantlets:

Propagation through Plantlets Plantlets are usually removed and used as cuttings. The following plants are great to grow from plantlets

Mother of Thousands (Tolmiea menziesit):

Mother of Thousands (Tolmiea menziesit ) http:// www.guide-to-houseplants.com/mother-of-thousands.html

Orchids (keikis):

Orchids ( keikis ) http://www.pcorchidsinc.com /

Strawberry begonia (Saxifraga stolonifera):

Strawberry begonia ( S axifraga stolonifera) http:// forsythiahill.blogspot.com/2011/05/garden-oddities.html

MULTIPLICATION THROUGH CUTTINGS:

MULTIPLICATION THROUGH CUTTINGS TIP CUTTINGS THE MOST POPULAR WAY IN REPRODUCING PLANTS. ANY PLANT THAT PRODUCES BRANCHES CAN BE GROWN FROM CLIPPINGS. HOW? 1. LEARN YOUR PLANT TIP: EACH CUTTING SHOULD HAVE 3 NODES 2. CUT THE STEM OFF WITH A SHARP KNIFE JUST ABOVE THE BOTTOM NODE TIP: DON’T CUT ON THE NODE 3. REMOVE ANY LEAVES STILL ATTACHED TO THE 2 LOWER NODES OF THE CUTTING AND INSERT THE CUTTING INTO A POT OF MOISTENED POTTING MIX 4. COVER THE PLANT WITH A CLEAR PLASTIC BAG AND PUT THE CUTTING IN A WARM, BRIGHTLY LIT SPOT OUT OF DIRECT SUN.

House Plant Cycles:

House Plant Cycles Dormant Period Temporary state of total inactivity. Plant stops growing and loses its leaves. Plant still require but much less. Plants in dormant period require no light and can be kept in total darkness. Rest Period Simply part of every plants life cycle. Plant puts out no new growth but is not completely dormant. Retains some leaves but not all. Active Growth Period All plants have at least one active growth period. Plants put out new leaves, increases in size, and produces flowers.

MUST KNOW GARDENING TERMS:

MUST KNOW GARDENING TERMS AERATION LOOSENING COMPACTED SOIL OR COMPOST TO ALLOW ARE IT CIRCULATE ANNUAL A PLANT THAT COMPLETES ITS LIFE-CYCLE WITHIN A SINGLE GROWING SEASON BIENNIAL A PLANT THAT COMPLETES ITS FULL LIFE CYCLES IN TWO GROWING SEASONS. It PRODUCES LEAVES IN THE FIRST AND FLOWERS IN THE SECOND FERTILIZER AN ORGANIC OR SYNTHETIC MATERIAL ADDED TO THE SOILD OF THE PLANT, THAT IS IMPORTANT TO NUTRIENT VALUE

PowerPoint Presentation:

PERLITE WHITISH. CRUNCHY TEXTURED PRODUCT MADE FROM EXPANDED VOLCANO ROCK, USED IN FERTILIZATION VERMICULITE GOLDEN COLOR PRODUCT CONSISTING OF EXPANDED MICA, USED IN FERTILIZATION TRUE LEAVES LEAVES THAT LOOK LIKE ADULT LEAVES BUT ARE MINATURE CLUMPS CLUSTERS OF MULTIPLE PLANTS EACH WITH THEIR OWN ROOT SYSTEM

PowerPoint Presentation:

PLANTLETS MINATURE REPLICAS OF THE MOTHER PLANT THAT GROW IN ODD PLACES, SUCH AS LEAVES, STEMS, FLOWERS, AND STALKS. NODES THE POINT WHERE THE LEAF JOINS THE STEM OFFSETS SMALL REPLICAS OF THE MOTHER PLANT THAT DEVELOP FROM THE BASE OR SECONDARY STEMS

Works Cited:

Works Cited Houseplants For Dummies By Larry Hodgson House Plants Indoors/Outdoors Ortho Books How to Grow House plants Edited by Barbara Pesch All Pictures provided with website below

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