Meiosis

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By: wazzy (40 month(s) ago)

great video

By: amklingle (43 month(s) ago)

I would really like to be able to download this PPT. The section of the slides comparing mitosis and meiosis is particularly well done. Let me know if you'd be willing to send it along. Thanks! Andrea

By: dr_serasos (45 month(s) ago)

amazing ppt i like it

By: elenacocina (55 month(s) ago)

Me too, I think this presentation is fab!! Please allow it to be downloaded!!

By: lk506794 (60 month(s) ago)

plzzzzzzz allow it to download

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Presentation Transcript

MEIOSIS11-4 : 

MEIOSIS11-4 Making gametes… http://waynesword.palomar.edu/lmexer2a.htm

Slide 2: 

1. How many chromosomes would a sperm or an egg contain if either one resulted from the process of mitosis? 2. If a sperm containing 46 chromosomes fused with an egg containing 46 chromosomes, how many chromosomes would the resulting fertilized egg contain? Do you think this would create any problems in the developing embryo? 3. In order to produce a fertilized egg with the appropriate number of chromosomes (46), how many chromosomes should each sperm and egg have? Interest Grabber 46 chromosomes 46 + 46 = 92; a developing embryo would not survive if it contained 92 chromosomes. Sperm and egg should each have 23 chromosomes.

Remember from Chapter 1:CHARACTERISTICS OF LIVING THINGS ALL LIVING THINGS __________ : 

Planaria animation: http://www.t3.rim.or.jp/~hylas/planaria/title.htmFamily http://babyhearing.org/Parenet2Parent/index.asp Remember from Chapter 1:CHARACTERISTICS OF LIVING THINGS ALL LIVING THINGS __________ REPRODUCE

ASEXUAL REPRODUCTION : 

ASEXUAL REPRODUCTION Bacteria reproduce using __________________________________ Budding & regeneration are used by plants and animals to reproduce asexually (mitosis) http://www.emc.maricopa.edu/faculty/farabee/BIOBK/BioBookmito.html http://fig.cox.miami.edu/~cmallery/150/mitosis/c7.13.2.hydra.jpg Planaria animation: http://www.t3.rim.or.jp/~hylas/planaria/title.htm BINARY FISSION

BINARY FISSION & MITOSIS : 

BINARY FISSION & MITOSIS Produces cells that are __________ copies of parent cell identical

ADVANTAGES OF ASEXUAL REPRODUCTION : 

ADVANTAGES OF ASEXUAL REPRODUCTION Can make offspring faster Don’t need a partner http://www.mrgrow.com/images/cutting.jpg

DISVANTAGES OF ASEXUAL REPRODUCTION : 

DISVANTAGES OF ASEXUAL REPRODUCTION ALL ALIKE Species CAN’T change and adapt One disease can wipe out whole population http://www.mrgrow.com/images/cutting.jpg

SEXUAL REPRODUCTION : 

SEXUAL REPRODUCTION Combines genetic material from 2 parents (sperm & egg) so offspring are genetically __________ from parents DIFFERENT Family image from: http://babyhearing.org/Parenet2Parent/index.asp

ADVANTAGES OF SEXUAL REPRODUCTION : 

ADVANTAGES OF SEXUAL REPRODUCTION Allows for variation in population Individuals can be different Provides foundation for EVOLUTION Allow species adapt to changes in their environment http://naturalsciences.sdsu.edu/classes/lab8/spindex.html

Slide 10: 

EGG + SPERM  If egg and sperm had same number of chromosomes as other body cells . . . baby would have too many chromosomes! http://www.angelbabygifts.com/ Image by Riedell Image by Riedell http://www.acmecompany.com/stock_thumbnails/13217.forty-six_chromosomes.jpg

MEIOSIS is the way… : 

MEIOSIS is the way… to make cells with ½ the number of chromosomes for sexual reproduction http://waynesword.palomar.edu/lmexer2a.htm

Video 1 : 

Video 1 Click the image to play the video segment 11A. Video 1 Meiosis Overview

DIPLOID & HAPLOID : 

DIPLOID & HAPLOID Most cells have 2 copies of each chromosome = ______________ (one from mom; one from dad) All BODY (___________) cells are diploid DIPLOID 2n HOMOLOGOUSCHROMOSOMES = SOMATIC

DIPLOID & HAPLOID : 

DIPLOID & HAPLOID Some cells have only one copy of each chromosome = _____________ All sperm and egg cells are haploid HAPLOID 1n

MITOSIS : 

MITOSIS Makes ___ cells genetically _________ to parent cell & to each other Makes ___ cells Makes __________ Used by organisms to: increase size of organism, repair injuries, replace worn out cells http://waynesword.palomar.edu/lmexer2a.htm 2 identical 2n SOMATIC (body)

MEIOSIS : 

MEIOSIS Makes ____ cells genetically different from parent cell & from each other Makes _____ cells Makes ______________ Used for ____________ 4 1n Germ cells OR Gametes (sperm & eggs) sexual reproduction http://waynesword.palomar.edu/lmexer2a.htm

WHAT MAKES MEIOSIS DIFFERENT ? : 

WHAT MAKES MEIOSIS DIFFERENT ? SYNAPSIS & CROSSING OVER (PROPHASE I) SEGREGATION & INDEPENDENT ASSORTMENT (ANAPHASE I) 3. Skip INTERPHASE II (NO S) CELL DIVIDES TWICE, BUT… ONLY COPIES DNA ONCE

WHAT MAKES MEIOSIS DIFFERENT ? : 

WHAT MAKES MEIOSIS DIFFERENT ? Homologous chromosomes pair up during ________________ = ______________ SYNAPSIS Images modified from: http://www.emc.maricopa.edu/faculty/farabee/BIOBK/Crossover.gif This group of FOUR (4) chromatids is called a _________________ TETRAD PROPHASE I

WHAT MAKES MEIOSIS DIFFERENT? : 

WHAT MAKES MEIOSIS DIFFERENT? 1. Exchange of DNA betweenhomologous pairs = _____________during PROPHASE I CROSSING OVER Allows shuffling of genetic material http://www.emc.maricopa.edu/faculty/farabee/BIOBK/Crossover.gif

Video 5 : 

Video 5 Click the image to play the video segment. 11E Video 5 Crossing Over SEE CROSSING OVERANIMATION

HOMOLOGOUS CHROMOSOMES : 

HOMOLOGOUS CHROMOSOMES Image modified by Riedell SAME SIZE SAME SHAPE CARRY GENES for the SAME TRAITS BUT ______________! (Don’t have to have the SAME CHOICES) http://sps.k12.ar.us/massengale/genetics%20tutorial.htm NOT IDENTICAL

CROSSING OVER : 

CROSSING OVER Image modified by Riedell Allows for_________________ in different combinations After crossing over, chromatid arms are________________ anymore http://sps.k12.ar.us/massengale/genetics%20tutorial.htm rearranging of DNA NOT IDENTICAL

WHAT MAKES MEIOSIS DIFFERENT ? : 

WHAT MAKES MEIOSIS DIFFERENT ? 2.Separation during ANAPHASE I INDEPENDENT ASSORTMENT Separates gene choices and allows shuffling of genetic material SEGREGATION &

Video 4 : 

Video 4 Click the image to play the video segment 11D. Video 4 Segregation of Chromosomes

SEGREGATION(Anaphase I) : 

SEGREGATION(Anaphase I)

SEGREGATION & CROSSING OVERtogether make even more combinations : 

SEGREGATION & CROSSING OVERtogether make even more combinations See ananimation http://waynesword.palomar.edu/lmexer2a.htm

INDEPENDENT ASSORTMENT : 

INDEPENDENT ASSORTMENT http://fig.cox.miami.edu/~cmallery/150/mitosis/c13x9independent-assortment.jpg

INDEPENDENT ASSORTMENTat ANAPHASE I : 

INDEPENDENT ASSORTMENTat ANAPHASE I Lots of different combinations are possible! This is why you don’t look exactly like your brothers and sisters even though you share the same parents!

Slide 29: 

http://www.tokyo-med.ac.jp/genet/anm/mimov.gi

WHAT MAKES MEIOSIS DIFFERENT ? : 

WHAT MAKES MEIOSIS DIFFERENT ? Crossing over Segregation Independent assortment are ALL ways MEIOSIS results in =______________________________ So daughter cells are ______________ from parents and from each other different GENETIC RECOMBINATION

WHAT MAKES MEIOSIS DIFFERENT ? : 

WHAT MAKES MEIOSIS DIFFERENT ? 3. Skip INTERPHASE II (No S) CELL DIVIDES TWICE, BUT … ONLY COPIES ITS DNA ONCE G1 G2 S      P M   A T C G1        MITOSIS: MEIOSIS:     S G2 P M A T C P M A T C ( I ) ( II )

Video 2 : 

Video 2 Click the image to play the video segment 11B. & C Video 2 Animal Cell Meiosis, Part 1 & Part 2

Slide 33: 

Meiosis I Section 11-4 Figure 11-15 Meiosis

Slide 34: 

Meiosis I Section 11-4 Figure 11-15 Meiosis Meiosis I

Slide 35: 

Meiosis I Section 11-4 Figure 11-15 Meiosis Meiosis I

Slide 36: 

Section 11-4 Figure 11-15 Meiosis Meiosis I

Slide 37: 

Section 11-4 Figure 11-15 Meiosis Meiosis I

Slide 38: 

Meiosis II Meiosis I results in two haploid (N) daughter cells, each with half the number of chromosomes as the original. Prophase II Metaphase II Anaphase II Telophase II The chromosomes line up in a similar way to the metaphase stage of mitosis. The sister chromatids separate and move toward opposite ends of the cell. Meiosis II results in four haploid (N) daughter cells. Section 11-4 Figure 11-17 Meiosis II

Slide 39: 

Meiosis II Meiosis I results in two haploid (N) daughter cells, each with half the number of chromosomes as the original. Prophase II Metaphase II Anaphase II Telophase II The chromosomes line up in a similar way to the metaphase stage of mitosis. The sister chromatids separate and move toward opposite ends of the cell. Meiosis II results in four haploid (N) daughter cells. Section 11-4 Figure 11-17 Meiosis II

Slide 40: 

Meiosis II Meiosis I results in two haploid (N) daughter cells, each with half the number of chromosomes as the original. Prophase II Metaphase II Anaphase II Telophase II The chromosomes line up in a similar way to the metaphase stage of mitosis. The sister chromatids separate and move toward opposite ends of the cell. Meiosis II results in four haploid (N) daughter cells. Section 11-4 Figure 11-17 Meiosis II

Slide 41: 

Meiosis II Meiosis I results in two haploid (N) daughter cells, each with half the number of chromosomes as the original. Prophase II Metaphase II Anaphase II Telophase II The chromosomes line up in a similar way to the metaphase stage of mitosis. The sister chromatids separate and move toward opposite ends of the cell. Meiosis II results in four haploid (N) daughter cells. Section 11-4 Figure 11-17 Meiosis II

Slide 42: 

Meiosis II Meiosis I results in two haploid (N) daughter cells, each with half the number of chromosomes as the original. Prophase II Metaphase II Anaphase II Telophase II The chromosomes line up in a similar way to the metaphase stage of mitosis. The sister chromatids separate and move toward opposite ends of the cell. Meiosis II results in four haploid (N) daughter cells. Section 11-4 Figure 11-17 Meiosis II

MITOSIS vs MEIOSISINTERPHASE INTERPHASE I : 

MITOSIS vs MEIOSISINTERPHASE INTERPHASE I DNA is spread out as chromatin Nuclear membrane/ nucleolus visible DNA is copied during S phase Makes stuff new cell needs in G2 SAME AS MITOSIS http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/nova/baby/divi_flash.html

MITOSIS vs MEIOSIS PROPHASE PROPHASE I : 

MITOSIS vs MEIOSIS PROPHASE PROPHASE I DNA scrunches into chromosomes Nuclear membrane/ nucleolus disappear Centrioles/spindle fibers appear DNA scrunches into chromosomesNuclear membrane/ nucleolus disappear Centrioles/spindle fibers appear Homologous pairs match up http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/nova/baby/divi_flash.html

MITOSIS vs MEIOSIS METAPHASE METAPHASE I : 

MITOSIS vs MEIOSIS METAPHASE METAPHASE I Chromosomes line up in middle Chromosomes line up in middle http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/nova/baby/divi_flash.html with homologous partner

MITOSIS vs MEIOSIS ANAPHASE ANAPHASE I : 

MITOSIS vs MEIOSIS ANAPHASE ANAPHASE I APART: Chromatids split APART: http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/nova/baby/divi_flash.html Chromatids stay togetherHomologous pairs split

MITOSIS vs MEIOSIS TELOPHASE TELOPHASE I : 

MITOSIS vs MEIOSIS TELOPHASE TELOPHASE I See TWO nuclei Nuclear membrane/ nucleolus return DNA spreads out as chromatin Spindle/centrioles disappear SAME AS MITOSIS http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/nova/baby/divi_flash.html

MITOSIS vs MEIOSIS CYTOKINESIS CYTOKINESIS I : 

MITOSIS vs MEIOSIS CYTOKINESIS CYTOKINESIS I Cytoplasm splits into 2 cells SAME AS MITOSIS http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/nova/baby/divi_flash.html

MITOSIS vs MEIOSIS INTERPHASE II : 

MITOSIS vs MEIOSIS INTERPHASE II DNA is spread out as chromatin Nuclear membrane/ nucleolus visible DNA is copied during S phase SKIP INTERPHASE II DNA NOT COPIED http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/nova/baby/divi_flash.html

MITOSIS vs MEIOSIS PROPHASE PROPHASE II : 

MITOSIS vs MEIOSIS PROPHASE PROPHASE II DNA scrunches into chromosomes Nuclear membrane/nucleolus disappear Centrioles/ spindle fibers appear SAME AS MITOSIS http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/nova/baby/divi_flash.html

MITOSIS vs MEIOSIS METAPHASE METAPHASE II : 

MITOSIS vs MEIOSIS METAPHASE METAPHASE II Chromosomes line up in middle SAME AS MITOSIS http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/nova/baby/divi_flash.html

MITOSIS vs MEIOSIS ANAPHASE ANAPHASE II : 

MITOSIS vs MEIOSIS ANAPHASE ANAPHASE II Chromatids split and move apart SAME AS MITOSIS http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/nova/baby/divi_flash.html

MITOSIS vs MEIOSIS TELOPHASE TELOPHASE II : 

MITOSIS vs MEIOSIS TELOPHASE TELOPHASE II Two nuclei Nuclear membrane/nucleolus returns Centrioles/spindle fibersdisappear DNA spreads out as chromatin SAME AS MITOSIS http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/nova/baby/divi_flash.html

MITOSIS vs MEIOSIS CYTOKINESIS CYTOKINESIS II : 

MITOSIS vs MEIOSIS CYTOKINESIS CYTOKINESIS II Cytoplasm splits SAME AS MITOSIS http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/nova/baby/divi_flash.html http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/nova/baby/divi_flash.html

Ways Meiosis is different? : 

Ways Meiosis is different? Homologous pairs match up & trade DNA (SYNAPSIS & CROSSING OVER) in PROPHASE I SEGREGATION & INDEPENDENT ASSORTMENT in Anaphase I create genetic recombination Skipping INTERPHASE II- (Dividing TWICE but copying DNA once) produces 1n cells

MAKING SPERM & EGGS : 

MAKING SPERM & EGGS

Slide 57: 

___________________= MAKING MATURE SPERM Mature & grow flagella SPERMATOGENESIS

Slide 58: 

Sperm provides DNA All the starting nutrients, organelles, molecule building blocks, etc. have to come from the egg.

Slide 59: 

POLAR BODIES Produces: 1 “good” egg 3 CYTOPLASM DIVIDES UNEVENLY __________________ = MAKING a MATURE EGG OOGENESIS

Slide 60: 

“Self digest” Using ________________ POLAR BODIES DEGENERATE (DIE) LYSOSOMES = __________________ “cell suicide” for good of organism APOPTOSIS

SOUTH DAKOTA CORE SCIENCE STANDARDS : 

SOUTH DAKOTA CORE SCIENCE STANDARDS 9-12.L.1.1. Students are able to relate cellular functions and processes to specialized structures within cells. Cell life cycles Examples: somatic cells (mitosis), germ cells (meiosis) Storage and transfer of genetic information LIFE SCIENCE:Indicator 1: Understand the fundamental structures, functions, classifications, and mechanisms found in living things

SOUTH DAKOTA CORE SCIENCE STANDARDS : 

SOUTH DAKOTA CORE SCIENCE STANDARDS 9-12.L.2.2. Students are able to describe how genetic recombination, mutations, and natural selection lead to adaptations, evolution, extinction, or the emergence of new species. LIFE SCIENCE:Indicator 2: Analyze various patterns and products of natural and induced biological change.

Core High School Life SciencePerformance Descriptors : 

Core High School Life SciencePerformance Descriptors

SOUTH DAKOTA ADVANCED SCIENCE STANDARDS : 

SOUTH DAKOTA ADVANCED SCIENCE STANDARDS Indicator 2: Analyze various patterns and products of natural and induced biological change. 9-12.L.2.1A. Students are able to predict the results of complex inheritance patterns involving multiple alleles and genes. (SYNTHESIS) Examples: human skin color, polygenic inheritancerelate crossing over to genetic variation. LIFE SCIENCE: