Fall of the Roman Empire

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Fall of the Roman Empire : 

Fall of the Roman Empire

Emperors After Augustus : 

Emperors After Augustus Bad Emperors Caligula – mentally disturbed Nero – persecuted Christians Domitian – feared treason and executed many Good Emperors Nerva – began custom of adopting heir Trajan – empire at its largest; vast building program Hadrian – reorganized the government/administration Antonius Pius – reigned during peace and prosperity Marcus Aurelias – brought empire to the height of economic prosperity

Marcus Aurelius : 

Marcus Aurelius Last Emperor of the Pax Romana Dies without naming an heir Usually heir named and Senate approved Civil War breaks out from 234-284 AD 26 Emperors rule during this time Extremely bloody and violent time

Economy Weakens : 

Economy Weakens Running out of gold and silver Start making coins with less silver and gold – make a shell Inflation – drop in value of money while everything else gets more expensive Agriculture suffers due to loss of fertile soil War destroyed farmland Disruption of trade – bandits and pirates High taxes for everyone Decline in population due to disease and food shortage

Military and Political Turmoil : 

Military and Political Turmoil Soldiers became loyal to generals instead of Rome again Generals fought amongst themselves for the throne Mercenaries – hired foreign soldiers who fought for money to protect the Roman empire from increasing threats Mercenaries don’t really care about the empire so they don’t really care if they save it or not

Diocletian : 

Diocletian Made Emperor in 284 Supported by his personal army Severely limited personal freedoms Doubles the size of the Roman army Sets fixed prices for goods to control inflation Claims he descended from Roman gods Gives him more prestige and power

Empire Split in Half : 

Empire Split in Half Diocletian believes the Empire is too large to be governed by one person Splits the Empire into West and East Takes the East for himself because it is wealthier Appoints Co-Emperor to West who must report back to Diocletian Diocletian retires in 305 because of ill health Civil war breaks out immediately

Constantine : 

Constantine Wins control of the western empire in 312 Wins control of the east in 324 Rules both west and east alone 330 – moves capital from Rome to Byzantium Renames Byzantium to Constantinople Rules Empire from the West Byzantium is on the Bosporus Strait in modern day Turkey

Reasons for the Move : 

Reasons for the Move Closer to trade routes and major trade cities More secure from attack More Christian city Remember: Constantine declared Christianity to be accepted in the Empire – Edict of Milan and is also considered the 1st Christian Emperor

Fall of the Western Empire : 

Fall of the Western Empire After Constantine’s death, the empire is divided again. The east survives but the west falls.

Germanic Tribes & The Huns : 

Germanic Tribes & The Huns Germanic tribes on northern border of empire coexisted for the most part with Rome The Huns – Mongolian nomadic tribe from central Asia Destroy everything in the way – super scary! Germanic tribes move into Roman lands to get out of the Huns way Goths, Visigoths, Vandals – different Germanic tribes

Rome Attacked : 

Rome Attacked Romans don’t have an army that can stop the Germanic tribes 410 – The Visigoths attack Rome Battle of Adrianople – Visigoths beat Romans Proves that Roman Empire is vulnerable to attack Germanic tribes continue to attack and raid Roman Empire

Attila the Hun : 

Attila the Hun 444, Huns united under Attila the Hun Attacked and plundered 70 cities in the East, but could never get Constantinople Failed to get over the walls built to protect Constantinople 452 – Attila advances to Rome but fails again due to bouts of disease and famine 453 – Attila dies but the Germanic tribes continue to attack the Roman Empire

Fall of Rome : 

Fall of Rome Romulus Augustulus – 14 year old emperor of Rome is ousted by German forces in 476 476 – Fall of the Western Roman Empire Eastern half survived and flourished Eastern half called Byzantine Empire Lasted another 1,000 years 1453 – fell to the Ottoman Turks

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