Lesson 09 - Ike to Kennedy

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Slide 1:

From Ike to Kennedy (A Political Overview of the 50s)

Slide 2:

Dwight D. Eisenhower The funny thing is, Ike really was not sure if he wanted to be president before the election campaign. Not only did he have no political allegiance (When McCalls magazine told him they would give him $40,000 to say what party he supported, he would not) but he had never even voted in an election…

Slide 3:

Dwight D. Eisenhower When the Republican Party contacted him about running he said he would have to think about it. He then began studying economics and government on his own in Paris (where he was living at the time) By mid-1952 Ike made his decision: he would run for president…

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Dwight D. Eisenhower The Campaign Organized Efficient Determined But, since I am new at this, I probably shouldn’t tell them anything specific…

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Dwight D. Eisenhower The Campaign Organized Efficient Determined “I will clean up the mess in Washington”

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Dwight D. Eisenhower The Campaign Organized Efficient Determined Truman was incompetent…his administration was “a scandal a day”…

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Dwight D. Eisenhower The Campaign Organized Efficient Determined The Rosenbergs and Alger Hiss are all the fault of Democratic failures

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Dwight D. Eisenhower The Campaign Organized Efficient Determined And we haven’t even mentioned yet the disaster that is Korea…

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Dwight D. Eisenhower The Campaign Organized Efficient Determined I will go to Korea myself to solve this problem if necessary…

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Dwight D. Eisenhower

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Dwight D. Eisenhower

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Dwight D. Eisenhower

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Dwight D. Eisenhower Resume Of A Leader Supreme Allied Commander in Europe: credited with victory in WWII

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Dwight D. Eisenhower

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Dwight D. Eisenhower Resume Of A Leader Supreme Allied Commander in Europe: credited with victory in WWII Soft spoken and soothing

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Dwight D. Eisenhower A sense of humor is part of the art of leadership, of getting along with people, of getting things done.

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Dwight D. Eisenhower I can think of nothing more boring for the American people than to have to sit in their living rooms for a whole half hour looking at my face on their television screens.

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Dwight D. Eisenhower I would rather try to persuade a man to go along, because once I have persuaded him he will stick. If I scare him, he will stay just as long as he is scared, and then he is gone.

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Dwight D. Eisenhower Resume Of A Leader Supreme Allied Commander in Europe: credited with victory in WWII Soft spoken and soothing Seemed “content” and approachable

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Dwight D. Eisenhower An intellectual is a man who takes more words than necessary to tell more than he knows.

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Dwight D. Eisenhower Things are more like they are now than they ever were before.

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Dwight D. Eisenhower The next time you see one of those squirrels go near my putting green, take a gun and shoot it!

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Dwight D. Eisenhower Farming looks mighty easy when your plow is a pencil, and you're a thousand miles from the corn field.

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Dwight D. Eisenhower Who's been counting my fish?

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Dwight D. Eisenhower Resume Of A Leader Supreme Allied Commander in Europe: credited with victory in WWII Soft spoken and soothing Seemed “content” and approachable - “Counseled calmly” rather than “preached vehemently”

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Dwight D. Eisenhower We are in the era of the thermonuclear bomb that can obliterate cities and can be delivered across continents. With such weapons, war has become, not just tragic, but preposterous.

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Dwight D. Eisenhower I really believe that nothing will be so effective in combating his particular kind of troublemaking as to ignore him. This he cannot stand. (On Joe McCarthy)

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Dwight D. Eisenhower Indeed, I think that people want peace so much that one of these days governments had better get out of the way and let them have it.

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Dwight D. Eisenhower Every gun that is made, every warship launched, every rocket fired signifies, in the final sense, a theft from those who hunger and are not fed, those who are cold and not clothed. This world in arms is not spending money alone. It is spending the sweat of its laborers, the genius of its scientists, the hopes of its children. This is not a way of life at all in any true sense. Under the cloud of threatening war, it is humanity hanging from a cross of iron.

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Dwight D. Eisenhower A people that values its privileges above its principles soon loses both.

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Dwight D. Eisenhower What counts is not necessarily the size of the dog in the fight - it's the size of the fight in the dog.

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Dwight D. Eisenhower No one can say to you that there are no dangers. Of course there are risks, if we are not vigilant. But we do not have to be hysterical. We can stand up and hold up our heads and say, “America is the greatest force that God has ever allowed to exist on his footstool.” As such, it is up to us to lead this world to a peaceful and secure existence.

Slide 33:

Dwight D. Eisenhower Resume Of A Leader Supreme Allied Commander in Europe: credited with victory in WWII Soft spoken and soothing Seemed “content” and approachable - “Counseled calmly” rather than “preached vehemently” These qualities helped me easily defeat my opponent in 1952, Adlai Stevenson

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Dwight D. Eisenhower Resume Of A Leader Supreme Allied Commander in Europe: credited with victory in WWII Soft spoken and soothing Seemed “content” and approachable - “Counseled calmly” rather than “preached vehemently” The liberal community loved Stevenson because he was witty and eloquent…

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Dwight D. Eisenhower Resume Of A Leader Supreme Allied Commander in Europe: credited with victory in WWII Soft spoken and soothing Seemed “content” and approachable - “Counseled calmly” rather than “preached vehemently” But our country was really not in a liberal mindset…

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Dwight D. Eisenhower Resume Of A Leader Supreme Allied Commander in Europe: credited with victory in WWII Soft spoken and soothing Seemed “content” and approachable - “Counseled calmly” rather than “preached vehemently” Huzzah!

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Dwight D. Eisenhower 1952-1956 Since I am still figuring out this politics thing I will rely on “consensus decision making”

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Dwight D. Eisenhower 1952-1956 Consensus decision making means I won’t do anything on my own…

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Dwight D. Eisenhower 1952-1956 Instead, I will rely on group decisions made by myself and my advisors

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Dwight D. Eisenhower 1952-1956 Those advisors will be experts in their fields…

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Dwight D. Eisenhower 1952-1956 It worked for Warren G. Harding (sort of) so it should work for me…

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Dwight D. Eisenhower 1952-1956 After all, I’m not nearly as drunk or stupid as he was…

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Dwight D. Eisenhower 1952-1956 I will follow “middle of the road policies” to maintain support from liberals and conservatives

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Dwight D. Eisenhower In 1956 the Democrats again ran Adlai Stevenson against the popular Ike/Dick ticket The public loves Ike…the less he does the more they love him. That, probably, is the secret. Here is a man who doesn’t rock the boat.

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Dwight D. Eisenhower 1956-1961 And I beat him again! Everyone likes IKE!

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Dwight D. Eisenhower 1956-1961 Caught the U.S.S.R. in the space race Created the interstate highway system H-Bomb developed Extended social security

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Dwight D. Eisenhower 1956-1961 Sadly…I was unable to ease a lot of Cold War tensions…

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Dwight D. Eisenhower 1956-1961 And I really wanted to…

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Dwight D. Eisenhower Ike retired to his Gettysburg ranch and died in 1969

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John F. Kennedy In 1960 John F. Kennedy received the democratic nomination for president. While the nation still loved Ike, many people were becoming frustrated with the Republican party. Still, communist fighter, and sitting Vice President Richard Nixon would represent a formidable opponent for JFK.

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John F. Kennedy The Campaign Focus on social activism Downplay similarities between himself and Nixon

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John F. Kennedy The Candidates

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John F. Kennedy The Candidates Richard M. Nixon 47 years old Protestant Son of a shopkeeper Middle class Went to Whittier College - Fiscal Conservative John F. Kennedy 43 years old Catholic Son of a millionaire Upper class Went to Harvard - Government Spender

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John F. Kennedy The Candidates Richard M. Nixon Ran for Senate on a strong anti-communist platform Privately told Ike to invade Cuba during the revolution Historically moderate stand on Civil Rights issues John F. Kennedy Supported Nixon during his senatorial campaign Publicly urged invasion of Cuba during the revolution Not a vigorous advocate of Civil rights

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John F. Kennedy The Campaign The 1960 campaign pitted two opponents against each other who were externally different yet surprisingly philosophically similar. The three big issues were: - Communism in Cuba

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John F. Kennedy

Slide 57:

John F. Kennedy The Campaign The 1960 campaign pitted two opponents against each other who were externally different yet surprisingly philosophically similar. The three big issues were: - Communism in Cuba - Communism in Asia

Slide 58:

John F. Kennedy

Slide 59:

John F. Kennedy The Campaign The 1960 campaign pitted two opponents against each other who were externally different yet surprisingly philosophically similar. The three big issues were: - Communism in Cuba - Communism in Asia - The space race

Slide 60:

John F. Kennedy Sputnik 2: 1957 The first living creature in space was Laika (“Barker”), a dog which survived only a few hours in space before the failure of heat insulation caused her to die…she would have perished anyway as Sputnik 2 was not designed to return to earth…

Slide 61:

John F. Kennedy Sputnik 5: 1960 Sputnik 5 was launched with 2 dogs, 40 mice, 2 rats, and some plants…it returned to earth after 1 day with everything still alive…

Slide 62:

John F. Kennedy The Campaign The 1960 campaign pitted two opponents against each other who were externally different yet surprisingly philosophically similar. The three big issues were: - Communism in Cuba - Communism in Asia - The space race

Slide 63:

John F. Kennedy The Campaign The 1960 campaign was the first to be influenced by electronic media. Radio and television were the future of elections in the U.S. and that became clear after 1960…

Slide 64:

John F. Kennedy The Campaign Nixon decided to use Harry Truman’s campaign strategy of the “Whistle-stop Tour” and vowed to visit every state in the Union.

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John F. Kennedy The Campaign Kennedy on the other hand campaigned via the radio and, for the first time in U.S. history, on television…

Slide 66:

John F. Kennedy The Campaign By September of 1960 it was agreed that Nixon and Kennedy would have a nationally televised live debate…the debate would also be broadcast on radio…this was the first time any such debate had happened

Slide 67:

John F. Kennedy The Campaign Kennedy, rested and tan following a vacation in Florida, arrived looking healthy and, according to the ladies, quite sexy

Slide 68:

John F. Kennedy The Campaign Nixon, on the other hand, looked haggard and worn out. He had just completed his Whistle-stop Tour and during the process had lost a great deal of weight and, basically, worn himself out.

Slide 69:

John F. Kennedy The Debate

Slide 70:

John F. Kennedy The Debate Radio listeners and analysts gave Nixon the victory, saying Kennedy’s points were often inaccurate or poorly supported TV viewers, on the other hand, believed Kennedy had won. Most historians argue that discrepancy was a result of Kennedy’s good looks, warmth, and charming smile… things not readily apparent over the radio

Slide 71:

John F. Kennedy The Result Kennedy won the election, but by the closest margin in U.S. history. He received 49.7% of the popular vote compared to Nixon’s 49.5%. Kennedy won by under 100,000 votes of the nearly 69 million cast. Surveys indicate he lost around 2 million votes simply because he was Catholic…

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John F. Kennedy The Result The electoral college vote, however, was somewhat more lopsided (303-219). Some people called it electoral fraud and demanded an investigation… Nixon called them off, saying “no one steals the presidency of the Untied States”

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John F. Kennedy Well, John, tell these young people your philosophy Ok Ike!

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John F. Kennedy Forgive your enemies, but never forget their names.

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John F. Kennedy Let us think of education as the means of developing our greatest abilities, because in each of us there is a private hope and dream which, fulfilled, can be translated into benefit for everyone and greater strength for our nation.

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John F. Kennedy The American, by nature, is optimistic. He is experimental, an inventor and a builder who builds best when called upon to build greatly.

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John F. Kennedy The great enemy of the truth is very often not the lie -- deliberate, contrived and dishonest, but the myth, persistent, persuasive, and unrealistic. Belief in myths allows the comfort of opinion without the discomfort of thought.

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John F. Kennedy Washington is a city of Southern efficiency and Northern charm.

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John F. Kennedy When we got into office, the thing that surprised me the most was that things were as bad as we'd been saying they were.

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John F. Kennedy Those who make peaceful revolution impossible will make violent revolution inevitable.

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John F. Kennedy If a free society cannot help the many who are poor, it cannot save the few who are rich.

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John F. Kennedy The ignorance of one voter in a democracy impairs the security of all.

Slide 83:

John F. Kennedy And so, my fellow Americans: ask not what your country can do for you - ask what you can do for your country. My fellow citizens of the world: ask not what America will do for you, but what together we can do for the freedom of man.

Slide 84:

John F. Kennedy Mankind must put an end to war or war will put an end to mankind.

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