Lesson 08 - Cuban Missile Crisis

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Cuban Missile Crisis:

Cuban Missile Crisis Oct. 15-28 1962

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A Quick Review

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April 1961 – Bay of Pigs 1500 CIA trained Cuban exiles land in Cuba to start a revolution Easily defeated by the Cuban army: no US troop or air support Huge embarrassment for the Kennedy Administration

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November 1961 – Operation Mongoose Plan by CIA to rid Cuba of Communist Government - Interrupt Cuban trade - Raids by Cuban exiles - Attempt to assassinate Castro

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Since we are buddies…do you think maybe you could help us out?

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How about we build some missile sites?

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Sounds good to me!

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Build nuclear missile sites in Cuba (90 miles from Florida)

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The Cuban Missile Crisis Begins

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American U-2 Spy Plane

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American U-2 Spy Plane - Built as a response to the CIA’s need to spy on the U.S.S.R. - Flies at 90,000ft, well out of range of anti-aircraft fire and other aircraft of the time - Flies at 510mph, 200mph faster than other aircraft of the 50s - Kodak developed special cameras to allow the U-2 to take accurate aerial photos

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American U-2 Spy Plane The U.S.S.R. and American public learned about the U-2 in 1960 during the so called “U-2 Crisis” Francis Gary Powers, a U-2 pilot was shot down over the U.S.S.R. The U.S.A. claimed the plane was used for routine weather research…but when Khrushchev was able to produce not only the wreckage of the U-2, but developed spy photos and the pilot, Eisenhower admitted the true purpose of the U-2.

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American U-2 Spy Plane Powers was convicted of espionage and sentenced to 3 years in prison and an additional 7 years of hard labor. After 1.5 years in prison he was traded for a Soviet spy and returned to work as a test pilot for Lockheed.

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American U-2 Spy Plane Some Americans were angry that Powers did not activate the self destruct feature on his aircraft (which allowed the Soviets to access the photos). People were also upset that he failed to use a CIA issued suicide pin. The senate, after an investigation, decided he acted with distinction in a bad situation.

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American U-2 Spy Plane U-2s were being used to spy on all communist nations around the world, not just the U.S.S.R. That meant Cuba!

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American U-2 Spy Plane On October 15, 1962 a U-2 photographed Soviet missile sites in Cuba.

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U-2 Photos

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U-2 Photos

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U-2 Photos

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October 15 th , 1962: U-2 spy plane takes pictures of missile sites being built in Cuba

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October 16th - 21st I really need to figure out what to do about these missiles…

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October 16th - 21st I shall call in my most trusted advisors…

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Appeal to the U.N. Air strikes to destroy launch sites Military invasion Nuclear attack Naval blockade

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October 16th - 21st Asking the U.N. to condemn the U.S.S.R. and Cuba might work…

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October 16th - 21st We are usually really, really, slow…

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October 16th - 21st Darn!

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October 16th - 21st Well, air strikes or an invasion might work…

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October 16th - 21st Of course, then we are invading Cuba

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October 16th - 21st And remember, there is nothing illegal about these missiles…you just don’t like them!

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October 16th - 21st Besides, it isn’t like you don’t have nuclear missiles all over Western Europe!

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October 16th - 21st We just want to have them there as a deterrent, we aren’t planning a first strike…

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October 16th - 21st Darn!

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October 16th - 21st I guess we can’t invade then…

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October 16th - 21st Maybe nukes…

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October 16th - 21st Of course… we have that whole mutually assured destruction thing…

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October 16th - 21st Nuke Cuba and die!

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October 16th - 21st Darn!

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October 22nd As a result of the Soviet missiles on Cuba the U.S. is enacting a naval blockade…

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October 22nd The blockade will be at a radius of 500 nautical miles (that is a really long way)

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October 22nd If any ship should violate the blockade it will be fired on and sunk…

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JFK announces the U.S. will use a naval blockade

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October 22nd We have dispatched 180 ships to stop the arrival of more nuclear weapons

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October 22nd 200,000 troops have assembled in South Florida should we need to invade Cuba…

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October 22nd And we have launched B-52 bombers with nuclear bombs… just in case

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October 23rd But there is nothing illegal about these missiles…you just don’t like them!

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October 23rd SCREW YOU U.S.A

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October 23rd And screw your silly blockade!

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We are going to build the missile sites anyway! October 23rd

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Take that, suckahs! October 23rd

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Soviet Premier Khrushchev tells JFK that the USSR will not observe the blockade

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October 24th

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October 24th Gee…I really hope those Soviet ships stop…

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October 23rd My ships are approaching the blockade… I wonder if Kennedy is serious…

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October 24th Shall we proceed to Cuba?

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October 23rd No…I suppose you should stop…

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October 23rd Maybe we can work something out

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October 22nd

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Moscow radios the ships to hold their position

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October 25th Well, at least that crazy Khrushchev held his ships

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October 25th Still, this could really get bad if we aren’t careful…

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October 25th I should probably raise the military to DEFCON 2

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October 25th DEFCON 1 : Maximum force readiness. DEFCON 2 : Increased force readiness. DEFCON 3 : Increased force readiness. DEFCON 4 : Peacetime; Increased intelligence; Strengthened security measures. DEFCON 5 : Peacetime.

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October 25th A Handy Analogy The terror alert system

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U.S. forces move to DEFCON 2…the highest level it has ever been

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October 26th Let’s meet today’s contestants… first, we have John Fitzgerald Kennedy, president of the United States!

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October 26th Can I get a “woot woot”?

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October 26th Our next contestant is Soviet Chairman Nikiiiiiiiita Khrushchev!

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October 26th All the ladies in the house say “heeeeey”

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October 26th Alrighty then…what can I do to get you guys to have peace… TODAY!

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October 26th I will pull my missiles out of Cuba if you promise not to invade…

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October 26th Hmm… that sounds like it might work for us

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Khrushchev announces he will remove missiles if U.S. agrees to not attack Cuba

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October 27th Zoom

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October 27th BOOM!

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October 27th

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October 23rd What the HE double hockey sticks?

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October 23rd We just shot down a U-2 over Cuba!

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October 23rd And…we shot at another over the U.S.S.R.!

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October 23rd You have brought us to the brink of war…

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October 26th Errr….

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October 25th Crap…I told them to stop flights…what is LeMay doing?

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October 26th Ooops?

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October 23rd Now we demand you pull your missiles out of Turkey!

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October 26th I think we can arrange to remove those missiles

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Khrushchev demands nuclear missiles be removed from Turkey

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October 28th Good…then we will send our ships back to the Soviet Union…

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October 28th And we will dismantle the missiles in Cuba…

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In the words of Secretary of State Dean Rusk: "We were eyeball to eyeball, and the other fellow just blinked"

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Lasting Effects Wow, that really made us look bad…

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Lasting Effects I wonder how I can restore my nations prestige…

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Lasting Effects I guess I should build a bunch more missiles…

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Lasting Effects

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Lasting Effects Yep…that should do it

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Lasting Effects This worked out pretty well…

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Lasting Effects But damn it was scary!

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Lasting Effects Oh well…its been a month…we can lift the embargo

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Lasting Effects We did manage to contain the Soviets!

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Lasting Effects But…we better build up a bunch of new nukes just in case

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Lasting Effects

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Lasting Effects August 1963: "The Hotline" A direct line between the White House and the Kremlin

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Lasting Effects Because this is bad:

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The 13 days we just studied pushed brinkmanship and the patience of two nations to the limit. If you want to see a movie about it check out "Thirteen Days" be warned though, it is full of lies

Slide 107:

Aug. 1963 – “Hotline” set up because the U.S.S.R. and the U.S.A. recognized the importance of negotiations to avert “mistaken” nuclear launch

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