msk structure and function

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Structure and Function of the Musculoskeletal System : 

Structure and Function of the Musculoskeletal System 1

Skeletal System : 

Skeletal System 2 Forms the body Supports tissues Permits movement by providing points of attachment for muscles Site of blood cell formation Mineral storage

Bone : 

Bone 3 Rigid connective tissue Constituents Cells Fibers Ground substance

Bone Tissue : 

Bone Tissue 4 Osteoblasts Derived from mesenchymal cells Produce type I collagen Respond to parathyroid hormone Produce osteocalcin Synthesize osteoid Nonmineralized bone matrix

Bone Tissue : 

Bone Tissue 5 Osteocytes A transformed osteoblast that is surrounded in osteoid as it hardens from deposited minerals Osteoclast The major reabsorptive cell of the bone Large, multinucleated cells Contain lysosomes filled with hydrolytic enzymes

Bone Matrix : 

Bone Matrix 6 35% organic and 65% inorganic Collagen fibers Calcium and phosphate minerals Proteoglycans Glycoproteins

Bone Tissue : 

Bone Tissue 7 Compact (cortical) bone 85% of the skeleton Haversian system Haversian canal, lamellae, lucunae, osteocyte, and canaliculi Spongy (cancellous) bone Lack haversian systems Trabeculae Periosteum

Compact Bone : 

Compact Bone 8

Bone : 

Bone 9 206 bones Axial skeleton 80 bones Skull, vertebral column, thorax Appendicular skeleton 126 bones Upper and lower extremities, the shoulder girdle, the pelvic girdle

Skeleton : 

Skeleton 10

Bones : 

Bones 11 Long bones Diaphysis Metaphysis Epiphysis Epiphyseal plate Epiphyseal line Medullary cavity Endosteum

Long Bone : 

Long Bone 12

Bones : 

Bones 13 Flat bones Short bones (cuboidal bones) Irregular bones

Bone Remodeling : 

Bone Remodeling 14 Bone-remodeling units Repairs microscopic injuries and maintains bone integrity Phases Activation of the remodeling cycle Reabsorption Formation of new bone

Bone Remodeling : 

Bone Remodeling 15

Bone Wound Healing : 

Bone Wound Healing 16 Hematoma formation Procallus formation Callus formation Callus replacement Remodeling

Joints : 

Joints 17 Site where two or more bones meet Promote stability and mobility to the skeleton

Joints : 

Joints 18 Joint classifications based on movement Synarthrosis Amphiarthrosis Diarthrosis

Joints : 

Joints 19 Joint classifications based on structure Fibrous Suture, syndesmosis, gomphosis Cartilaginous Symphysis and synchondrosis Synovial Joint capsule, synovial membrane, joint cavity, synovial fluid, articular cartilage

Joints : 

Joints 20

Joints : 

Joints 21

Joints : 

Joints 22

Joints : 

Joints 23

Joints : 

Joints 24

Skeletal Muscles : 

Skeletal Muscles 25 Millions of individual muscle fibers that contract and relax to facilitate movement 75% water, 20% protein, 5% organic and inorganic compounds 350 named muscles (most are paired) 2 to 60 cm long Fusiform muscles Pennate muscles

Skeletal Muscles : 

Skeletal Muscles 26

Skeletal Muscles : 

Skeletal Muscles 27

Skeletal Muscles : 

Skeletal Muscles 28 Whole muscle Fascia Epimysium Tendon Perimysium Fascicles Endomysium

Muscle : 

Muscle 29 Skeletal muscle Voluntary Striated Sarcomeres Motor unit Lower motor neurons Innervation ratios Sensory receptors

Motor Units : 

Motor Units 30

Muscle Fibers : 

Muscle Fibers 31 Myofibrils Myoblasts White muscle (type II fibers) Red muscle (type I fibers) Muscle membrane Sarcolemma and basement membrane Sarcoplasm

Muscle Fibers : 

Muscle Fibers 32 Sarcotubular system Transverse tubules Sarcoplasmic reticulum Sarcomere Actin Myosin Troponin-tropomyosin complex

Myofibrils : 

Myofibrils 33

Myofibrils : 

Myofibrils 34

Muscle Fibers : 

Muscle Fibers 35 Creatine and creatine kinase Phosphate, chloride, calcium, magnesium, sodium, potassium

Muscle Contraction : 

Muscle Contraction 36 Activation Muscle fiber action potential Coupling Contraction Cross-bridge theory Relaxation

Muscle Contractions and Movement : 

Muscle Contractions and Movement 37 Types of muscle contractions Isometric contraction Isotonic contraction Eccentric Concentric Muscle movement Agonist Antagonist

Test of Bone Function : 

Test of Bone Function 38 Gait analysis Serum calcium and phosphorus X-rays Angiography Bone scanning

Test of Joint Function : 

Test of Joint Function 39 Arthrography Arthroscopy MRI Synovial fluid analysis

Test of Muscular Function : 

Test of Muscular Function 40 Serum creatine kinase Myoglobin EMG

Aging and the Musculoskeletal System : 

Aging and the Musculoskeletal System 41 Bones Bone loss Stiff, brittle, decreased strength Bone remodel time is lengthened Joints Cartilage becomes more rigid, fragile, stiff Decreased range of motion

Aging and the Musculoskeletal System : 

Aging and the Musculoskeletal System 42 Muscles Sarcopenia Decrease in muscle strength and bulk Reduced oxygen intake, basal metabolic rate, and lean body mass

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