Chapter 12 Blood Cells

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Chapter 12 Blood Cells and the Hematopoietic System : 

Chapter 12 Blood Cells and the Hematopoietic System

Objectives : 

Describe the composition and functions of plasma Name the formed elements of blood and cite their function and life span Trace the process of hematopoiesis from stem cell to mature blood cell Objectives

Objectives : 

Cite information gained from a complete blood count State the purpose of the erythrocyte sedimentation rate Describe the procedure used in bone marrow aspiration Objectives

Elements of the Hematopoietic System : 

All the blood cells and their precursors The bone marrow where blood cells originate The lymphoid tissues where some blood cells circulate as they develop and mature Elements of the Hematopoietic System

Composition of Blood : 

Fluid/dissolved components Water Proteins Small molecular substances Cellular elements Red blood cells Thrombocytes or platelets White blood cells Lymphocytes Leukocytes Composition of Blood Learning Objective 1: Describe the composition and functions of plasma.

Function of the Plasma Component of Blood : 

Carries the cells that transport gases Aids in body defenses Prevents blood loss Function of the Plasma Component of Blood Learning Objective 1: Describe the composition and functions of plasma.

Plasma Proteins : 

Albumin Comprises approximately 54% of the plasma proteins Contributes to plasma osmotic pressure and the maintenance of blood volume Serves as a carrier for certain substances Plasma Proteins Learning Objective 1: Describe the composition and functions of plasma.

Plasma Proteins : 

Globulins Comprise approximately 38% of plasma proteins Alpha globulins transport bilirubin and steroids. Beta globulins transport iron and copper. Gamma globulins constitute the antibodies of the immune system. Plasma Proteins Learning Objective 1: Describe the composition and functions of plasma.

Plasma Proteins : 

Fibrinogen Make up approximately 7% of the plasma proteins Converted to fibrin in the clotting process Plasma Proteins Learning Objective 1: Describe the composition and functions of plasma.

Neutrophils : 

Constitute 50–60% of white blood cells Primarily responsible for maintaining normal host defenses against invading substances First cells to arrive at the site of infection Originate in the myeloblasts found in the bone marrow Move to the tissue for approximately 1–3 days Die in the tissue discharging phagocytic function or die of senescence Neutrophils Learning Objective 2: Name the formed elements of blood and cite their function and life span.

Eosinophils : 

1–3% of the total number of white blood cells Increase in number during allergic reactions and parasitic infections The agents associated with allergic reactions In parasitic infections the eosinophils use surface markers to attach themselves to the parasite and then release hydrolytic enzymes Eosinophils Learning Objective 2: Name the formed elements of blood and cite their function and life span.

Basophils : 

0.3–0.5% of the total leukocytes Consist of heparin, an anticoagulant, histamine, a vasodilator, and other mediators of inflammation Similar to mast cells Involved in allergic and hypersensitivity reactions Basophils Learning Objective 2: Name the formed elements of blood and cite their function and life span.

Lymphocytes : 

20–30% of the total blood leukocytes Function in the lymph nodes or spleen to defend against microorganisms through the immune response Three types B lymphocytes T lymphocytes Natural killer cells Lymphocytes Learning Objective 2: Name the formed elements of blood and cite their function and life span.

Monocytes and Macrophages : 

3%–8% of the total leukocyte count Cells survive for months to years in the tissues Important role in chronic inflammation Involved in the immune response Activate lymphocytes Present antigen to T cells Monocytes and Macrophages Learning Objective 2: Name the formed elements of blood and cite their function and life span.

Thrombocytes : 

Circulating cell fragments of the large megakaryocytes Function to form the platelet plug to help control bleeding 8-9 days in circulation Thrombocytes Learning Objective 2: Name the formed elements of blood and cite their function and life span.

Hematopoiesis : 

Blood cells originate from pluripotent stem cells in the bone marrow The proliferation, differentiation, and functional abilities of the various blood cells are controlled by cytokines Cytokines are hormone-like growth factors Hematopoiesis Learning Objective 3: Trace the process of hematopoiesis from stem cell to mature blood cell.

Useful Hematopoietic Growth Factors : 

Erythropoietin (EPO) Thrombopoietin (TPO) Granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) Granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) Useful Hematopoietic Growth Factors Learning Objective 3: Trace the process of hematopoiesis from stem cell to mature blood cell.

Conditions Responding to Use of Hematopoietic Growth Factors : 

Bone marrow failure caused by chemotherapy or aplastic anemia Anemia of kidney failure Hematopoietic neoplasms Infectious diseases such as acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) Congenital and myeloproliferative disorders Some solid tumors Conditions Responding to Use of Hematopoietic Growth Factors Learning Objective 3: Trace the process of hematopoiesis from stem cell to mature blood cell.

Hematopoietic Growth Factors : 

Increase peripheral stem cells for transplantation Accelerate cell proliferation after bone marrow engraftment Hematopoietic Growth Factors Learning Objective 3: Trace the process of hematopoiesis from stem cell to mature blood cell.

Obtaining Blood Specimens : 

Skin puncture (capillary blood) Venipuncture Arterial puncture Bone marrow aspiration Obtaining Blood Specimens Learning objectives 4,5, & 6

Diagnostic Tests : 

Blood count Erythrocyte sedimentation rate Bone marrow aspiration and biopsy Diagnostic Tests Learning objectives 4,5, & 6

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